References on the Administration of Antibiotics Using ALZET® Osmotic Pumps

1. Actinomycin D

1379 Kanje, M., Lundborg, G., Edstrom, A. A new method for studies of the effects of locally applied drugs on peripheral nerve regeneration in vivo. Brain Research 1988; 439(--):116-121. >>> Actinomycin D; Cycloheximide; Mitomycin C; Vinblastine; Ringer's solution; CSF/CNS (sciatic nerve); rat; 2001; 2002; mp connected to silicone cuff; functionality of mp verified in vivo with dye; tissue perfusion.

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2. Amikacin

16292 Clancy, M. M., Newton, A. L., Sykes, J. M. Management of Osteomyelitis Caused by Salmonella Enterica Subsp. Houtenae in a Taylor's Cantil (Agkistrodon Bilineatus Taylori) Using Amikacin Delivered Via Osmotic Pump. J Zoo Wildl Med 2016; 47(-2-):691-4. >>> Amikacin; SC; snake; 2002; animal info (adult female Taylor’s cantil, 6 yr old); good methods; spinal cord injury; long-term study; “This study demonstrates that the infection can be suppressed and the animal’s life extended by long-term continuous infusion of amikacin and that such treatment did not result in renal compromise in this individual.” pg 694; Veterinary Application; temperature adjusted pumping rate for snake; Industry authored (American Association of Zoo Veterinarians); Interesting (Veterinary use presented for treating animal with antibiotics for extended duration; minimizing need for animal handling); Dose (26ug/kg/hr);.

13131 Al Dayeh, A.A., Rafferty, K.L., Egbert, M., Herring, S.W. Real-time monitoring of the growth of the nasal septal cartilage and the nasofrontal suture. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 2013; 143(-6-):773-783. >>> Amikacin; gentamicin; SC; Pig (mini); Animal info (female, 3.5-4.5 mo old, 12-27 kg); 2ML sized pumps used.

10037 Adkesson, M.J., Citino, S.B., Dennis, P.M., Fiorello, C.V., Lafortune, M., Bennett, R.A. MEDICAL AND SURGICAL MANAGEMENT OF OTITIS IN CAPTIVE BONGO (TRAGELAPHUS EURYCERUS). JOURNAL OF ZOO AND WILDLIFE MEDICINE 2009; 40(-2-):332-343. >>> Amikacin; Ear; Antelope (bongo); 2ML4; Functionality of mp verified by residual volume; animal info (10 years old, male, 326 kg);"An osmotic pump was beneficial for antibiotic delivery in case 2 and may be an effective therapy for low-grade infections or for continued therapy once a severe infection is under control."pg. 340.

8697 Sun, Z.Y., Rafferty, K.L., Egbert, M.A., Herring, S.W. Masticatory mechanics of a mandibular distraction osteogenesis site: Interfragmentary micromovement. Bone 2007; 41(-2-):188-196. >>> Amikacin; Sub-masseteric tunnel; Pig; 2ML2; Bone healing; x-ray image showing pump adjacent to mandible bone (p. 189); pump positioned near mandible bone to deliver antibiotics for infection control; tissue perfusion (sub-masseteric tunnel).

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3. Bleomycin

15788 Rapha€el Lemaire, Timothy Burwell, Hong Sun, Tracy Delaney, Julie Bakken, Lily Cheng, Marlon C. Rebelatto, Meggan Czapiga, Isabelle de-Mendez, Anthony J. Coyle, Ronald Herbst, Robert Lafyatis, Jane Connor. Resolution of Skin Fibrosis by Neutralization of the Antifibrinolytic Function of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor. ARTHRITIS&RHEUMATOLOGY 2016; 68(-2-):473-483. >>> Bleomycin; SC; Mice; animal info (C57Bl6, 6-10 weeks old); Dose (100 mg/kg);.

