References on the Administration of AIDS or HIV Treatments Using ALZET® Osmotic Pumps

(Note: Please see CYTO Bibliography for additional cytokines)

1. Aprotinin

10623 Azurmendi, P.J., Oddo, E.M., Obika, L.F., Corbera, N.L., Martin, R.S., Ibarra, F.R., Arrizurieta, E.E. Gonadectomy Influences Blood Pressure through the Kallikrein-Kinin System. KIDNEY&BLOOD PRESSURE RESEARCH 2009; 32(-5-):342-348. >>> Aprotinin; HOE-140; SC; Rat; Animal info (Wistar, male, female, 150 days old).

5832 Ito, H., Hayashi, I., Izumi, T., Majima, M. Bradykinin inhibits development of myocardial infarction through B-2 receptor signalling by increment of regional blood flow around the ischaemic lesions in rats. British Journal of Pharmacology 2003; 138(-1-):225-233. >>> FR-190997; aprotinin; SBTI; Saline; water; HCl; IV (vena cava, cervical vein); Rat; 2001D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; cardiovascular; FR-190997 (a nonpeptide mimic of bradykinin beta 2 agonist) was infused into the vena cava; aprotinin infused into the cervical vein; SBTI&aprotinin are plasma kallikrein inhibitors from soybeans.

4370 Frautschy, S.A., Horn, D.L., Sigel, J.J., Harris-White, M.E., Mendoza, J.J., Yang, F., Saido, T.C., Cole, G.M. Protease inhibitor coinfusion with amyloid beta-protein results in enhanced deposition and toxicity in rat brain. Journal of Neuroscience 1998; 18(-20-):8311-8321. >>> Amyloid protein, beta; Aprotinin; Leupeptin;; HEPES;; CSF/CNS;; rat; 2004;; controls received mp w/ vehicle; peptides; ALZET brain infusion kit used; beta-amyloid protein infused alone, or concomitantly with aprotinin or leupeptin; enzyme inhibitors.

3432 Yosipiv, I.V., El-Dahr, S.S. Developmental regulation of ACE gene expression by endogenous kinins and angiotensin II. Am. J. Physiol. (Renal Fluid Electrolyte Physiol. 38) 1995; 269(--):F172-F179. >>> Aprotinin; Hoe 140; Losartan; SC; rat; controls received mp w/saline.

3376 Majima, M., Yoshida, O., Mihara, H., Muto, T., Mizogami, S., Kuribayashi, Y., Katorim, M., Oh-ishi, S. High sensitivity to salt in kininogen-deficient brown Norway Katholiek rats. Hypertension 1993; 22(--):705-714. >>> Kininogen, bovine; Hoe 140; Aprotinin; Saline; SC; rat; 2001; controls received mp w/saline.

3143 Morin, N.J., Frau, A., Nonclercq, D., Toubeau, G., Zanen, J., Heuson-Stiennon, J.-A., Bergeron, M.G., Beauchamp, D., Laurent, G. Potentiation of gentamicin nephrotoxicity in the rat by infusion of aprotinin. Exp. Molecular Path 1994; 60(--):197-213. >>> Aprotinin; IV; rat; 2ML1; controls received mp with saline; immunology; toxicology.

1983 Ivy, G.O. Protease inhibitors as a model for NCL disease, with special emphasis on the infantile and adult forms. Am. J. Med. Genet 1992; 42(--):555-560. >>> E-64C; Aprotinin; Chloroquine; Leupeptin; CSF/CNS; rat; 2002; no comment posted.

1960 Majima, M., Katori, M., Hanazuka, M., Mizogami, S., Nakano, T., Nakao, Y., Mikami, R., Uryu, H., Okamura, R., Mohsin, S.S.J., Oh-ishi, S. Suppression of rat deoxycorticosterone-salt hypertension by kallikrein-kinin system. Hypertension 1991; 17(-6-):806-813. >>> Aprotinin; Saline; SC; rat; 2001; no comment posted.

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2. Azidothymidine

2202 Tarantal, A.F., Spanggord, R.J., Hendrickx, A.G. Pre and postnatal treatment of the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with azidothymidine: I. fetal studies. Pediatr. Aids HIV Infection: Fetus to Adolescent 1994; 5(-1-):10-19. >>> Azidothymidine; Sodium hydroxide; SC; monkey (pregnant); 2ML4; controls received mp w/vehicle; functionality of mp verified by plasma levels of AZT; teratology; AZT is azidothymidine, also known as zidovudine; multiple pumps per animal (3-4);"Circulating levels of AZT remained constant during the course of treatment and were achieved by the first (24 hr.) sample (p. 11)..

2089 Sinet, M., Harcouet, L., Desforges, B., Colin, J.N., Farinotti, R., Pocidalo, J.J. Efficacy of continuous zidovudine infusion at early stages of retroviral infection in mice. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr 1992; 5(--):577-582. >>> Azidothymidine; Propylene glycol; Water; SC; mice; 2001; functionality of mp verified by plasma AZT levels; comparison of b.i.d. s.c. injections vs. mp; good methods; also called zidovudine; pK; half-life (p.577); continuous infusion significantly more effective than bolus injection.

1924 Bilello, J.A., MacAuley, C., Fredrickson, T.N., Bell, M.M., McKissick, C., Shapiro, S.G., Personette, R., Eiseman, J.L. Use of a neonatal murine retrovirus model to evaluate the long-term efficacy and toxicity of antiviral agents. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci 1990; 616(--):238-251. >>> Azidothymidine; mice (pregnant); 2001; Pumps replaced after each week to achieve 3 weeks duration; immunology; teratology; oral delivery of AZT resulted in highly variable plasma levels.

1641 Gallo, J.M., Clark, L.N., Rubino, J.T. Pump delivery of azidothymidine: potential for constant concentrations and improved brain delivery. J. Controlled Release 1989; 9(--):249-253. >>> Azidothymidine; IA (carotid); rat; 2001; Dose-response; blood levels; comparison of IV injections vs. mp; good methods; antiviral; alkaline pH of 11 increased solubility and stability of AZT.

