References on the Administration of Amphetamines Using ALZET® Osmotic Pumps

16028 Iijima, M., Koike, H., Chaki, S. Effect of an mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist on depressive behavior induced by withdrawal from chronic treatment with methamphetamine. Behav Brain Res 2013; 246(--):24-8. >>> methamphetamine; SC; rat; 2ML1; animal info: male, Sprague-Dawley, 5-weeks old; dependence; behavioral testing (forced swimming test; ); mp were used to infuse methamphetamine to induce withdrawl symptoms in mice; dose: 2.5, or 5 mg/kg/day.

15967 Iijima, M., Koike, H., Chaki, S. Effect of an mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist on depressive behavior induced by withdrawal from chronic treatment with methamphetamine. Behav Brain Res 2013; 246(--):24-8. >>> methamphetamine (MAP); saline; SC; rat; 2ML1; animal info: male, Sprague-Dawley, 5 wks old; tolerance studies; post op care: pumps removed under sodium pentobarbital anesthesia; behavioral testing: forced swimming test, locomotor activity; mp used to infuse methamphetamine to induce a withdrawal-like effect in rats to study the effect of LY341495 (mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist) on withdrawal-induced depressive behavior; dose 2, 5 mg/kg/day.

15052 Nanaware-Kharade, N., Thakkar, S., Gonzalez, GA III, Peterson, E.C., Peterson, E.C. A Nanotechnology-Based Platform for Extending the Pharmacokinetic and Binding Properties of Anti-methamphetamine Antibody Fragments. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS 2015; 5(--):U1-U10. >>> Methamphetamine; SC; Rat; Animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, adult, 280-310g); functionality of mp verified by blood levels; dependence; cardiovascular;.

14959 Harris, A.C., LeSage, M.G., Shelley, D., Perry, J.L., Pentel, P.R., Owens, S.M., Harris, A.C. The Anti-(+)-Methamphetamine Monoclonal Antibody mAb7F9 Attenuates Acute (+)-Methamphetamine Effects on Intracranial Self-Stimulation in Rats. PLoS One 2015; 10(--):U408-U420. >>> Methamphetamine hydrochloride; Saline; SC; Rat; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 275-300g); functionality of mp verified by elevations in ICSS; behavioral testing (ICSS); dependence; pumps removed after 7 days;.

14903 Czoty, P.W., Tran, P., Thomas, L.N., Martin, T.J., Grigg, A., Blough, B.E., Beveridge, T.J.R., Czoty, P.W. Effects of the dopamine/norepinephrine releaser phenmetrazine on cocaine self-administration and cocaine-primed reinstatement in rats. PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY 2015; 232(--):2405-2414. >>> Amphetamine, D-; phenmetrazine; Saline; SC; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 300-350g); pumps replaced every 7 days; behavioral testing (cocaine self-administration, food self-administration); dependence;.

14670 Blum, I.D., Zhu, L., Moquin, L., Kokoeva, M.V., Gratton, A., Giros, B., Storch, K.F., Storch, K.F. A highly-tunable dopaminergic oscillator generates ultradian rhythms of behavioral arousal. ELIFE 2014; 3(--):U146-U189. >>> Methamphetamine; Saline; SC; Mice; 1002; Animal info (Bmal1 -/-, ); behavioral testing (locomotor activity running wheels); dependence; delayed delivery; catheter filled with saline for 4 day recovery; used plastics one catheter;.

13932 Zimmer, B.A., Chiodo, K.A., Roberts, D.C.S. Reduction of the reinforcing effectiveness of cocaine by continuous D-amphetamine treatment in rats: importance of active self-administration during treatment period. Psychopharmacology 2014; 231(-5-):949-954. >>> Amphetamine, D-; Saline, sterile; SC; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 12 week old, 350g); behavioral testing (cocaine self-administration); dependence; pumps removed on day 7; used amphetamine concentration of approx 73ug/ul..