14484 Wu, W.T., Ichihara, G., Hashimoto, N., Hasegawa, Y., Hayashi, Y., Tada-Oikawa, S., Suzuki, Y., Chang, J., Kato, M., Alessandro-Gabazza, C.N., Gabazza, E.C., Ichihara, S., Ichihara, G. Synergistic Effect of Bolus Exposure to Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Bleomycin-Induced Secretion of Pro-Fibrotic Cytokines without Lasting Fibrotic Changes in Murine Lungs. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 2015; 16(--):660-676. >>> Bleomycin sulfate; Saline; SC; Mice; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, C57BL6J, 9 weeks old, 19-22g); cardiovascular;.

14363 Reese, C., Lee, R., Bonner, M., Perry, B., Heywood, J., Silver, R.M., Tourkina, E., Visconti, R.P., Hoffman, S., Hoffman, S. Fibrocytes in the fibrotic lung: altered phenotype detected by flow cytometry. FRONTIERS IN PHARMACOLOGY 2014; 5(--):U1-U13. >>> Bleomycin; caveolin-1 scaffolding domain peptide;; Saline; DMSO; water; SC; Mice; 1007D; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, CD1, 10 weeks old); 10% DMSO used; immunology; bleomycin had saline vehicle; CSD had DMSO and water vehicle; caveolin-1 scaffolding domain peptide aka CSD; bleomycin pumps removed after days 10-12 and replaced with CSD pumps;.

14275 Liang, M.R., Lv, J.Y., Zou, L.L., Yang, W., Xiong, Y.L., Chen, X.J., Guan, M., He, R., Zou, H.J., He, R. A modified murine model of systemic sclerosis: bleomycin given by pump infusion induced skin and pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. LABORATORY INVESTIGATION 2015; 95(--):342-350. >>> Bleomycin; Saline; SC; Mice; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (C57BL6, 6-8 weeks old); no stress (see pg. 344); immunology;.

14265 Lee, R., Reese, C., Bonner, M., Tourkina, E., Hajdu, Z., Riemer, E.C., Silver, R.M., Visconti, R.P., Hoffman, S., Hoffman, S. Bleomycin delivery by osmotic minipump: similarity to human scleroderma interstitial lung disease. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-LUNG CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR PHYSIOLOGY 2014; 306(--):L736-L748. >>> Bleomycin; Saline; SC; Mice; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, CD1, 10 weeks old); comparison of injection vs mp; immunology;"the pump model provides additional major benefits compared with the direct model. Much less weight loss and mortality is observed in the pump model than in the direct model. Therefore, besides the fact that the pump model is more humane, it also benefits the researcher because it allows the number of surviving animals in treatment groups to be accurately predicted, thereby making analyses of biochemical and cell biological parameters at the end of an experiment more meaningful."pg L747; pumps removed after 10 days; human scleroderma interstitital lung disease model;.

14262 Lee, R., Perry, B., Heywood, J., Reese, C., Bonner, M., Hatfield, C.M., Silver, R.M., Visconti, R.P., Hoffman, S., Tourkina, E., Tourkina, E. Caveolin-1 regulates chemokine receptor 5-mediated contribution of bone marrow-derived cells to dermal fibrosis. FRONTIERS IN PHARMACOLOGY 2014; 5(--):U1-U14. >>> Bleomycin; Saline; SC; Mice; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, CD1, 10 weeks old); comparison of injection vs mp;"Recently, we found that systemic bleomycin delivery using subcutaneously implanted osmotic minipumps can produce a very useful mouse model for SSc in which fibrosis is observed in the skin, lungs, and a variety of other internal organs"pg 2;"We recently compared two methods of delivering bleomycin [Direct Model (directly into the lungs) and Pump Model (systemic delivery using implanted osmotic minipumps)]and found that the lung disease induced in the Pump Model was distinct from the disease induced in the Direct Model and more similar to the lung disease observed in SSc patients"pg 4; pumps removed after 10 days;.

