References on the Administration of ACTH Using ALZET® Osmotic Pumps

12650 Pandiri, A.R., Gimeno, I.M., Mays, J.K., Reed, W.M., Fadly, A.M. Reversion to Subgroup J Avian Leukosis Virus Viremia in Seroconverted Adult Meat-Type Chickens Exposed to Chronic Stress by Adrenocorticotrophin Treatment. Avian Diseases 2012; 56(-3-):578-582. >>> Adrenocorticotrophin, porcine; Saline; SC; Chicken; 2ML2; Animal info (V-A+, V-A-, DOH, 32 wks old); wound clips used; post op. care (pine tar on surgical site to avoid cannibalism).

11830 Lindskog, A., Ebefors, K., Johansson, M.E., Stefansson, B., Granqvist, A., Arnadottir, M., Berg, A.L., Nystroem, J., Haraldsson, B. Melanocortin 1 Receptor Agonists Reduce Proteinuria. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 2010; 21(-8-):1290-1298. >>> ACTH; MS05; Saline, sterile; SC; Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Sprague Dawley, male, 125-165 g); peptides.

11795 McQuillan, H.J., Kusakabe, M., Young, G. Effects of chronic manipulation of adrenocorticotropic hormone levels in Chinook salmon on expression of interrenal steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and steroidogenic enzymes. General and Comparative Endocrinology 2011; 174(-2-):156-165. >>> Adrenocorticotropic hormone; NaCl, sterile; IP; Fish (salmon); 1003D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (juvenile, Chinook); functionality of mp verified by plasma drug levels or visual inspection.

11480 Liedtke, W.B., McKinley, M.J., Walker, L.L., Zhang, H., Pfenning, A.R., Drago, J., Hochendoner, S.J., Hilton, D.L., Lawrencec, A.J., Denton, D.A. Relation of addiction genes to hypothalamic gene changes subserving genesis and gratification of a classic instinct, sodium appetite. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 2011; 108(-30-):12509-12514. >>> Adrenocorticotropic hormone; SC; Mice; Controls received mp w/ NaCl; animal info (C57/B16, female).

11312 Dunbar, D.R., Khaled, H., Evans, L.C., Al-Dujaili, E.A.S., Mullins, L.J., Mullins, J.J., Kenyon, C.J., Bailey, M.A. Transcriptional and physiological responses to chronic ACTH treatment by the mouse kidney. PHYSIOLOGICAL GENOMICS 2010; 40(-3-):158-166. >>> Adrenocorticotropic hormone; NaCl; SC; Mice; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (C57BL/6, 25 g, age-matched).

10701 Bailey, M.A., Mullins, J.J., Kenyon, C.J. Mineralocorticoid and Glucocorticoid Receptors Stimulate Epithelial Sodium Channel Activity in a Mouse Model of Cushing Syndrome. Hypertension 2009; 54(-4-):890-896. >>> Adrenocorticotropic hormone; NaCl; SC; Mice; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (adult, male, C57BL/6J).

10614 Al-Dujaili, E.A.S., Mullins, L.J., Bailey, M.A., Andrew, R., Kenyon, C.J. Physiological and pathophysiological applications of sensitive ELISA methods for urinary deoxycorticosterone and corticosterone in rodents. Steroids 2009; 74(-12-):938-944. >>> Adrenocorticotropic hormone; SC; Mice; Animal info (male, wt, heterozygous, Cyp11b1 null, 6 months old, C57BL6 12 months old).

9268 Karpac, J., Czyzewska, K., Kern, A., Brush, R.S., Anderson, R.E., Hochgeschwender, U. Failure of adrenal corticosterone production in POMC-deficient mice results from lack of integrated effects of POMC peptides on multiple factors. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-ENDOCRINOLOGY AND METABOLISM 2008; 295(-2-):E446-E455. >>> ACTH (1-24); PBS; BSA; SC; Mice; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; replacement therapy (corticosterone); animal info (POMC wt, hetero, mut, male, female).