13716 Bauer, C.T., Banks, M.L., Negus, S.S., Negus, S.S. The effect of chronic amphetamine treatment on cocaine-induced facilitation of intracranial self-stimulation in rats. Psychopharmacology 2014; 231(--):2461-2470. >>> Amphetamine; Saline; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 311-406g); post op. care (Ketoprofen 5 mg/kg); behavioral testing (cocaine self administration); dependence; pumps removed after 14 days;.

13619 Rau, T.F., Kothiwal, A.S., Rova, A.R., Brooks, D.M., Rhoderick, J.F., Poulsen, A.J., Hutchinson, J., Poulsen, D.J. Administration of low dose methamphetamine 12 h after a severe traumatic brain injury prevents neurological dysfunction and cognitive impairment in rats. Experimental Neurology 2014; 253(-;-):31-40. >>> Methamphetamine; IV (femoral); Rat; 2001D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Wistar, 350-500g); functionality of mp verified by plasma serum levels; dose-response (pg.33); behavioral testing (foot fault assessment, morris water maze); pumps implanted in inguinal crease; catheter preloaded with 50% dextrose/50% heparin; pumps removed after 61-65hours;.

13195 Ding, G.L., Chopp, M., Poulsen, D.J., Li, L., Qu, C.S., Li, Q.J., Nejad-Davarani, S.P., Budaj, J.S., Wu, H.T., Mahmood, A., Jiang, Q. MRI of Neuronal Recovery after Low-Dose Methamphetamine Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats. PLoS One 2013; 8(-4-):U175-U183. >>> Methamphetamine; IV; Rat; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info. (male, wistar rats, 200-300 g); functionality of mp verified by MRI measurement of fractional anisotropy.

12969 Rau, T.F., Kothiwal, A.S., Rova, A.R., Brooks, D.M., Poulsen, D.J. Treatment with low-dose methamphetamine improves behavioral and cognitive function after severe traumatic brain injury. JOURNAL OF TRAUMA AND ACUTE CARE SURGERY 2012; 73(-;-):S165-S172. >>> Methamphetamine; IV (femoral); Rat; 2001D; Control animals received mp w/ saline; animal info (Wistar, male, adult, 400 g); PE50 tubing used.

11978 Bhatia, K.S., Szabo, S.T., Fowler, J.C., Wetsel, W.C., Lee, T.H. Reversal of long-term methamphetamine sensitization by combination of pergolide with ondansetron or ketanserin, but not mirtazapine. Behavioural Brain Research 2011; 223(-1-):227-232. >>> Methamphetamine hydrochloride; Saline; SC; Rat; 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Sprague Dawley, male, 275-300 g); functionality of mp verified via residual volume.

11508 Miyata, H., Itasaka, M., Kimura, N., Nakayama, K. Decreases in Brain Reward Function Reflect Nicotine- and Methamphetamine-Withdrawal Aversion in Rats. Current Neuropharmacology 2011; 9(-1-):63-67. >>> Nicotine; methamphetamine; Saline; SC; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Sprague Dawley, male, 332-396 g).

10745 Kitanaka, N., Kitanaka, J., Tatsuta, T., Tanaka, K., Watabe, K., Nishiyama, N., Morita, Y., Takemura, M. Withdrawal from Fixed-Dose Injection of Methamphetamine Decreases Cerebral Levels of 3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol and Induces the Expression of Anxiety-Related Behavior in Mice. Neurochemical Research 2010; 35(-5-):749-760. >>> Methamphetamine; Saline, sterile; SC; Mice; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (ICR, 38-55 g); wound clips used; behavioral testing (tail suspension).

10680 Chiodo, K.A., Roberts, D.C.S. Decreased reinforcing effects of cocaine following 2 weeks of continuous d-amphetamine treatment in rats. Psychopharmacology 2009; 206(-3-):447-456. >>> Amphetamine, D-; Saline, sterile; SC; Rat; 2001; Animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 350 g).

10662 Der-Avakian, A., Markou, A. NEONATAL MATERNAL SEPARATION EXACERBATES THE REWARD-ENHANCING EFFECT OF ACUTE AMPHETAMINE ADMINISTRATION AND THE ANHEDONIC EFFECT OF REPEATED SOCIAL DEFEAT IN ADULT RATS. Neuroscience 2010; 170(-4-):1189-1198. >>> Amphetamine; SC; Rat; 2ML1; Controls received mp w/saline; animal info (maternally separated, Long Evans); behavioral testing (maternal behavior).