14663 Aono, Y., Kishi, M., Yokota, Y., Azuma, M., Kinoshita, K., Takezaki, A., Sato, S., Kawano, H., Kishi, J., Goto, H., Uehara, H., Izumi, K., Nishioka, Y., Nishioka, Y. Role of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor/Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor Axis in the Trafficking of Circulating Fibrocytes in Pulmonary Fibrosis. American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 2014; 51(--):793-801. >>> Bleomycin; Saline; SC; Mice; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, C57BL6, 7 weeks old); cardiovascular; immunology;"colleagues performed intratracheal injection in rats, but we used systemic infusion with a minipump in mice, which induces more chronic and mild model of pulmonary fibrosis in mice"pg 799;.

13812 Inomata, M., Kamio, K., Azuma, A., Matsuda, K., Kokuho, N., Miura, Y., Hayashi, H., Nei, T., Fujita, K., Saito, Y., Gemma, A. Pirfenidone inhibits fibrocyte accumulation in the lungs in bleomycin-induced murine pulmonary fibrosis. RESPIRATORY RESEARCH 2014; 15(-;-):U1-U14. >>> Bleomycin; Saline; SC; Mice; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, C57BL6, 9 weeks old);"Although intratracheal, intravenous, and subcutaneous injections are associated with disadvantages including variable distribution of lesions, high mortality,and a requirement for multiple procedures, the osmotic pump method of BLM treatment reportedly avoids these difficulties"pg 11-12; Bleomycin infusion used to model pulmonary fibrosis.

13727 Cameron, A.M., Adams, D.H., Greenwood, J.E., Anderson, P.J., Cowin, A.J. A Novel Murine Model of Hypertrophic Scarring Using Subcutaneous Infusion of Bleomycin. PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY 2014; 133(-1-):69-78. >>> Bleomycin; SC; Mice; 1004; Controls received mp w/ PBS; animal info (BALB/c); good methods (picture of pump and pump implantation pg.71); no stress (see pg. 72);"The osmotic pump and infusion were well tolerated by the mice (Fig. 2). There were no obvious systemic differences in the bleomycin cohort compared with the control cohort. As the model did not involve a gross epidermal breach and the pump was positioned away from the insertion site (fig. 2), no macroscopic scarring was observed. The appearance of the murine skin was assessed for gross changes in appearance, but none was observed between the treatment groups."pg 72;.

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4. Doxycycline

15882 Rai, P., Lederman, R., Haque, S., Rehman, S., Kumar, V., Sataranatrajan, K., Malhotra, A., Kasinath, B. S., Singhal, P. C. Renin angiotensin system modulates mTOR pathway through AT2R in HIVAN. Exp Mol Pathol 2014; 96(-3-):431-7. >>> Telmisartan; PD123319; Doxycycline; aliskiren; Saline; water; SC; mice; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info : Tg26 mice; FVBN mice, Tg26 mice; Vpr transgenic mice (4 week old); immunology; Dose: Telmisartan (AT1R blocker, 300Ǩg/day), PD123319 (AT2R blocker, 3Ǩg/day); Doxycycline + aliskiren (50 mg/kg).

11878 Baysal, A., Uysal, T., Ozdamar, S., Kurt, B., Kurt, G., Gunhan, O. Comparisons of the effects of systemic administration of L-thyroxine and doxycycline on orthodontically induced root resorption in rats. European Journal of Orthodontics 2010; 32(-5-):496-504. >>> Thyroxine, L-; doxycycline; SC; Rat; 1002; Controls received mp w/ physiological serum; animal info (Wistar, male, 50-60 days old, 132 g);.

11811 Clarke, L., van der Kooy, D. The Adult Mouse Dentate Gyrus Contains Populations of Committed Progenitor Cells that are Distinct from Subependymal Zone Neural Stem Cells. Stem Cells 2011; 29(-9-):1448-1458. >>> Doxycycline; Saline; CSF/CNS; Mice (transgenic); 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (GFP/M2, 2-3 mo old).