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3. Clindamycin

16030 Ito, N., Ito, K., Koshimichi, H., Hisaka, A., Honma, M., Igarashi, T., Suzuki, H. Contribution of protein binding, lipid partitioning, and asymmetrical transport to drug transfer into milk in mouse versus human. Pharm Res 2013; 30(-9-):2410-22. >>> acetaminophen, cephalothin sodium salt, clindamycin hydrochloride, disopyramide phosphate salt, labetalol hydrochloride, nitrofurantoin +-propranolol hydrochloride, terbutaline hemisulfate salt, verapamil hydrochloride, Acyclovir, alprazolam, atenolol, anhydrous caffeine, cefotaxime sodium salt, cephapirin sodium salt, diltiazem hydrochloride, metronidazole, nitrazepam, prednisolone, 6-propyl-2-thiouracil, trazadone hydrochloride, chloramphenicol, cimetidine, theophylline, fluconazole, metoprolol, mirtazapine, praziquantel, quetiapine fumarate, triprolidine hydrochloride, metformin, moclobemide.; DMSO; water; IP; mice; 1003D; animal info: lactating mice, postnatal age of 14 days; functionality of mp verified by measurement of drug concentration in milk and plasma; mp were used to infuse study lactational drug transfer..

14228 Ito, N., Ito, K., Ikebuchi, Y., Kito, T., Miyata, H., Toyoda, Y., Takada, T., Hisaka, A., Honma, M., Oka, A., Kusuhara, H., Suzuki, H., Ito, K. Organic Cation Transporter/Solute Carrier Family 22a is Involved in Drug Transfer into Milk in Mice. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2014; 103(--):3342-3348. >>> Acyclovir; cimetidine; clindamycin; metformin; terbutaline; verapamil;; IP; Mice; 1003D; Animal info (female, lactating, Bcrp KO or WT FVB); functionality of mp verified by plasma and milk concentrations; no stress"All mice survived the surgical procedure and appeared to be lactating normally, and all pups thrived throughout the course of the experiment."(see pg. 3343);.

1074 Astry, C.L., Nelson, S., Karam, G.H., Summer, W.R. Interactions of clindamycin with antibacterial defenses of the lung. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis 1987; 135(--):1015-1019. >>> Clindamycin HCl; Penicillin G; Sodium hydroxide; Water; SC; mice; Pump model not stated; controls received mp w/water; dose-response; mp primed overnight in PSB; 2 doses of agent infused; agent infused separately; antibiotic.

953 Hollenbach, S.J., DeGuzman, L.R., Bellamy, R.F. Early administration of methylprednisolone promotes survival in rats with intra-abdominal sepsis. Circ. Shock 1986; 20(-2-):161-168. >>> Clindamycin; Methylprednisolone; Gentamicin; Naloxone; Saline; SC; rat; 2001; controls received mp w/saline; toxicology; multiple pumps per animal (3); comparison of bolus injections vs. mp infusion; antibiotic.

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4. Interferon

Q3963 Lee,J., Stanley,J.A., McCracken,J.A., Banu,S.K., Arosh,J.A., Arosh,J.A. Intrauterine Coadministration of ERK1/2 Inhibitor U0126 Inhibits Interferon TAU Action in the Endometrium and Restores Luteolytic PGF(2alpha) Pulses in Sheep. Biology of Reproduction 2014; 91(--):U177-U185. >>> U0126; serum protein, ovine; interferon tau, recombinant ovine; DMSO; Intrauterine (uterine horn); Sheep (ewe); 2ML1; 6 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, Suffolk Ovis aries); 3% DMSO used; tissue perfusion (uterine horn); cyanoacrylate adhesive; used cyanoacrylate glue to anchor pump; interferon tau aka IFNT;.

Q3523 Johnson,T.S., Terrell,C.E., Millen,S.H., Katz,J.D., Hildeman,D.A., Jordan,M.B. Etoposide Selectively Ablates Activated T Cells To Control the Immunoregulatory Disorder Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis. Journal of Immunology 2014; 192(-1-):84-91. >>> Interferon, gamma; Saline; SC; Mice; 7 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (prf -/- or WT, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infected); functionality of mp verified by serum levels; immunology; murine model of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis;.

Q2583 Dorniak,P., Welsh,TH Jr, Bazer,F.W., Spencer,T.E. Cortisol and Interferon Tau Regulation of Endometrial Function and Conceptus Development in Female Sheep. Endocrinology 2013; 154(-2-):931-941. >>> Cortisol; PF915275; meloxicam; interferon, tau, recomb. ovine; Ethanol; Intrauterine (uterine horn); Sheep (ewe); 2ML1; ; Control animals received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (mature, rambouillet, female, ewe); 2% ethanol used; vinyl catheter used (0007760); "Our previous studies found that infusion of that amount of IFNT in the uterine lumen each day mimics effects of the conceptus on endometrial expression of hormone receptors and IFNT-stimulated genes during early pregnancy in ewes" pg 932.

Q2394 Kimura,A., Ishida,Y., Inagaki,M., Nakamura,Y., Sanke,T., Mukaida,N., Kondo,T. Interferon-gamma is protective in cisplatin-induced renal injury by enhancing autophagic flux. Kidney International 2012; 82(-10-):1093-1104. >>> Interferon, gamma, recomb. mouse; SC; Mice; 1007D; 7 days; Animal info (BALB/c, male, 8-10 wks old).

Q2057 Dorniak,P., Bazer,F.W., Wu,G.Y., Spencer,T.E. Conceptus-Derived Prostaglandins Regulate Endometrial Function in Sheep. Biology of Reproduction 2012; 87(-1-):U80-U86. >>> Interferon, tau, recomb. ovine; meloxicam; PGE2, ovine serum; PGF2a, ovine serum; PGI2, ovine serum; Ethanol; saline; Intrauterine (uterine horn); Sheep (ewe); 2ML1; 5 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Mature Rambouillet); tissue perfusion (intrauterine); multiple pumps used (2); enzyme inhibitor (prostaglandin synthase two).

Q2056 Dorniak,P., Welsh,TH Jr, Bazer,F.W., Spencer,T.E. Endometrial HSD11B1 and Cortisol Regeneration in the Ovine Uterus: Effects of Pregnancy, Interferon Tau, and Prostaglandins. Biology of Reproduction 2012; 86(-4-):U106-U115. >>> Interferon, tau, recomb. ovine; meloxicam; PGE2, ovine serum; PGF2a, ovine serum; PGI2, ovine serum; Ethanol; saline; Intrauterine (uterine horn); Sheep (ewe); 2ML1; 7 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Mature Rambouillet); good methods (pg 2); vinyl tubing used (0007760); 2% ethanol used; enzyme inhibitor (prostaglandin synthase two); tissue perfusion (intrauterine).