10612 White, S.J., Laurenzana, E.M., Gentry, W.B., Hendrickson, H.P., Williams, D.K., Ward, K.W., Owens, S.M. Vulnerability to (+)-Methamphetamine Effects and the Relationship to Drug Disposition in Pregnant Rats during Chronic Infusion. TOXICOLOGICAL SCIENCES 2009; 111(-1-):27-36. >>> Methamphetamine; amphetamine; SC; Rat (pregnant); 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (female, Sprague-Dawley, 180-270 g); dose-response (fig. 1); no stress (see pg.) There were no observable adverse health changes"pg 30; stress/adverse reaction (see pg. 30)"Two rats (in the 10- and 13.2-mg/kg/day groups) developed an abscess at the pump site, which appeared to be confined to the sc minipump implantation site."pg 30;"one animal chewed her skin at the pump site, exposing the osmotic pump"pg 30."ClS corrected for the bioavailability or fraction of the drug absorbed (ClS/F) was calculated using the equation, ClS/F = infusion rate/CSS, where CSS is the steady-state drug concentration"pg 29.

10610 Laurenzana, E.M., Hendrickson, H.P., Carpenter, D., Peterson, E.C., Gentry, W.B., West, M., Che, Y.N., Carroll, F.I., Owens, S.M. Functional and biological determinants affecting the duration of action and efficacy of anti-(+)-methamphetamine monoclonal antibodies in rats. VACCINE 2009; 27(-50-):7011-7020. >>> Methamphetamine; Saline, sterile; SC; Rat; 1003D; Animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 250-280 g); 2-week ALZET pump used.

9815 West, C.H.K., Ritchie, J.C., Boss-Williams, K.A., Weiss, J.M. Antidepressant drugs with differing pharmacological actions decrease activity of locus coeruleus neurons. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY 2009; 12(-5-):627-641. >>> Desipramine; mirtazapine; chlorpheniramine; Paroxetine; scopolamine; amphetamine; escitalopram; chlordiazepoxide; SC; IP; Rat; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/vehicle; dose-response (Fig 2-5); pumps replaced on day 14; good methods pg 629; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 5-7 mo old, 550-700g);"Importantly, use of minipumps also eliminates the need for repeated handling and injection of animals to administer the drug chronically."pg. 628; IP catheter used.

9638 Chiodo, K.A., Laeck, C.M., Roberts, D.C.S. Cocaine self-administration reinforced on a progressive ratio schedule decreases with continuous D-amphetamine treatment in rats. Psychopharmacology 2008; 200(-4-):465-473. >>> Amphetamine sulfate, D-; Saline; SC; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; pump replaced after 7 days; no stress (see pg. 470, 472); tolerance; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 350 g.) Behavioral testing (cocaine self-administration, food-reinforced responding);"the present dose delivered via mini-pump is not debilitating or overtly toxic."(p. 472).

9522 Griesbach, G.S., Hovda, D.A., Gomez-Pinilla, F., Sutton, R.L. Voluntary exercise or amphetamine treatment, but not the combination, increases hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor and synapsin I following cortical contusion injury in rats. Neuroscience 2008; 154(-2-):530-540. >>> Amphetamine sulfate; Saline, sterile; SC; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; no stress (see pg. 535); post op. care (Bupivacaine, antibiotic ointment); ischemia (cerebral); animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 285 g., CCI injury); behavioral testing (voluntary wheel exercise);"This drug administration method was chosen since our prior studies of RW exposure after TBI have left animals undistrurbed for the 1 week exercise period."(p. 530).