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5. Gentamicin

13131 Al Dayeh, A.A., Rafferty, K.L., Egbert, M., Herring, S.W. Real-time monitoring of the growth of the nasal septal cartilage and the nasofrontal suture. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 2013; 143(-6-):773-783. >>> Amikacin; gentamicin; SC; Pig (mini); Animal info (female, 3.5-4.5 mo old, 12-27 kg); 2ML sized pumps used.

12350 Bas, E., Van de Water, T.R., Gupta, C., Dinh, J., Vu, L., Martinez-Soriano, F., Lainez, J.M., Marco, J. Efficacy of three drugs for protecting against gentamicin-induced hair cell and hearing losses. British Journal of Pharmacology 2012; 166(-6-):1888-1904. >>> Gentamicin; dexamethasone; melatonin; Ear (round window); Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (Wistar, male, 220-250 g); stability verified after 7 days (data not shown).

9401 Guerin, K., Gregory-Evans, C.Y., Hodges, M.D., Moosajee, M., Mackay, D.S., Gregory-Evans, K., Flannery, J.G. Systemic aminoglycoside treatment in rodent models of retinitis pigmentosa. Experimental Eye Research 2008; 87(-3-):197-207. >>> Gentamicin; SC; Rat (transgenic); 1007D; Animal info (S3344ter-4, heterozygous, P15).

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6. Minocycline

15847 Baojian Xue, Robert L. Thunhorst, Yang Yu, Fang Guo, Terry G. Beltz, Robert B. Felder,, Alan Kim Johnson. Central Renin–Angiotensin System Activation andInflammation Induced by High-Fat Diet SensitizeAngiotensin II–Elicited Hypertension. Hypertension 2016; 67(--):163-170. >>> Pentoxifylline; irbesartan; minocycline; angiotensin II; CSF, artificial; Na sodium bicarbonate; saline; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2004; 2002; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 10-12 weeks old); cardiovascular; peptides; Dose (ICV - Pentoxifylline 10 ug/hr; irbesartan 125 ug/day; minocycline 5 ug/hr; SC AngII 120 ng/kg/min); brain coordinates;.

14505 Yasui, M., Yoshimura, T., Takeuchi, S., Tokizane, K., Tsuda, M., Inoue, K., Kiyama, H., Kiyama, H. A Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Model Demonstrates Mechanical Allodynia and Muscular Hyperalgesia via Spinal Microglial Activation. Glia 2014; 62(--):1407-1417. >>> Minocycline; Saline; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 250g); behavioral testing (Randall-Selitto, Von Frey hairs); immunology;.

14289 Mannelli, L.D., Pacini, A., Micheli, L., Tani, A., Zanardelli, M., Ghelardini, C., Mannelli, L.D. Glial role in oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic pain. Experimental Neurology 2014; 261(--):22-33. >>> Minocycline HCl; Sodium fluorocitrate; PBS; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 200-250g); behavioral testing (paw pressure test; von frey test; rota-rod test ); pumps primed overnight in 37C PBS;.

14628 Dworak, M., Stebbing, M., Kompa, A.R., Rana, I., Krum, H., Badoer, E., Badoer, E. Attenuation of microglial and neuronal activation in the brain by ICV minocycline following myocardial infarction. Autonomic Neuroscience-Basic&Clinical 2014; 185(--):43-50. >>> Minocycline; Saline; CSF/CNS; Rat; Control animals received mp w/ saline; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley); pumps replaced every 4 weeks; 0.3 ul/h pump used; ischemia (cardiac); long-term study; cardiovascular;.

13993 Won, K.A., Kim, M.J., Yang, K.Y., Park, J.S., Lee, M.K., Park, M.K., Bae, Y.C., Ahn, D.K. The Glial-Neuronal GRK2 Pathway Participates in the Development of Trigeminal Neuropathic Pain in Rats. JOURNAL OF PAIN 2014; 15(-3-):250-261. >>> Minocycline; aminoadipic acid, L-a-; interleukin-1, receptor antagonist;; DMSO; saline; CSF/CNS (occipital membrane, cistern); Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, adult, 220-240g); 20% DMSO used; behavioral testing (air-puff pressure/behavioral response withdrawal, mechanical allodynia); L-a-aminoadipic acid aka LAA; LAA is an astrocytic specific inhibitor;.

