References on the Administration of Barbiturates Using ALZET® Osmotic Pumps

1. Pentobarbital

5577 Kim, Y., Oh, S. Changes of the level of G protein alpha-subunit mRNA by tolerance to and withdrawal from pentobarbital in rats. Neurochemical Research 2002; 27(-6-):527-533. >>> Pentobarbital; Saline; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; tolerance; dependence; one week recovery period after cannula placement.

4418 Jang, C.-G., Oh, S., Zho, H., Ho, I.K. Autoradiography of [3H] glutamate binding during pentobarbital tolerance and withdrawal in the rat. Brain Research Bulletin 1999; 48(-1-):99-102. >>> Pentobarbital; Saline; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2ML1; Controls received mp with vehicle; tolerance; dependence; animals allowed one week recovery after cannula placement.

4291 Jang, C.-G., Oh, S., Ho, I.K. Changes in NMDAR2 subunit mRNA levels during pentobarbital tolerance/withdrawal in the rat brain: an in situ hybridization study. Neurochem. Res 1998; 23(-11-):1371-1377. >>> Pentobarbital; Saline; CSF/CNS; rat; 2ML1; controls received mp w/saline; tolerance.

15691 Oh, S., Wellman, S.E., Ho, I.K. Changes in (3H)forskolin binding to adenylate cyclase and (3H)phorbol dibutyrate binding to protein kinase c in pentobarbital tolerant/dependent rats. Neurochem. Res 1998; 23(-4-):463-467. >>> Pentobarbital; CSF/CNS; rat; 2ML1; guide cannula implanted; rats were allowed 1 week recovery before implantation of pump; tolerance; dependence.

4280 Oh, S., Wellman, S.E., Ho, I.K. Changes in (3H)forskolin binding to adenylate cyclase and (3H)phorbol dibutyrate binding to protein kinase c in pentobarbital tolerant/dependent rats. Neurochem. Res 1998; 23(-4-):463-467. >>> Pentobarbital; CSF/CNS; rat; 2ML1; guide cannula implanted; rats were allowed 1 week recovery before implantation of pump; tolerance; dependence.

3948 Oh, S., Hoshi, K., Ho, I.K. Role of NMDA receptors in pentobarbital tolerance/dependence. Neurochem. Res 1997; 22(-7-):767-774. >>> Pentobarbital; Saline; CSF/CNS; rat; 2ML1; controls received mp w/saline; tolerance; dependence.

3777 Kimura, T., Miyaoka, T., Saunders, P.A., Baker, M.L., Hume, A.S., Yamamoto, I., Ho, I.K. Induction of tolerance to and physical dependence on pentobarbital continuous intracerebroventricular administration. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther 1993; 266(-3-):1300-1305. >>> Pentobarbital, sodium; Saline, normal; CSF/CNS; rat; 2ML1; controls received mp w/ filtered, normal saline; tolerance; dependence; good illustration of pump placement (p. 1301).

3530 Ito, T., Suzuki, T., Wellman, S.E., Ho, I.K. Chronic pentobarbital administration alters g-aminobutyric acid(A) receptor a(6)-subunit mRNA levels and diazepam-insensitive [3H]Ro15-4513 binding. Synapse 1996; 22(--):106-113. >>> Pentobarbital; CSF/CNS; rat; 2ML1; tolerance; dependence.

3529 Suzuki, T., Ito, T., Wellman, S.E., Ho, I.K. An autoradiographic study of [3H]flunitrazepam binding sites in the brain of rat made tolerant to and dependent on pentobarbital. Eur. J. Pharmacol 1996; 295(--):169-179. >>> Pentobarbital; Saline; CSF/CNS; rat; 2ML1; controls received vehicle infusion; tolerance; dependence; recipe for equithesin anesthesia provided on p. 170.

3459 Suzuki, T., Ito, T., Wellman, S.E., Ho, I.K. Changes in [3H] Flunitrazepam binding in the brain of rats made tolerant to and dependent upon pentobarbital. Life Sci 1995; 57(-5-):L-69. >>> Pentobarbital; CSF/CNS; rat; 2ML1; controls received mp w/saline; tolerance; dependence; animals allowed 1 week recovery after cannula placement.

3282 Miyaoka, T., Kimura, T., Saunders, P.A., Tseng, Y.T., Ho, I.K. Binding characteristics of [3H]flunitrazepam in pentobarbital-withdrawal rats. Neurochem. Res 1994; 19(-1-):37-42. >>> Pentobarbital; CSF/CNS; rat; 2ML1; controls received mp with saline; animals allowed 1 week recovery after cannula placement.