8914 Davidson, C., Chen, Q., Zhang, X., Xiong, X.Y., Lazarus, C., Lee, T.H., Ellinwood, E.H. Deprenyl treatment attenuates long-term pre- and post-synaptic changes evoked by chronic methamphetamine. European Journal of Pharmacology 2007; 573(-1-3-):100-110. >>> Methamphetamine; Saline; SC; Rat; 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by residual volume; dose-response (fig. 1, p. 104); stress/adverse reaction: (see pg. 101)"Animals that did show self-injuries were treated with an oral antibiotic (Sulfatrim) in their drinking water and, if this was ineffective they were humanely destroyed"p. 101; good methods p. 102; half-life (p. 101)"short"; post op. care (Apo-sulfatrim); animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 360-400g);"The pump was removed after 7 days... no animal had greater than 0.2 ml methamphetamine (ie 10% initial volume) remaining"(p. 102).

8192 Zhang, X.W., Lee, T.H., Xiong, X.Y., Chen, Q., Davidson, C., Wetsel, W.C., Ellinwood, E.H. Methamphetamine induces long-term changes in GABAA receptor alpha 2 subunit and GAD67 expression. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 2006; 351(-1-):300-305. >>> Methamphetamine; SC; Rat; 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ saline; functionality of mp verified by residual volume; comparison of injections vs. mp; good methods (p. 301); animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 300-320 grams); behavioral study.

8123 Peleg-Raibstein, D., Sydekum, E., Russig, H., Feldon, J. Withdrawal from continuous amphetamine administration abolishes latent inhibition but leaves prepulse inhibition intact. Psychopharmacology 2006; 185(-2-):226-239. >>> Amphetamine; SC; Rat; 2001; 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ vehicle or saline; dose-response (fig. 4); comparison of escalating SC dose injections vs. mp; dependence; post op. care (PVP-iodine); animal info (male, wistar, 300-350 g).

7722 West, C.H.K., Weiss, J.M. A selective test for antidepressant treatments using rats bred for stress-induced reduction of motor activity in the swim test. Psychopharmacology 2005; 182(-1-):9-23. >>> Amitriptyline HCl; venlafaxine HCl; clordiazepoxide HCl; imipramine HCl; phenelzine sulfate; scopolamine HBr; desipramine HCl; bupropion HCl; chlorpheniramine maleate; fluoxetine HCl; sertraline; amphetamine sulfate, D-; Water, sterile distilled; PEG; SC; Rat; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by agent blood levels; dose-response (fig. 5); animal info (male, female, susceptible, selectively bred); some animals had saline-filled catheter attached to mp to delay drug infusion by 5 days;"The most notable advantage of minipump delivery is that it eliminates stress resulting from daily injection of drug....minipumps also provide constant infusion of drug"(pg. 22).

7522 Zhou, R., Gray, N.A., Yuan, P.X., Li, X.X., Chen, J.S., Chen, G., mschroder-Williams, P., Du, J., Zhang, L., Manji, H.K. The anti-apoptotic, glucocorticoid receptor cochaperone protein BAG-1 is a long-term target for the actions of mood stabilizers. Journal of Neuroscience 2005; 25(-18-):4493-4502. >>> Amphetamine; fluvoxamine; haloperidol; Water; ethanol; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Functionality of mp verified by residual volume; 50% ethanol used [not suggested by ALZET].

7383 Davidson, C., Lee, T.H., Ellinwood, E.H. Acute and chronic continuous methamphetamine have different long-term behavioral and neurochemical consequences. NEUROCHEMISTRY INTERNATIONAL 2005; 46(-3-):189-203. >>> Methamphetamine; Saline, sterile; SC; Rat; 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by residual volume; comparison of SC injections vs. mp; half-life (p. 189) 15-70 minutes in rodents; dependence;"MP treatment provides a better pharmakodynamic model for the human methamphetamine binger and may also better approximate the neuropathological outcome known in humans."(p. 200).

7299 Armstrong, B.D., Noguchi, K.K. The neurotoxic effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and methamphetamine on serotonin, dopamine, and GABA-ergic terminals: An in-vitro autoradiographic study in rats. Neurotoxicology 2004; 25(-6-):905-914. >>> Methamphetamine hcl; Methamphetamine hcl, 3,4-methylenedioxy-; Water, distilled; SC; Rat; 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; toxicology.