Q2040 Li,T.X., Shi,Z.D., Rockey,D.C. Preproendothelin-1 expression is negatively regulated by IFNgamma during hepatic stellate cell activation. American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 2012; 302(-9-):G948-G957. >>> Interferon, gamma; PBS; BSA; Rat; 1002; 2 weeks; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Sprague Dawley).

Q1983 Yuan,Y., Kasar,S., Underbayev,C., Vollenweider,D., Salerno,E., Kotenko,S.V., Raveche,E. Role of microRNA-15a in autoantibody production in interferon-augmented murine model of lupus. MOLECULAR IMMUNOLOGY 2012; 52(-2-):61-70. >>> Interferon, alpha; interferon, gamma; PBS; BSA; SC; Mice; 2006; 16 weeks; Animal info (13 wks old, female, B/W); pumps replaced after 8 weeks; long-term study; stability verified after 8 weeks; "residue IFNs from the pumps at the end of treatment were tested on IFN and IFN responsive cell lines and demonstrated that the in vivo conditions in the pump did not affect bioactivity of both IFNs (data not shown)" pg 63.

Q1724 Tu,S.P., Quante,M., Bhagat,G., Takaishi,S., Cui,G.L., Yang,X.D., Muthuplani,S., Shibata,W., Fox,J.G., Pritchard,D.M., Wang,T.C. IFN-gamma Inhibits Gastric Carcinogenesis by Inducing Epithelial Cell Autophagy and T-Cell Apoptosis. Cancer Research 2011; 71(-12-):4247-4259. >>> Interferon-gamma; PBS; BSA; Mice (transgenic); 4 weeks; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (wt B6, IFN-gamma transgenic, 2 mo old).

Q1352 Tang,Y., Desierto,M.J., Chen,J.C., Young,N.S. The role of the Th1 transcription factor T-bet in a mouse model of immune-mediated bone-marrow failure. Blood 2010; 115(-3-):541-548. >>> Interferon, gamma; SC; Mice; 12 days; Animal info (F1, Tbet -/-).

Q1327 Strickertsson,J.A.B., Dossing,K.B.V., Aabakke,A.J.M., Nilsson,H.O., Hansen,T.V.O., Knigge,U., Kjaer,A., Wadstroem,T., Friis-Hansen,L. Interferon-gamma inhibits ghrelin expression and secretion via a somatostatin-mediated mechanism. WORLD JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY 2011; 17(-26-):3117-3125. >>> Interferon, gamma; SC; Mice; 2001; 7 days; Animal info (C57BL6/J).

Q1040 Dorniak,P., Bazer,F.W., Spencer,T.E. Prostaglandins Regulate Conceptus Elongation and Mediate Effects of Interferon Tau on the Ovine Uterine Endometrium. Biology of Reproduction 2011; 84(-6-):1119-1127. >>> Meloxicam; interferon, recomb. ovina, tau; Ethanol; saline; Intrauterine (uterine horn); Sheep (ewe); 2ML1; 7 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (ewe, mature, Rambouillet); cyanoacrylate adhesive; enzyme inhibitor (prostaglandin synthase (PTGS)); vinyl catheter used (0007760); "The Alzet pump was then affixed to the mesometrial ligament between the uterine horn and oviduct by using cyanoacrylate glue... and then secured by sewing the oviduct to the perimetrium of the uterine horn, using 0 coated polyglactin suture." pg 1120; 2% ethanol used; photo of pump and catheter placement, fig. 1; "Intrauterine infusion of that amount of IFNT mimics effects of the conceptus on endometrial expression of hormone receptors and IFNT-stimulated genes during early pregnancy in ewes." pg 1120.

Q0408 Ryu,H.J., Kim,J.E., Kim,M.J., Kwon,H.J., Suh,S.W., Song,H.K., Kang,T.C. THE PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF INTERLEUKIN-18 AND INTERFERON-gamma ON NEURONAL DAMAGES IN THE RAT HIPPOCAMPUS FOLLOWING STATUS EPILEPTICUS. Neuroscience 2010; 170(-3-):711-721. >>> Antibody, anti IL-18; IL-18, recomb. rat; interferon, gamma, recomb. rat; antibody, anti interferon, gamma; IL-18 receptor antagonist; interferon, gamma, receptor antagonist; Saline; CSF/CNS; Rat; 1007D; 1 week; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Sprague Dawley, 7 wks old); ALZET brain infusion kit 1 used.

P9920 Bott,R.C., Ashley,R.L., Henkes,L.E., Antoniazzi,A.Q., Bruemmer,J.E., Niswender,G.D., Bazer,F.W., Spencer,T.E., Smirnova,N.P., Anthony,R.V., Hansen,T.R. Uterine Vein Infusion of Interferon Tau (IFNT) Extends Luteal Life Span in Ewes. Biology of Reproduction 2010; 82(-4-):725-735. >>> Interferon-tau, recomb, ovine; IV (uterine vein); Sheep (ewe); 2001D; 2ML1; 7 days; 24 hours; Controls received mp w/BSA or sham surgeries; animal info (white-faced, western range ewe); cyanoacrylate adhesive.

P9580 Tzima,S., Victoratos,P., Kranidioti,K., Alexiou,M., Kollias,G. Myeloid heme oxygenase-1 regulates innate immunity and autoimmunity by modulating IFN-beta production. Journal of Experimental Medicine 2009; 206(-5-):1167-1179. >>> Interferon-beta, recomb. human; Mice; 2002; 14 days; Animal info (Hmox1 KO).

P9300 Shinohara,A., Koyanagi,S., Hamdan,A.M., Matsunaga,N., Aramaki,H., Ohdo,S. Dosing schedule-dependent change in the disruptive effects of interferon-alpha on the circadian clock function. LIFE SCIENCES 2008; 83(-15-16-):574-580. >>> Interferon-alpha, recomb. human; Saline; SC; Mice; 2001; 6 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; comparison of SC injections vs. mp; half-life (p. 579) "relatively short"; peptides; animal info (male, ICR, 5 wks old); behavioral testing (locomotor activity).