8401 Estivariz, F.E., Iturriza, F., McLean, C., Hope, J., Lowry, P.J. Stimulation of adrenal mitogenesis by N-terminal proopiocortin peptides. Nature 1982; 297(-5865-):419-422. >>> ACTH (1-24); pro-opiocortin (1-28), N-;pro-opiocortin (1-76), N-; Acetic acid; SC; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; peptides; animal info (female, Sprague-Dawley, 10 weeks old); human pituitary glycopeptide N-POC.

8367 Lowry, P.J., Silas, L., McLean, C., Linton, E.A., Estivariz, F.E. Pro-gamma-melanocyte-stimulating hormone cleavage in adrenal gland undergoing compensatory growth. Nature 1983; 306(--):70-73. >>> Antiserum, anti-ACTH (4-10); antiserum, anti-proopiocortin (1-76), N-; antiserum, anti-proopiocortin (51-74); serum, rabbit; antiserum, anti-proopiocortin (1-28), N-; SC; IP; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ normal rabbit serum; animal info (female, Wistar, 5 weeks old).

8190 Mumma, J.O., Thaxton, J.P., Vizzier-Thaxton, Y., Dodson, W.L. Physiological stress in laying hens. POULTRY SCIENCE 2006; 85(-4-):761-769. >>> ACTH; Saline; SC; Bird (laying hens); 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (single comb, white leghorn, 36-65 weeks old).

7202 Thomas, M., Keramidas, M., Monchaux, E., Feige, J.J. Dual hormonal regulation of endocrine tissue mass and vasculature by adrenocorticotropin in the adrenal cortex. Endocrinology 2004; 145(-9-):4320-4329. >>> Dexamethasone; ACTH (1-39), human; Cyclodextrin; SC; Mice; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by plasma ACTH and corticosterone levels; multiple pumps per animal (2).

5923 Puvadolpirod, S., Thaxton, J.P. Model of physiological stress in chickens 3. Temporal patterns of response.. Poult Sci 2000; 79(-3-):377-382. >>> ACTH; SC; Bird (chicken); 2001; Peptides; chickens were 6 weeks old; ACTH is adrenocorticotropin.

5099 Tankson, J.D., Vizzier-Thaxton, Y., Thaxton, J.P., May, J.D., Cameron, J.A. Stress and nutritional quality of broilers. POULTRY SCIENCE 2001; 80(--):1384-1389. >>> ACTH; Saline, avian; SC; Bird (chicken); 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by blood corticosterone levels; peptides; ACTH is adrenocorticotropin.

15661 King, Y.T., Chen, T.C. Chemical and physical characteristics of chicken livers following adrenocorticotropic hormone-induced stress. J. Food Sci 1998; 63(-4-):589-591. >>> ACTH, porcine; SC; bird (chicken); 1003D; peptides.

4250 King, Y.T., Chen, T.C. Chemical and physical characteristics of chicken livers following adrenocorticotropic hormone-induced stress. J. Food Sci 1998; 63(-4-):589-591. >>> ACTH, porcine; SC; bird (chicken); 1003D; peptides.

3801 Blair-West, J.R., Denton, D.A., McBurnie, M.I., Weisinger, R.S. The effect of adrenocorticotrophic hormone on water intake in mice. Physiol. Behav 1996; 60(-4-):1053-1056. >>> ACTH; SC; mice; 2001; controls received mp w/ normal saline; agent also known as synacthen.

3713 Latour, M.A., Laiche, S.A., Thompson, J.R., Pond, A.L., Peebles, E.D. Continuous infusion of adrenocorticotropin elevates circulating lipoprotein cholesterol and corticosterone concentrations in chickens. Poult. Sci 1996; 75(--):1428-1432. >>> ACTH; SC; bird (chicken); 2002; controls received no treatment of mp w/ saline; peptides.