6916 Semenova, S., Markou, A. Clozapine treatment attenuated somatic and affective signs of nicotine and amphetamine withdrawal in subsets of rats exhibiting hyposensitivity to the initial effects of clozapine. Biological Psychiatry 2003; 54(-11-):1249-1264. >>> Nicotine tartrate; amphetamine; clozapine; HCL; saline; SC; Rat; 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; pumps replaced every 7 days for the 14 day study infusing clozapine; dependence;"in this experiment involving three pump implantations each pump was placed in a different part of the rats'body (left or right side of the back of the animal or at the shoulder area)."p. 1252; behavioral study.

5110 Paterson, N.E., Myers, C., Markou, A. Effects of repeated withdrawal from continuous amphetamine administration on brain reward function in rats. Psychopharmacology 2000; 152(--):440-446. >>> Amphetamine sulfate; Saline; SC; rat; 2ML1; controls received mp w/ vehicle; dose-response (fig 1. p. 443); dependence; 2 administration periods, 1 6-day period, 12 days of withdrawal, then another 6-day period;"Even though the duration of amphetamine withdrawal was no longer, the magnitude of the effect was greater, and the use of mini-pumps eased drug administration considerably compared to repeated experimenter-administered injections". p. 445;.

3534 Macedoni-Luksic, M., Sket, D. Scopolamine modulates the effects of continuous amphetamine in rats. Acta Pharm 1996; 46(--):23-30. >>> Amphetamine sulfate, d-; Scopolamine hydrobromide; Saline; SC; rat; 2ML1; controls received mp w/ saline; functionality of mp verified by residual volume; tolerance.

2524 Martin-Iverson, M.T., Lodge, B.A. Effects of chronic treatment of rats with"designer"amphetamines on brain regional monamines. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol 1991; 69(--):1825-1832. >>> Amphetamine; Amphetamine, 4-methoxy-; Amphetamine, 4-ethoxy-; Propylene glycol; SC; rat; 2ML2; controls received mp w/ Propylene glycol; dose-response (graph, p. 1830); toxicology.

2407 Lee, T.H., Ellinwood Jr, E.H., Zhang, H. In vitro extracellular recording from nigral dopamine neurons following continuous d-amphetamine infusion. Eur. J. Pharmacol 1993; 232(--):125-129. >>> Amphetamine sulfate; Saline; SC; rat; 2ML1; dependence.

2140 Lillrank, S.M., Oja, S.S., Saransaari, P. Animal models of amphetamine psychosis: neurotransmitter release from rat brain slices. Int. J. Neurol 1991; 60(--):1-15. >>> Amphetamine sulfate; Saline; SC; rat; 2001; comparison of IP injections vs. mp; brain tissue distribution; tolerance; half-life (45-60 min, p.10).

1544 Ryan, L.J., Martone, M.E., Linder, J.C., Groves, P.M. Continuous amphetamine administration induces tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive patches in the adult rat neostriatum. Brain Research 1988; 21(--):133-137. >>> Amphetamine sulfate, d-; Cocaine HCl; Saline; IV (jugular); SC; rat; 2ML1; controls received silastic plug implant.

1540 Lee, T.H., Ellinwood, E.H. Time-dependent changes in the sensitivity of dopamine neurons to low doses of apomorphine following amphetamine infusion. Brain Research 1989; 483(--):17-29. >>> Amphetamine, d-; Water; SC; rat; 2001; 2ML1; Controls received plastic pellets; multiple pumps per animal (2) (2001); comparison of IP injections vs. mp infusion.

1345 Tanaka, M., Morimasa, T., Kaneyuki, T., Shohmori, T. Dopaminergic activity and met-enkephaline levels in the rat striatum after continuous treatment with various dopaminergic agents. Neuroscience 1988; 14(--):114-116. >>> Apomorphine; Haloperidol; Methamphetamine; SC; rat; japanese with english abstract.

1203 Robertson, H.A. Cerebral decortication reverses the effect of amphetamine on striatal D2 dopamine binding site density. Neurosci. Lett 1986; 72(-3-):325-329. >>> Amphetamine, d-; Propylene glycol; SC; rat; 2002; controls received mp w/ vehicle; rats were hemidecorticated.