P8835 Rogers,A.B., Theve,E.J., Feng,Y., Fry,R.C., Taghizadeh,K., Clapp,K.M., Boussahmain,C., Cormier,K.S., Fox,J.G. Hepatocellular carcinoma associated with liver-gender disruption in male mice. Cancer Research 2007; 67(-24-):11536-11546. >>> Interferon-gamma, recomb. murine; SC; Mice; 7 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; cancer (tumorigenic hepatitis, liver); peptides; animal info (male, female, A/JCr).

P8739 Qiao,X.T., Ziel,J.W., Mckimpson,W., Madison,B.B., Todisco,A., Merchant,J.L., Samuelson,L.C., Gumucio,D.L. Prospective identification of a multilineage progenitor in murine stomach epithelium. Gastroenterology 2007; 133(-6-):1989-1998. >>> Interferon-gamma; PBS; BSA; IP; Mice (transgenic); 2, 8, 12 weeks; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; comparison of IP injections vs. mp; peptides; animal info (12.4 KVil-EGFP tg; C57BL/6J; 4 months old); long-term study.

P8261 Si,Y., Ciccone,S., Yang,F.C., Yuan,J., Zeng,D., Chen,S., van de Vrugt,H.J., Critser,J., Arwert,F., Haneline,L.S., Clapp,D.W. Continuous in vivo infusion of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) enhances engraftment of syngeneic wild-type cells in Fanca-/- and Fancg-/- mice. Blood 2006; 108(-13-):4283-4287. >>> Interferon-gamma, mouse; PBS; SC; Mice; 1007D; 7 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; no stress (see pg. 4286); immunology; peptides; animal info (C57BL/6).

P7725 Birk,R.Z., Rubinstein,M. IFN-alpha induces apoptosis of adipose tissue cells. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 2006; 345(-2-):669-674. >>> Interferon-a A/D, recomb. human; Saline; SC; Mice; 8 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (C57BL/6, diet-induced obese).

P7447 Kang,W.Q., Rathinavelu,S., Samuelson,L.C., Merchant,J.L. Interferon gamma induction of gastric mucous neck cell hypertrophy. LABORATORY INVESTIGATION 2005; 85(-5-):702-715. >>> Interferon-gamma, recomb. mouse; IP; Mice; 1002; 14 days; Controls received PBS; animal info (c57BL/6).

P7184 Mathian,A., Weinberg,A., Gallegos,M., Banchereau,J., Koutouzov,S. IFN-alpha induces early lethal lupus in preautoimmune (New Zealand black x New Zealand White)F1 but not in BALB/c mice1. Journal of Immunology 2005; 174(-5-):2499-2506. >>> Interferon, mouse; PBS; BSA; SC; Mice; 1002; 8-10 weeks; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; long-term study; pumps replaced every 2 weeks; immunology.

P7132 Brooling,J.T., Campbell,J.S., Mitchell,C., Yeoh,G.C., Fausto,N. Differential regulation of rodent hepatocyte and oval cell proliferation by interferon gamma. Hepatology 2005; 41(-4-):906-915. >>> Interferon-gamma, recomb. mouse; SC; Mice; 4-6 days; Controls received mp w/ saline; replacement therapy (hepatectomy).

P7042 Li,X.X., Yang,Y.Z., Yuan,J., Hong,P., Freie,B., Orazi,A., Haneline,L.S., Clapp,D.W. Continuous in vivo infusion of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) preferentially reduces myeloid progenitor numbers and enhances engraftment of syngeneic wild-type cells in Fancc(-/-) mice. Blood 2004; 104(-4-):1204-1209. >>> Interferon-gamma, murine; PBS; SC; Mice; 1007D; 7 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; dose-response (fig. 7); no stress (pg. 1209); stress/adverse reaction: (see pg. 1205) "modest though not significant rise in peripheral white blood cell count" (pg. 1205); "IFN-gamma was overall well tolerated by both WT and Fancc -/- mice." (pg. 1208); hematology.

P6764 Frewert,S., Stockhammer,F., Warschewske,G., Zenclussen,A.C., Rupprecht,S., Volk,H.D., Woiciechowsky,C. Intratumoral infusion of interleukin-1 beta and interferon-gamma; induces tumor invasion with macrophages and lymphocytes in a rat glioma model. Neuroscience Letters 2004; 364(-3-):145-148. >>> Interleukin-1, beta recomb. rat; Interferon-gamma, recomb. rat; Saline, physiological; albumin, human serum; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Rat; 1003D; 48 hours; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; tissue perfusion (tumor); cancer (glioma).

P6142 Koyanagi,S., Ohdo,S. Alteration of intrinsic biological rhythms during interferon treatment and its possible mechanism. MOLECULAR PHARMACOLOGY 2002; 62(-6-):1393-1399. >>> Interferon-alpha; Saline, sterile; SC; Mice; 2001; 7 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; immunology; peptides.

P6048 Zavros,Y., Rathinavelu,S., Kao,J.Y., Todisco,A., Del Valle,J., Weinstock,J.V., Low,M.J., Merchant,J.L. Treatment of Helicobacter gastritis with IL-4 requires somatostatin. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 2003; 100(-22-):12944-12949. >>> Interleukin-4; interferon-gamma; PBS; IP; Mice; 1007D; 7 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; comparison of IP injections vs. IP mp.

P5102 Skovseth,D.K., Yamanaka,T., Brandtzaeg,P., Butcher,E.C., Haraldsen,G. Vascular morphogenesis and differentiation after adoptive transfer of human endothelial cells to immunodeficient mice. American Journal of Pathology 2002; 160(-5-):1629-1637. >>> Interferon-gamma; Abdominal wall; mice; 2004; ; tissue perfusion (abdominal wall); immunology; peptides; pump implanted SC, catheter tube perfused matrigel plug in abdominal wall..

P4675 Jander,S, Schroetter,M, Fischer,J, Stoll,G. Differential regulation of microglial keratan sulfate immunoreactivity by proinflammatory cytokines and colony-stimulating factors.. Glia 2000; 30(--):401-410. >>> Interferon-gamma; Tumor necrosis factor-a;; PBS, sterile;; CSF/CNS;; rat;; 1007D;; 6 days;; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; immunology; peptides; ALZET brain infusion kit used; proinflammatory cytokines;.