3426 Sawchenko, P.E., Arias, C. Evidence for short-loop feedback effects of ACTH on CRF and vasopressin expression in parvocellular neurosecretory neurons. J. Neuroendocrinology 1995; 7(--):721-731. >>> ACTH; Saline, sterile; SC; rat; 1007D; controls received mp w/saline; replacement therapy (hypophysectomy, adrenalectomy); peptides.

3059 Sangild, P.T., Silver, M., Fowden, A.L., Turvey, A., Foltmann, B. Adrenocortical stimulation of stomach development in the prenatal pig. Biol. Neonate 1994; 65(--):378-389. >>> Cortisol; ACTH(1-24); Saline; SC; pig (fetus); 2001; controls received mp with saline; peptides.

3058 Sangild, P.T., Westrom, B.R., Fowden, A.L., Silver, M. Developmental regulation of the porcine exocrine pancreas by glucocorticoids. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterology and Nutrition 1994; 19(--):204-212. >>> Cortisol; ACTH; Saline; SC; pig (fetus); 2001; controls received mp with saline; peptides; no stress: mp was generally well tolerated; the cortisol used was hydrocortisone hemisuccinate.

2730 Blair-West, J.R., Denton, D.A., McBurnie, M., Tarjan, E., Weisinger, R.S. Influence of adrenal steroid hormones on sodium appetite of balb/c mice. Appetite 1995; 24(--):11-24. >>> ACTH(1-24); Saline; SC; mice; 2001; pellets used to deliver several steroids.

2420 Meseguer, A., Catterall, J.F. Effects of pituitary hormones on the cell-specific expression of the KAP gene. Mol. and Cellular Endocrin 1992; 89(--):153-162. >>> Luteinizing hormone; ACTH, human; Thyroid-stimulating hormone, rat; Follicle stimulating hormone, rat; Growth hormone, rat; Prolactin, ovine; SC; mice; 2001; controls received mp w/ vehicles; replacement therapy (hypophysectomy); peptides.

2405 Kowalski, W., Chatterton Jr, R.T. Peripheral and not central suppression of ovarian function during osmotic pump infusion of adrenocorticotropin- (1-24) for one menstrual cycle in the cynomolgus monkey and its partial compensation by a transitory elevation of sex hormone-binding globulin. Endocrinology 1992; 130(-6-):3582-3592. >>> ACTH(1-24); Saline; SC; monkey; 2001; long-term study, pumps replaced after 7 days; stability verified when residual pump solution given i.v. to test bioactivity; peptides; animals received saline mps, ACTH(1-24), then saline mps for 3 menstrual cycles.

1611 McDaniel, W.F., Davall, E.J., Walker, P.E. ACTH 4-9 analog can retard spatial alternation learning in brain damaged and normal rats. Behav. Neural. Biol 1989; 52(--):271-278. >>> ACTH; Saline; SC; rat; 2002; peptides.

1381 Estivariz, F.E., Carino, M., Lowry, P.J., Jackson, S. Further evidence that N-terminal pro-opiomelanocortin peptides are involved in adrenal mitogenesis. J. Endocrinol 1988; 116(--):201-206. >>> ACTH(1-24); Pro-opiomelanocortin(1-28), N-; Pro-opiomelanocortin(1-36), N-; Gelatin; Saline; SC; rat; 2001; replacement therapy (hypophysectomy); peptides.

1329 Rebuffat, P., Belloni, A.S., Malendowicz, L.K., Mazzochi, G., Gottardo, G., Nussdorfer, G.G. Zona glomerulosa morphology and function in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Endocrinology 1988; 123(-2-):949-955. >>> ACTH; Angiotensin II; Captopril; Dexamethasone; Insulin; Saline; SC; rat; 2002; dose-response (text); functionality of mp verified by plasma levels; replacement t; antihypertensive therapy (streptozotocin-induced diabetes); peptides; antihypertensive.