1201 Kraeuchi, K., Wirz-Justice, A., Feer, H. Peripheral mechanisms are involved in the appearance of disturbed circadian rhythmicity and tolerance after chronic methamphetamine. Ann. Rev. Chronopharmacol 1986; 3(--):21-24. >>> Methamphetamine; Saline; SC; rat; 2002; controls received mp w/ saline; some animals given ascorbic acid and/or MA in drinking water; comparison of MA in drinking water vs. mp infusion.

1200 Kashihara, K., Sato, M., Kazahaya, Y., Otsuki, S. Behavioral hypersensitivity to apomorphine after chronic methamphetamine-intermittent vs. continuous regimen. Jpn. J. Psychiatry Neurol 1986; 40(-1-):81-84. >>> Methamphetamine; SC; rat; 2ML2; controls received cutaneous incision on the back-no mp or drugs; apomorphine challenge 7 days after mp removal; comparison of intermittent therapy vs. mp infusion.

1170 Fuller, R.W. Toxic effects of psychomotor stimulants. Psychopharmacol. Bull 1985; 21(-3-):528-532. >>> Amphetamine; mice; rat; References the mp for continuous infusion of amphetamine in rats or mice.

15414 Honma, K.-I., Honma, S., Hiroshige, T. Activity rhythms in the circadian domain appear in suprachiasmatic nuclei lesioned rats given methamphetamine. Physiol. Behav 1987; 40(-6-):767-774. >>> Methamphetamine; SC; rat; 2002; controls received sham operation; rats received bilateral lesions in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN); comparison of methamphetamine in drinking water vs. mp infusion; functionality of mp verified.

1158 Honma, K.-I., Honma, S., Hiroshige, T. Activity rhythms in the circadian domain appear in suprachiasmatic nuclei lesioned rats given methamphetamine. Physiol. Behav 1987; 40(-6-):767-774. >>> Methamphetamine; SC; rat; 2002; controls received sham operation; rats received bilateral lesions in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN); comparison of methamphetamine in drinking water vs. mp infusion; functionality of mp verified.

1080 Gately, P.F., Segal, D.S., Geyer, M.A. Sequential changes in behavior induced by continuous infusions of amphetamine in rats. Psychopharmacology 1987; 91(--):217-220. >>> Amphetamine; Saline; SC; rat; 2ML2; controls received mp w/saline.

908 Frey, P. Changes in cholecystokinin content in rat brain after subchronic treatment with neuroleptics. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci 1985; 448(--):601-603. >>> Flupenthixol, cis-; Flupenthixol, trans-; Amitriptyline; Amphetamine; Atropine; Chlorpromazine; Clozapine; Fluphenazine; Haloperidol; Morphine; Prazosin; SC; rat; mp model not stated; comparison of sc injections vs. mp infusion; antihypertensive.

735 Vogel, W.H., Miller, J., Waxman, H., Gottheil, E. Biochemical and behavioral changes in rats during and after chronic d-amphetamine exposure. Drug Alcohol Depend 1985; 15(-3-):245-253. >>> Amphetamine sulfate, d-; PEG; SC; rat; 2002; controls received mps w/ polyethylene glycol.

529 Ricaurte, G.A., Seiden, L.S., Schuster, C.R. Further evidence that amphetamines produce long-lasting dopamine neurochemical deficits by destroying dopamine nerve fibers. Brain Research 1984; 303(-2-):359-364. >>> Amphetamine sulfate, d-; Methamphetamine HCl, d-; Saline; SC; rat; 2001; comparison of agents effects; control rats did not receive mp due to expense; peptides.

470 Kokkinidis, L. Effects of chronic intermittent and continuous amphetamine administration on acoustic startle. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav 1984; 20(-3-):367-371. >>> Amphetamine sulfate, d-; Saline; SC; mice; 2001; imtermittent sc injec twice daily vs. mp infusion; measured amount of residual amp. in pumps at end of exp.

418 Steranka, L.R. Long-term effects of a priming dose and short-term infusion of amphetamine on striatal dopamine neurons in rats. Eur. J. Pharmacol 1983; 96(--):159-163. >>> Amphetamine sulfate, d-; Water; SC; rat; 2ML1; pump primed overnight in saline at 37C; each pump used to treat several rats; control rats were implanted w/ used pump.