P4551 Nedelec,B, Dodd,C.M, Scott,P.G, Ghahary,A., Tredget,E.E. Effect of interferon-alpha 2b on guinea pig wound closure and the expression of cytoskeletal proteins in vivo.. Wound Repair and Regeneration 1998/6/1; 6(--):202-212. >>> Interferon-a2b; Saline, sterile; IP; Guinea-pig; 2ML4; 7, 14, 21 days; Controls received mp w/vehicle; wound healing study.

P4477 Voest,E.E, Kenyon,B.M, O'Reilly,M.S, Truitt,G, D'Amato,R.J, Folkman,J. Inhibition of angiogenesis in vivo by interleukin 12.. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1995; 87(-8-):581-586. >>> Interferon-gamma; Saline; IM; Mice (scid); 2002; ; Controls received mp w/ saline; functionality of mp verified by checking residual volume; comparison of bolus invections vs. mp; cancer; immunology; angiogenesis inhibitor; recomb. murine interferon-gamma used; "... in comparison with bolus injections, continuous intraperitoneal infusion of IFN gamma achieved enhanced inhibition of angiogenesis ..." (p. 585).

P3986 Henke,P.K., Bergamini,T.M., Watson,A.L., Brittian,K.R., Powell,D.W., Peyton,J.C. Bacterial products primarily mediate fibroblast inhibition in biomaterial infection. J.Surg.Res. 1998; 74(--):17-22. >>> Antibody, anti-interferon gamma; Antibody, indomethacin; Antibody, anti-TNFa; Antibody, interleukin 1 alpha; PBS, sterile; ETOH; Indomethacin; SC; mice; 1007D; 7 days; immunology; pump implanted next to Dacron graft; peptides.

P3731 Galbiati,F., Rogge,L., Guery,J.-C., Smiroldo,S., Adorini,L. Regulation of the IL-12 receptor B2 subunit by soluble antigen and IL-12 in vivo. Eur.J.Immunol. 1998; 28(--):209-220. >>> Interleukin-12; Interleukin-2; Lysozyme, hen egg white; Ovalbumin; Interferon-gamma; PBS; Albumin, mouse serum; SC; mice; 2001; 9 days; controls received mp w/ PBS; comparison of ip injections vs. mp; immunology; peptides; agents infused singly or in combination in the same pump; recomb. human IL-2 used; recomb. mouse IFN-gamma used.

P3567 Tsuji-Takayama,K., Harashima,A., Tahata,H., Izumi,N., Nishida,Y., Namba,M., Okuda,Y., Ohta,T., Kurimoto,M. IFN-gamma in combination with IL-3 accelerates platelet recovery in mice with 5-fluorouracil-induced marrow aplasia. J.Interferon and Cytokine Res. 1996; 16(--):447-451. >>> Interferon-gamma; Interleukin-3; Albumin, mouse serum; PBS; SC; mice; 1007D; 7 days; controls received mp w/ vehicle; stability verified after 7 day storage; immunology; peptides; cytokines given singly and together.

P3501 Siesjo,P., Visse,E., Sjogren,H.O. Cure of established, intracerebral rat gliomas induced by therapeutic immunizations with tumor cells and purified APC or adjuvant IFN-gamma treatment. J.Immunol. 1996; 19(-5-):334-345. >>> Interferon-gamma; SC; CSF/CNS; rat; 14 days; cancer; immunology; peptides; ALZET brain infusion kit used.

P3104 Unemori,E.N., Beck,L.S., Lee,W.P., Xu,Y., Siegel,M., Keller,G., Liggitt,H.D., Bauer,E.A., Amento,E.P. Human relaxin decreases collagen accumulation in vivo in two rodent models of fibrosis. J.Invest.Dermatol. 1993; 101(--):280-285. >>> Relaxin; Interferon-gamma; PBS; SC; rat; mice; 2002; no duration posted; controls received mp with vehicle; immunology; multiple pumps per animal (1-2) for relaxin delivery; polyvinyl alcohol sponges implanted subcutaneously in rats for fibrotic infiltration; intentional capsule formation in mice analyzed.

P3004 Flynn,J.L., Chan,J., Triebold,K.J., Dalton,D.K., Stewart,T.A., Bloom,B.R. An essential role for interferon gamma in resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. J.Exp.Med. 1993; 178(--):2249-2254. >>> Interferon-gamma; PBS; SC; mice; no duration posted; controls received mp w/ PBS or could endogenously produce IFN; replacement therapy (genetic inability to produce IFN-gamma); comparison of im injections vs. mp; circulating half-life of IFN-gamma in mice is about 1 hour; continuous delivery of IFN-gamma prolonged survival longer than did IFN injections (12 vs. 4 days longer than controls); mouse IFN-gamma used.

P2948 Curfs,J.H.A.J., van der Meide,P.H., Billiau,A., Meuwissen,J.H.E.Th., Eling,W.M.C. Plasmodium berghei: recombinant interferon-y and the development of parasitemia and cerebral lesions in malaria-infected mice. Exp.Parasitology 1993; 77(--):212-223. >>> Interferon-gamma; Saline, isotonic; IP; Mice; mice (nude); 2002; no duration posted; controls were untreated, or treated but uninfected; ". . .daily injection of a bolus of 105 units of IFN-gamma is not lethal, whereas even a lower daily total dose of 2.5 x 104 units of IFN-gamma administered by continuous release is lethally toxic."; only continuous delivery was able to prevent development of cerebral malaria; comparison of ip injections vs. mp; recomb. rat IFN-gamma.

P2935 Rapp,J., Dallah,C.N., Schulz-Key,H. Parenteral administration of cytokines and drugs in rodent filariasis via osmotic pumps. Parasite 1994; 1(-1S-):35-37. >>> Interferon-gamma; SC; mice; 2002; 14 days; controls received mp with PBS or were untreated; no stress (see pg. 37); immunology; "implantation of osmotic pumps is a suitable method for the application of short lived substances like IFN-gamma or other cytokines."; incision heals within three days and animals show no signs of discomfort, making pumps a useful alternative to repeated injections especially for rodents..."; recomb. mouse IFN-gamma used.

P2677 Drath,D.B., Do,C., Burd,T., Hong,L.L. Activation of a distinct subpopulation of pulmonary macrophages following exposure to biological response modifiers. Immunol.Invest. 1994; 23(-2-):115-127. >>> Interferon-gamma; S-MDP, free; S-MDP, liposome-encapsulated; SC; rat; 7 days; comparison of bolus tracheal injections, iv administration and mp; immunology; peptides; IFN-gamma and S-MDP were most effective when delivered either intravenously or via osmotic minipump infusion; S-MDP is lipophilic N-acetylmuramyl-6-0-stearoyl-alanyl-D-isoglutamine; recomb. mouse IFN-gamma used.