1284 Van der Zee, C.E.E.M., Brakkee, J.H., Gispen, W.H. Alpha-MSH and ORG-2766 in peripheral nerve regeneration: different routes of delivery. Eur. J. Pharmacol 1988; 147(--):351-357. >>> ACTH analog; ORG-2766; Melanocyte-stimulating hormone, a-; Saline; CSF/CNS (sciatic nerve); SC; rat; 2002; Comparison of oral admin. and admin. by s.c. microspheres; comparison of s.c. injections vs. mp infusion; tissue perfusion (sciatic nerve).

1019 de Catanzaro, D., Maerz, M.D., Heaven, R.K.B., Wilson, W. Repeated failure of prenatal ACTH administration to alter masculine behavior in mice. Dev. Psychobiol 1986; 19(-6-):501-510. >>> ACTH(1-24); ACTH, porcine; Saline; SC; mice (pregnant); 2001; controls received mp w/vehicle; peptides; comparison of sc injections vs. mp infusion.

1003 Mann, D.R., Free, C., Nelson, C., Scott, C., Collins, D.C. Mutually independent effects of adrenocorticotropin on luteinizing hormone and testosterone secretion. Endocrinology 1987; 120(--):1542-1550. >>> ACTH(1-24); Corticosterone; Propylene glycol; Saline; SC; rat; 2001; 2ML1; controls received mp w/vehicle; peptides; replacement therapy (adrenalectomy).

737 Davison, T.F., Freeman, B.M., Rea, J. Effects of continuous treatment with synthetic ACTH(1-24) or corticosterone on immature Gallus domesticus. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol 1985; 59(--):416-423. >>> ACTH(1-24); SC; bird (chicken); 2002; comparison of implantable corticosterone pellets vs. mp infusion of ACTH; peptides.

717 Kemppainen, R.J., Thompson, F.N., Lorenz, M.D., Brown, J. Effects of continuous a(1-24)ACTH infusion in the dog. Horm. Metab. Res 1985; 17(--):58-62. >>> ACTH(1-24), a-; IV (jugular); dog; 2ML1; mp replaced on day 7; dose-response data; controls received empty mp; mp attached to silastic rubber catheter in jugular vein; peptides.

624 Stone, E.A., Slucky, A.V., Platt, J.E., Trullas, R. Reduction of the cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate response to catecholamines in rat brain slices after repeated restraint stress. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther 1985; 233(-2-):382-388. >>> ACTH(1-24); Epinephrine bitartrate; Norepinephrine bitartrate; Acetic acid; Ascorbic acid; SC; rat; mp model not stated; comparison of ACTH sc inject vs. mp infusion; comparison of agents effects; mp functionality pp. 386, 388; acetic acid was vehicle w/ACTH, ascorbic acid was w/NE and EPI; peptides.

611 Mann, D.R., Evans, D., Edoimioya, F., Kamel, F., Butterstein, G.M. A detailed examination of the in vivo and in vitro effects of ACTH on gonadotropin secretion in the adult rat. Neuroendocrinology 1985; 40(--):297-302. >>> ACTH(1-24); Saline; CSF/CNS; SC; rat; 2001; peptides.

559 Shenker, Y., Villareal, J.Z., Sider, R.S., Grekin, R.J. a-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone stimulation of aldosterone secretion in hypophysectomized rats. Endocrinology 1985; 116(-1-):138-141. >>> ACTH(1-24); Dexamethasone disodium phosphate; Melanocyte-stimulating hormone, a-; Thyroxine, l-; SC; rat; comparison of agents effects; replacement therapy (hypophysectomy); peptides.

452 Mann, D.R., Blank, M.S., Sridaran, R., Castracane, V.D., Eldridge, C., Collins, D.C. Influence of anti-oestrogens on gonadotrophin secretion in control and ACTH-infused immature rats. Acta Endocrinol 1984; 105(-3-):308-313. >>> ACTH(1-24); Saline; SC; rat; 2001; estrogen antagonists nafoxidine&MER-25 also admin.; peptides.