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7. Mitomycin

1989 Fu, K.K., Lam, K.N. Early and late effects of mitomycin C and continuous low-dose-rate irradiation on the mouse skin and soft tissues of the leg. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys 1991; 21(--):1523-1528. >>> Mitomycin C; Saline; IP; mice; cancer.

1870 Lu, X., Richardson, P.M. Inflammation near the nerve cell body enhances axonal regeneration. J. Neurosci 1991; 11(-4-):972-978. >>> Mitomycin C; CSF/CNS (spinal cord, intrathecal); rat; no comment posted.

1379 Kanje, M., Lundborg, G., Edstrom, A. A new method for studies of the effects of locally applied drugs on peripheral nerve regeneration in vivo. Brain Research 1988; 439(--):116-121. >>> Actinomycin D; Cycloheximide; Mitomycin C; Vinblastine; Ringer's solution; CSF/CNS (sciatic nerve); rat; 2001; 2002; mp connected to silicone cuff; functionality of mp verified in vivo with dye; tissue perfusion.

1302 Kawano, S., Yano, S., Sakamoto, S., Ogata, J. Effect of continuous intravesical infusion of low-concentrated mitomycin-C on bladder carcinogenesis in rats treated with N-butyl-N-4-hydroxybutyl-nitrosamine. J. Urol 1988; 139(--):1343-1346. >>> Mitomycin C; bladder; rat; 2ML2; mp connected to catheter; dose-response (graph, text); comparison of twice weekly injections vs. mp infusion; functionality of mp verified by urine levels; cancer/immunology; tissue perfusion.

818 Murphy, W.M., Blatnik, A.F., Shelton, T.B., Soloway, M.S. Carcinogenesis in mammalian urothelium: changes induced by non-carcinogenic substances and chronic indwelling catheters. J. Urol 1986; 135(-4-):840-844. >>> Mitomycin; Water; bladder; rat; pump replaced periodically; mp connected to bladder via catheter; tumors induced by infusion of water or agent; lesions reversible over time; long-term study; cancer; controls received surgery only; mps cultured upon removal; tissue perfusion.

422 Akaza, H., Murphy, W.M., Soloway, M.S. Bladder cancer induced by noncarcinogenic substances. J. Urol 1984; 131(--):153-155. >>> Formalin, neutral buffered; Water; Cisplatin; Mitomycin C; Saline; Saline; bladder; rat; 2002; cancer; comparison of agents carcinogenic effects; empty mp used in one exp.; mp connected to catheter in bladder; confusion over length of pumping time-states 18-22 days for 14 day pump; tissue perfusion.

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8. Neomycin

8628 Maruyama, J., Yamagata, T., Ulfendahl, M., Bredberg, G., Altschuler, R.A., Miller, J.M. Effects of antioxidants on auditory nerve function and survival in deafened guinea pigs. NEUROBIOLOGY OF DISEASE 2007; 25(-2-):309-318. >>> Trolox; neomycin; ascorbic acid; Perilymph, artificial; sodium bicarbonate; Ear (cochlea); Guinea-Pig; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; pumps replaced after 14 days; post op. care (doxycycline); animal info (male, pigmented, 250-400g., neomycin deafening); cannula primed with 10% neomycin solution followed by a small air bubble spacer to allow neomycin infusion for first 2 days; trolox, a vitamin F analogue, and ascorbic acid delivered together in 1 mp; tissue perfusion (cochlea).

5624 Cuevas, P., Carceller, F., Diaz-Gonzalez, D., Cuevas, B., Fernandez, A., Garcia-Gomez, I., Dujovny, M. Inhibition of rat glioma growth by neomycin. Preliminary report. NEUROLOGICAL RESEARCH 2002; 24(-6-):522-524. >>> Neomycin; PBS; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Rat; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; tissue perfusion (tumor); cancer.