P2625 Wiranowska,M., Prockop,L.D., Naidu,A.K., Saporta,S., Kori,S., Kulkarni,A.P. Interferon entry through the blood-brain barrier in glioma and its effect on lipoxygenase activity. Anticancer Res. 1994; 14(--):1121-1126. >>> Interferon-a/B, mouse; Interferon-gamma; SC; mice; 3 days; cancer; peptides; recomb. mouse IFN-gamma used.

P2533 Rockey,D.C., Chung,J.J. Interferon gamma inhibits lipocyte activation and extracellular matrix mRNA expression during experimental liver injury: implications for treatment of hepatic fibrosis. J.Invest.Med. 1994; 42(-4-):660-670. >>> Interferon-gamma; PBS; Albumin, bovine serum; IP; rat; 2ML4; no duration posted; controls received mp w/ vehicle; immunology; peptides; rat IFN-gamma used.

P2494 Rosiello,R.A., Merrill,W.W., Rockwell,S., Carter,D., Cooper Jr,J.A.D., Care,S., Amento,E.P. Radiation pneumonitis: bronchoalveolar lavage assessment and modulation by a recombinant cytokine. Am.Rev.Respir.Dis. 1993; 148(--):1671-1676. >>> Interferon-gamma; SC; rat; 26 days; peptides; oncology.

P2301 Kuhn,J.A., Wong,J.Y.C., Beatty,B.G., Esteban,J.M., Williams,L.E., Beatty,J.D. Gamma-interferon enhancement of carcinoembryonic antigen expression in human colon carcinoma xenografts. J.Immunother. 1992; 11(--):257-266. >>> Interferon-gamma; Albumin, bovine serum; PBS; SC; mice; 1007D; 3-7 days; functionality of mp verified by residual amounts; dose-response (text p. 259, graph p. 260); comparison of ip injections vs. infusion; cancer; immunology; peptides; biological activity of residual in pump diminished 15% by day 4, 25% by day 6 (p. 262); recomb. human IFN-gamma used.

P2121 Wiranowska,M., Gonzalvo,A.A., Saporta,S., Gonzalez,O.R., Prockop,L.D. Evaluation of blood-brain barrier permeability and the effect of interferon in mouse glioma model. J.Neurooncology 1992; 14(--):225-236. >>> Interferon-a/B, mouse; SC; mice; 1003D; 3 days; cancer; homologous mouse IFN-a/B used.

P1999 Denis,M. Involvement of cytokines in determining resistance and acquired immunity in murine tuberculosis. J.Leukoc.Biol. 1991; 50(--):495-501. >>> Interferon-gamma, inactivated; Tumor necrosis factor-a; Interferon-gamma; Interleukin-2; Interleukin-2, inactivated; Tumor necrosis factor-a, inactivated; IP; mice; 2002; no duration posted; peptides.

P1947 Newton,G.R., Martinod,S., Hansen,P.J., Thatcher,W.W., Siegenthaler,B., Gerber,C., Voirol,M.-J. Effect of bovine interferon on acute changes in body temperature and serum progesterone concentration in heifers. J.Dairy Sci. 1990; 73(--):3439-3448. >>> Interferon-a1; cattle; 2ML1; 5 days; peptides; serum IFN-a levels (p. 3445).

P1918 Granstein,R.D., Deak,M.R., Jacques,S.L., Margolis,R.J., Flotte,T.J., Whitaker,D., Long,F.H., Amento,E.P. The systemic administration of gamma interferon inhibits collagen synthesis and acute inflammation in a murine skin wound model. J.Invest.Dermatol. 1989; 93(-1-):18-27. >>> Interferon-gamma; PBS; Serum, mouse; IP; SC; mice; 2002; 14 days; peptides; wound healing.

P1845 Denis,M. Recombinant murine beta interferon enhances resistance of mice to systemic mycobacterium avium infection. Infect.Immun. 1991; 59(-5-):1857-1859. >>> Interferon-beta; mice; 2002; no duration posted; controls received pumps with heat-inactivated cytokines; peptides.

P1718 Murray,H.W. Effect of continuous administration of interferon-y in experimental visceral leishmaniasis. J.Infect.Dis. 1990; 161(--):992-994. >>> Stibogluconate, sodium; Interferon-gamma; Albumin, bovine serum; Saline; SC; mice; 2002; 1 week; comparison of ip injections vs. mp; immunology; some mice received 2 pumps.

P1293 Guadagni,F., Schlom,J., Pothen,S., Pestka,S., Greiner,J.W. Parameters involved in the enhancement of monoclonal antibody targeting in vivo with recombinant interferon. Cancer Immunol.Immunother. 1988; 26(--):222-230. >>> Interferon-a, recomb. human; Saline; SC; Mice (nude); 2001; 5-13 days; dose-response (graph); half-life; comparison of i.m. injections vs. mp infusion; functionality of mp verified by plasma levels; cancer/immunology; peptides.

P0987 Granstein,R.D., Murphy,G.F., Margolis,R.J., Byrne,M.H., Amento,E.P. Gamma-interferon inhibits collagen synthesis in vivo in the mouse. J.Clin.Invest. 1987; 79(-4-):1254-1258. >>> Interferon-gamma; PBS; Serum, mouse; SC; mice; 2002; 7-14 days; 2002, 7-14 days; controls received mp w/vehicle; peptides; immunology; stress/adverse reaction (fibrous tissue formation which was used to study effects of gamma-interferon).

P0957 Drath,D.B. Modulation of pulmonary macrophage superoxide release and tumoricidal activity following activation by biological response modifiers. Immunopharmacology 1986; 12(-2-):117-126. >>> Interferon-gamma; Liposomes; SC; rat; 2001; 7 days; controls received mp w/empty liposomes; liposome encapsulated agent and free agent; comparison of iv injections vs. mp infusion; cancer/immunology; peptides.