449 Dunlap, N.E., Grizzle, W.E. Golden syrian hamsters: a new experimental model for adrenal compensatory hypertrophy. Endocrinology 1984; 114(-5-):1490-1495. >>> ACTH(1-24); Aldosterone; Dexamethasone; Propylene glycol; Saline; IP; hamster; comparison of daily im injec of Dex. vs mp infusion; comparison of agents effects; replacement therapy (adrenalectomy&hypophysect.); agents given alone&in combination; stability of ACTH verified by assay; peptides.

446 Grizzle, W.E., Dunlap, N.E. Aldosterone blocks adrenal compensatory hypertrophy in the rat. Am. J. Physiol 1984; 246(--):E306-E310. >>> ACTH(1-24); Aldosterone; Dexamethasone; Propylene glycol; Saline; IP; rat; comparison of im Dexam. injec vs. mp infusion; comparison of agents effects; replacement therapy (adrenalectomy&hypophysec.); stability of ACTH in mp verified; hormones given alone&in combination; states pumping rate was low; peptides.

388 Akana, S.F., Shinsako, J., Dallman, M.F. Relationships among adrenal weight, corticosterone, and stimulated adrenocorticotropin levels in rats. Endocrinology 1983; 113(-6-):2226-2231. >>> ACTH(1-24), a-; HCl; Protein standard; Saline; SC; rat; 2001; pumps primed at room temp. before implant; pumps retreived from 1st group and reimplanted in 2nd group of rats; peptides.

387 Akana, S.F., Shinsako, J., Dallman, M.F. Drug-induced adrenal hypertrophy provides evidence for reset in the adrenocortical system. Endocrinology 1983; 113(-6-):2232-22237. >>> ACTH(1-24); Saline; SC; rat; peptides.

326 Gmerek, D.E., Cowan, A. ACTH(1-24) and RX 336-M induce excessive grooming in rats through different mechanisms. Eur. J. Pharmacol 1983; 88(--):339-346. >>> ACTH(1-24); Saline; CSF/CNS; rat; 2001; comparison of agents; peptides.

203 Mann, D.R., Jackson, G.G., Blank, M.S. Influence of adrenocorticotropin and adrenalectomy on gonadotropin secretion in immature rats. Neuroendocrinology 1982; 34(--):20-26. >>> ACTH(1-24); ACTH(4-10); ACTH, porcine; Saline; SC; rat; 2001; comparison of sc injection vs. infusion; peptides.

15304 Stewart, J.M., Chipkin, R.E., Channabasavaiah, K., Gay, M.L., Krivoy, W.A. Inhibition of development of tolerance to morphine by a peptide related to ACTH. In'Neural Peptides and Neuronal Communication,'E. Costa and M. Trabucchi (eds. ), Raven Press, New York 1980; (--):305-312. >>> ACTH(1-10)-amide, (D-Phe7)-; Morphine sulfate; SC; mice; comparison of injections vs. infusion; separate and simultaneous infusion of agents; peptides.


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“We found recently that 21 d of treatment of rats with SSRIs, at clinically relevant and stable serum concentrations (achieved by the use of osmotic minipumps), caused robust downregulation of the SERT.”... “Studies on the effects of chronic antidepressants on the SERT have resulted in inconsistent reports (Owens and Nemeroff, 1998). Among the factors that may contribute to such inconsistency is the route of drug administration. In most studies of chronic administration of Ads to rats, the drugs are given intraperitoneally or subcutaneously, either once or twice daily. As rats metabolize these drugs more rapidly than humans, such dosage schedules can result in appreciable fluctuations in the serum concentration of drug throughout the day. For certain pharmacologic effects, sustained drug action may be needed” Benmansour et al. The Journal of Neuroscience 2002; 22(15):6766-6772.