3221 Tseng, Y.T., Miyaoka, T., Ho, I.K. Region-specific changes of GABAA receptors by tolerance to and dependence upon pentobarbital. Eur. J. Pharmacol 1993; 236(--):23-30. >>> Pentobarbital; Saline; CSF/CNS; rat; 2ML1; controls received mp with saline; tolerance; dependence; animals allowed 1 week recovery after cannula placement; brain and serum samples taken at 0, 2, 4, 7 days during infusion&6, 24, 48 hrs. after withdrawal.

3220 Tseng, Y.T., Wellman, S.E., Ho, I.K. In situ hybridization evidence of differential modulation by pentobarbital of GABAA receptor a1- and B3-subunit mRNAs. J. Neurochem 1994; 63(--):301-309. >>> Pentobarbital; CSF/CNS; rat; 2ML1; tolerance.

3219 Tseng, Y.T., Wellman, S.E., Ho, I.K. Differential effects on GABAA receptor y2-subunit messenger RNA by tolerance to and withdrawal from pentobarbital -- an in situ hybridization study. Life Sci 1993; 53(--):L321-L326. >>> Pentobarbital; CSF/CNS; rat; tolerance.

2400 Toshiyuki, K., Miyaoka, T., Saunders, P.A., Baker, M.L., Hume, A.S., Yamamoto, I., Ho, I.K. Induction of tolerance to and physical dependence on phentobarbital continuous intracerebroventricular administration. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther 1993; 266(-3-):1300-1305. >>> Pentobarbital; Saline; CSF/CNS; rat; 2ML1; tolerance; dependence.

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2. Phenobarbital

8744 Loescher, W. The pharmacokinetics of antiepileptic drugs in rats: Consequences for maintaining effective drug levels during prolonged drug administration in rat models of epilepsy. Epilepsia 2007; 48(-7-):1245-1258. >>> Levetiracetam; phenobarbital; phenytoin; valproic acid; vigabatrin; Water, distilled; PEG 300; glycerol; PEG 400; propylene glycol; SC; IP; Rat; mice; gerbils; 2ML1; 2ML2; Comparison of IV, IP injections vs. food or water delivery vs mp; pumps replaced (every week in one set of experiments); stress/adverse reaction: (see pg. 1255); peritoneal irritation, peritonitis in some of the IP experiments); half-life (p. 1247) table 1 (18 compounds); animal info (epileptic, Sprague-Dawley, Wistar); review; see p. 1254-1255; see table 4 for advantages + disadvantages of different application routes.

494 Hock, F.J., Beyhl, F.E. A novel method for the administration of the enzyme inducer phenobarbital to rats via an osmotic minipump. IRSC Med. Sci. : Biochem 1984; 12(-8-):661. >>> Phenobarbital; SC; rat; 2002; Comparison of phenobarb. consumed po in drinking water vs. mp infusion; author states advantages of mp use.

447 Davis, T.P., Schoemaker, H., Culling, A.J. Centrally acting drugs alter in vitro B-endorphin processing in the rat. Eur. J. Pharmacol 1984; 100(--):249-251. >>> Chlorpromazine; haloperidol; phenobarbital; promethazine; SC; Rat; 2001; Comparison of agents effects.

401 Kuhnz, W., Zierer, R., Nau, H. A new method for kinetic studies of drug interactions in experimental animals during steady state: controlled-rate application of valproic acid, phenobarbital and their combinations via implanted osmotic minipumps in the mouse. Arzneimittelforschung 1983; 33(-11-):1579-1582. >>> Phenobarbital, sodium; Valproate, sodium; Water; SC; mice (pregnant); 2001; 2002; no stress see p. 1580, 1582; 1-2 pumps/animal; VPA and PB used singly and in combination in mp.

311 Kapetanovic, I.M., Sweeney, D.J., Rapoport, S.I. Phenobarbital pharmacokinetics in rat as a function of age. Drug Metab. Disp 1982; 10(-6-):586-589. >>> Phenobarbital; Water; IP; rat; bolus injec. vs. mp infusion.

36 Tabakoff, B., Ritzmann, R.F., Oltmans, G.A. The effect of selective lesions of brain noradrenergic systems on the development of barbiturate tolerance in rats. Brain Research 1979; 176(--):327-336. >>> Phenobarbital, sodium; Propylene glycol; Water; CSF/CNS; rat; some groups given 6-OHDA or vehicle of ascorbic acid in Artificial CSF prior to infusion.

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What researchers are saying ...

“Continuous release of albuterol subcutaneously with a miniosmotic pump resulted in a sustained high plasma albuterol concentration throughout the entire experimental period.” Sartori et al., J Appl Physiol 2002;93:1875-1880.