P0504 Heston,W.D.W., Fleischmann,J., Tackett,R.E., Ratliff,T.L. Effects of a-difluoromethylornithine and recombinant interferon-a2 on the growth of a human renal cell adenocarcinoma xenograft in nude mice. Cancer Res. 1984; 44(--):3220-3225. >>> Interferon-a2, recomb. human; SC; Mice (nude); 2002; 4 weeks; pump replaced after 2 weeks; immunotherapy; controls received unidentified vehicle in mp; peptides; cancer; recomb. human IF-a2 used.

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5. Interferons

15995 Hoyo-Becerra, C., Liu, Z., Yao, J., Kaltwasser, B., Gerken, G., Hermann, D. M., Schlaak, J. F. Rapid Regulation of Depression-Associated Genes in a New Mouse Model Mimicking Interferon-alpha-Related Depression in Hepatitis C Virus Infection. Mol Neurobiol 2015; 52(-1-):318-29. >>> Interferon-a, murine; polyinosinic/polycytidylic acid; PBS; CSF/CNS; Mice; 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (C57BL6J); behavioral testing (open field test; tail suspension test; forced swimming test); polyinosinic/polycytidylic acid is a toll-like receptor-3 agonist; Dose (mIFN-a 250 IU/day; poly(I:C) 1 ug/day);.

15270 Alfredo Q. Antoniazzi. Endocrine Delivery of Interferon Tau Protects the Corpus Luteum from Prostaglandin F2 Alpha-Induced Luteolysis in Ewes. Biology of Reproduction 2013; 88(-6-):1-12. >>> interferon-tau, recombinant ovine; BSA; IV (jugular, intrauterine); ewe; 2001D, 1003D; controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by serum antiviral activity; pumps were anchored in the s.c. space with cyanoacrylate glue; 200 ug/day (uterine vein); 200 ug/day (jugular vein).

15056 Pereira, L., Medina, R., Baena, M., Planas, A.M., Pozas, E., Pozas, E. IFN gamma regulates proliferation and neuronal differentiation by STAT1 in adult SVZ niche. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 2015; 9(--):U1-U10. >>> Interferon, gamma; Saline; CSF/CNS (third ventricle); Mice; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, STAT2 KO or 129S6/SvEv); immunology;.

14264 Lee, J., Stanley, J.A., McCracken, J.A., Banu, S.K., Arosh, J.A., Arosh, J.A. Intrauterine Coadministration of ERK1/2 Inhibitor U0126 Inhibits Interferon TAU Action in the Endometrium and Restores Luteolytic PGF(2alpha) Pulses in Sheep. Biology of Reproduction 2014; 91(--):U177-U185. >>> U0126; serum protein, ovine; interferon tau, recombinant ovine; DMSO; Intrauterine (uterine horn); Sheep (ewe); 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, Suffolk Ovis aries); 3% DMSO used; tissue perfusion (uterine horn); cyanoacrylate adhesive; used cyanoacrylate glue to anchor pump; interferon tau aka IFNT;.

13823 Johnson, T.S., Terrell, C.E., Millen, S.H., Katz, J.D., Hildeman, D.A., Jordan, M.B. Etoposide Selectively Ablates Activated T Cells To Control the Immunoregulatory Disorder Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis. Journal of Immunology 2014; 192(-1-):84-91. >>> Interferon, gamma; Saline; SC; Mice; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (prf -/- or WT, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infected); functionality of mp verified by serum levels; immunology; murine model of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis;.

12869 Dorniak, P., Welsh, TH Jr, Bazer, F.W., Spencer, T.E. Cortisol and Interferon Tau Regulation of Endometrial Function and Conceptus Development in Female Sheep. Endocrinology 2013; 154(-2-):931-941. >>> Cortisol; PF915275; meloxicam; interferon, tau, recomb. ovine; Ethanol; Intrauterine (uterine horn); Sheep (ewe); 2ML1; Control animals received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (mature, rambouillet, female, ewe); 2% ethanol used; vinyl catheter used (0007760);"Our previous studies found that infusion of that amount of IFNT in the uterine lumen each day mimics effects of the conceptus on endometrial expression of hormone receptors and IFNT-stimulated genes during early pregnancy in ewes"pg 932.

12680 Kimura, A., Ishida, Y., Inagaki, M., Nakamura, Y., Sanke, T., Mukaida, N., Kondo, T. Interferon-gamma is protective in cisplatin-induced renal injury by enhancing autophagic flux. Kidney International 2012; 82(-10-):1093-1104. >>> Interferon, gamma, recomb. mouse; SC; Mice; 1007D; Animal info (BALB/c, male, 8-10 wks old).

12343 Dorniak, P., Bazer, F.W., Wu, G.Y., Spencer, T.E. Conceptus-Derived Prostaglandins Regulate Endometrial Function in Sheep. Biology of Reproduction 2012; 87(-1-):U80-U86. >>> Interferon, tau, recomb. ovine; meloxicam; PGE2, ovine serum; PGF2a, ovine serum; PGI2, ovine serum; Ethanol; saline; Intrauterine (uterine horn); Sheep (ewe); 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Mature Rambouillet); tissue perfusion (intrauterine); multiple pumps used (2); enzyme inhibitor (prostaglandin synthase two).

12342 Dorniak, P., Welsh, TH Jr, Bazer, F.W., Spencer, T.E. Endometrial HSD11B1 and Cortisol Regeneration in the Ovine Uterus: Effects of Pregnancy, Interferon Tau, and Prostaglandins. Biology of Reproduction 2012; 86(-4-):U106-U115. >>> Interferon, tau, recomb. ovine; meloxicam; PGE2, ovine serum; PGF2a, ovine serum; PGI2, ovine serum; Ethanol; saline; Intrauterine (uterine horn); Sheep (ewe); 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Mature Rambouillet); good methods (pg 2); vinyl tubing used (0007760); 2% ethanol used; enzyme inhibitor (prostaglandin synthase two); tissue perfusion (intrauterine).

12326 Li, T.X., Shi, Z.D., Rockey, D.C. Preproendothelin-1 expression is negatively regulated by IFNgamma during hepatic stellate cell activation. American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 2012; 302(-9-):G948-G957. >>> Interferon, gamma; PBS; BSA; Rat; 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Sprague Dawley).