407 Eison, M.S., Eison, A.S., Iversen, S.D. Two routes of continuous amphetamine administration induce different behavioral and neurochemical effects in the rat. Neurosci. Lett 1983; 39(--):313-319. >>> Amphetamine, d-; PEG; SC; rat; 2001; comparison of sc silicone tube implant vs. mp infusion; comparison of behavioral&neurochem. changes caused by Amph. in different deliv. sys. w/ different release characteristics.

374 Nielsen, E.B., Nielsen, M., Braestrup, C. Reduction of 3H-spiroperidol binding in rat striatum and frontal cortex by chronic amphetamine: dose response, time course and role of sustained dopamine release. Psychopharmacology 1983; 81(--):81-85. >>> Amphetamine, d-; PEG 300; SC; rat; 2001; pumps replaced after 1 week; up to multiple pumps per animal (3).

373 Ellinwood Jr, E.H., Lee, T.H. Effect of continuous systemic infusion of d-amphetamine on the sensitivity of nigral dopamine cells to apomorphine inhibition of firing rates. Brain Research 1983; 273(--):379-383. >>> Amphetamine, d-; Saline; SC; rat; 2 pumps/animal.

341 Orzi, F., Dow-Edwards, D., Jehle, J., Kennedy, C., Sokoloff, L. Comparative effects of acute and chronic administration of amphetamine on local cerebral glucose utilization in the conscious rat. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab 1983; 3(-2-):154-160. >>> Amphetamine sulfate, d-; SC; rat; 2001; 2002; comparison of routes of admin; 2 pumps (2001 or 2002)/animal.

244 Jonsson, G., Nwanze, E. Selective (+)-amphetamine neurotoxicity on striatal dopamine nerve terminals in the mouse. Br. J. Pharmacol 1982; 77(--):335-345. >>> Amphetamine; Saline; SC; mice; no comment posted.

191 Nwanze, E., Jonsson, G. Amphetamine neurotoxicity on dopamine nerve terminals in the caudate nucleus of mice. Neurosci. Lett 1981; 26(--):163-168. >>> Amphetamine sulfate, d-; Saline; SC; mice; no comment posted.

164 Nielsen, E.B. Rapid decline of stereotyped behavior in rats during constant one week administration of amphetamine via implanted ALZET osmotic minipumps. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav 1981; 15(-2-):161-165. >>> Amphetamine; PEG 300; SC; rat; 2001; no comment posted.

144 Dougherty Jr, G.G., Ellinwood Jr, E.H. Amphetamine behavioral toxicity: rotational behavior after chronic intrastriatal infusion. Biol. Psychiatry 1981; 16(-5-):479-488. >>> Trifluoperazine; Amphetamine sulfate, d-; Saline; CSF/CNS (corpus striatum); rat; caudate putamen.

15318 Steranka, L.R., Sanders-Bush, E. Long-term effects of continuous exposure to amphetamine on brain dopamine concentration and synaptosomal uptake in mice. Eur. J. Pharmacol 1980; 65(-4-):439-443. >>> Amphetamine; Chloroamphetamine, p-; Water; SC; mice; no comment posted.

79 Steranka, L.R., Sanders-Bush, E. Long-term effects of continuous exposure to amphetamine on brain dopamine concentration and synaptosomal uptake in mice. Eur. J. Pharmacol 1980; 65(-4-):439-443. >>> Amphetamine; Chloroamphetamine, p-; Water; SC; mice; no comment posted.

18 Steranka, L.R., Sanders-Bush, E. Long-term effects of continuous exposure to p-chloroamphetamine on central serotogenic mechanisms in mice. Biochem. Pharmacol 1978; 27(-16-):2033-2037. >>> Chloroamphetamine, p-; Saline; SC; Mice; 1701; Half-life (p. 2035).

 

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“Since purified FSH has a short half-life, the hormone is administered as regular injection in 12-hr intervals or constant infusion via a subcutaneously implanted osmotic minipump.” Popova et al., Molecular reproduction and development 2002;63:177-182.