12269 Yuan, Y., Kasar, S., Underbayev, C., Vollenweider, D., Salerno, E., Kotenko, S.V., Raveche, E. Role of microRNA-15a in autoantibody production in interferon-augmented murine model of lupus. MOLECULAR IMMUNOLOGY 2012; 52(-2-):61-70. >>> Interferon, alpha; interferon, gamma; PBS; BSA; SC; Mice; 2006; Animal info (13 wks old, female, B/W); pumps replaced after 8 weeks; long-term study; stability verified after 8 weeks;"residue IFNs from the pumps at the end of treatment were tested on IFN and IFN responsive cell lines and demonstrated that the in vivo conditions in the pump did not affect bioactivity of both IFNs (data not shown)"pg 63.

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6. Interleukin-2

14441 Tilahun, A.Y., Chowdhary, V.R., David, C.S., Rajagopalan, G., Rajagopalan, G. Systemic Inflammatory Response Elicited by Superantigen Destabilizes T Regulatory Cells, Rendering Them Ineffective during Toxic Shock Syndrome. Journal of Immunology 2014; 193(--):2919-2930. >>> Interleukin-2, murine; antibody, anti-interleukin-2; PBS; SC; Mice (transgenic); Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (HLA-DR3); comparison of injection vs mp; immunology;.

12899 Katz, S.C., Burga, R.A., Naheed, S., Licata, L.A., Thorn, M., Osgood, D., Nguyen, C.T., Espat, N.J., Fletcher, J.A., Junghans, R.P. Anti-KIT designer T cells for the treatment of gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Journal of Translational Medicine 2013; 11(-;-):U1-U10. >>> Interleukin-2, human; SC; Mice (nude); Animal info (6 wks old, male, Nu/J); 7-day pumps used.

11560 Quiel, J., Caucheteux, S., Laurence, A., Singh, N.J., Bocharov, G., Ben-Sasson, S.Z., Grossman, Z., Paul, W.E. Antigen-stimulated CD4 T-cell expansion is inversely and log-linearly related to precursor number. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 2011; 108(-8-):3312-3317. >>> Interleukin-2; interleukin-7; interleukin-15; SC; Mice; 2001; Controls received mp w/ PBS; animal info (6-12 wks old, gender, age matched); immunology.

11460 Lo, A.S.Y., Ma, Q.Z., Liu, D.L., Junghans, R.P. Anti-GD3 Chimeric sFv-CD28/T-Cell Receptor zeta Designer T Cells for Treatment of Metastatic Melanoma and Other Neuroectodermal Tumors. Clinical Cancer Research 2010; 16(-10-):2769-2780. >>> Interleukin-2, recomb.; PBS; albumin, human; SC; Mice (nude); Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (8 wks old, female, Balb/C, nu/nu); cancer (melanoma);"These pumps are easily loaded and then placed s.c., minimizing discomfort and handling of the mice as needed for repeated IL2 administration by injection."pg 2777.

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7. Muramyl Dipeptide

8461 du Plessis, I., Mitchell, D., Laburn, H.P., Cartmell, T. Fever and lethargy induced by subcutaneous pyrogen infusion in unrestrained rats. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 2005; 83(-11-):1007-1014. >>> Endotoxin, LPS; muramyl dipeptide; Saline, sterile; SC; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by weight; peptides; animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 250-350 grams).

40 Kierszenbaum, F., Ferraresi, R.W. Enhancement of host resistance against Trypanosoma cruzi infection by the immunoregulatory agent muramyl dipeptide. Infect. Immun 1979; 25(-1-):273-278. >>> Muramyl dipeptide; Saline; SC; mice; comparison of ip injec. vs sc infusion; immunotherapy; peptides.

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8. Muramyl Dipeptide

P8238 du Plessis,I., Mitchell,D., Laburn,H.P., Cartmell,T. Fever and lethargy induced by subcutaneous pyrogen infusion in unrestrained rats. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 2005; 83(-11-):1007-1014. >>> Endotoxin, LPS; muramyl dipeptide; Saline, sterile; SC; Rat; 2001; 7 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by weight; peptides; animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 250-350 grams).

P0040 Kierszenbaum,F., Ferraresi,R.W. Enhancement of host resistance against Trypanosoma cruzi infection by the immunoregulatory agent muramyl dipeptide. Infect.Immun. 1979; 25(-1-):273-278. >>> Muramyl dipeptide; Saline; SC; mice; 7 days; comparison of ip injec. vs sc infusion; immunotherapy; peptides.

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9. PMEA

1959 Lee, J.S., Mullaney, S., Bronson, R., Sharpe, A.H., Jaenisch, R., Balzarini, J., De Clercq, E., Ruprecht, R.M. Transplacental antiretroviral therapy with 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine is embryotoxic in transgenic mice. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr 1991; 4(--):833-838. >>> PMEA; Mice; comparison of ip injections vs. mp; teratology; antiviral agent.

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10. R-95288

3819 Agatsuma, T., Abe, K., Furukawa, H., Koga, R., Koizumi, M., Hotoda, H., Kaneko, M. Protection of hu-PBL-SCID/beige mice from HIV-1 infection by a 6-mer modified oligonucleotide, R-95288. Antiviral Res 1997; 34(--):121-130. >>> R-95288; Saline; IP; SC; mice (SCID); 2002; controls received mp w/saline; antisense; mice were transplanted w/human peripheral blood leukocytes; R-95288 protects human chimeric mice against HIV-1 infection; AIDS.

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11. SID 791

3692 Datema, R., Rabin, L., Hincenbergs, M., Moreno, M.B., Warren, S., Linquist, V., Rosenwirth, B., Seifert, E., McCune, J.M. Antiviral efficacy in vivo of the anti-human immunodeficiency virus bicyclam SDZ SID 791 (JM 3100), an inhibitor of infectious cell entry. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother 1996; 40(-3-):750-754. >>> SID 791; Saline, sterile; SC; Mice (SCID); mice; 2002; functionality of mp verified by plasma levels; dose-response; comparison of sc injections vs. mp; immunology; SID 791 is a bicyclam which inhibits HIV replication in vivo; human fetal liver&thymus transplanted into SCID mice.

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What researchers are saying ...

“Nonspecific toxicity is a common problem associated with in vivo application of antisense oligonucleotides.However, by employing certain strategies including the use of partial rather than complete phosphorothioate modification, reducing the length of the oligonucleotide, and using a steady continuous infusion rather than bolus injections, we were able to minimize such toxicity (Van Kampen & Stoessl, 2000a).” (p. 309) Van Kampen et al., Neuroscience 2003;116:307-314.