5447 Shepherd, R.K., Xu, J. A multichannel scala tympani electrode array incorporating a drug delivery system for chronic intracochlear infusion. Hearing Research 2002; 172(-1-2-):92-98. >>> Neomycin; Kanamycin; Furosenide; PBS; ear (scala tympani); Guinea-pig; 2004; Tissue perfusion (round window); functionality of mp verified by residual volume; diagram of pump and electrode assembly (p. 94); catheter patency assessed by passing fluid through the line at the end of the experiment; Neomycin infused in pilot study; Kanamycin and furosenide were co-infused in a second study.

5125 Shinohara, T., Bredberg, G., Ulfendahl, M., Pyykko, I., Olivius, N.P, Kaksonen, R., Lindstrom, B., Altschuler, R., Miller, J.M. Neurotrophic factor intervention restores auditory function in deafened animals. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 2002; 99(-3-):1657-1660. >>> Brain-derived neurotrophic factor; Ciliary neurotrophic factor; Neomycin;; Perilymph, artificial; Ear (scala tympani); guinea-pig; 2002; controls received mp w/ vehicle; tissue perfusion (cochlea, scala tympani); pumps replaced at day 15; peptides; catheter filled with perilymph and 10% neomycin; pump filled with vehicle or neurotrophic factor solution; 48-hr infusion of neomycin to cause deafness followed by 12 or 26 day infusion of neurotrophic factor pump reservoir..

4843 Conlon, B.J, Smith, D.W. Topical aminoglycoside ototoxicity: Attempting to protect the cochlea.. Acta Otolaryngol 2000; 120(--):596-599. >>> Neomycin; lipoic acid, alpha; Saline; Ear (round window); Guinea-pig; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; tissue perfusion (round window); no stress (see pg. 597); Neomycin antibiotic solution was 5%; micro polyurethane tubing used; the authors state that ALZET delivery system more closely approximates the clinical situation of repeated otic application, with minimal middle ear trauma..

15614 Schindler, R.A., Gladstone, H.B., Scott, N., Hradek, G.T., Williams, H., Shah, S.B. Enhanced preservation of the auditory nerve following cochlear perfusion with nerve growth factor. Am. J. Otology 1995; 16(-3-):304-309. >>> Nerve growth factor; Neomycin; Saline; ear (cochlea); guinea-pig; controls received mp w/vehicle; tissue perfusion (scala tympani); pulsed delivery; cannula/catheter filled with neomycin which was infused for the first 24 h; pump was filled with NGF; peptides.

4203 Schindler, R.A., Gladstone, H.B., Scott, N., Hradek, G.T., Williams, H., Shah, S.B. Enhanced preservation of the auditory nerve following cochlear perfusion with nerve growth factor. Am. J. Otology 1995; 16(-3-):304-309. >>> Nerve growth factor; Neomycin; Saline; ear (cochlea); guinea-pig; controls received mp w/vehicle; tissue perfusion (scala tympani); pulsed delivery; cannula/catheter filled with neomycin which was infused for the first 24 h; pump was filled with NGF; peptides.

2655 Davies, E., Gladstone, H.B., Williams, H., Hradek, G., Shah, S.B., Schindler, R.A. A model for long-term intracochlear administration of pharmacologic agents. Am. J. Otology 1994; 15(-6-):757-761. >>> Neomycin; Horseradish peroxidase; Saline; Ear (cochlea); Guinea-pig; 2002; Tissue perfusion (cochlea).

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9. Penicillin

6544 Harrington, A.W., Leiner, B., Blechschmitt, C., Arevalo, J.C., Lee, R., Moerl, L., Meyer, M., Hempstead, B.L., Yoon, S.O., Giehl, K.M. Secreted proNGF is a pathophysiological death-inducing ligand after adult CNS injury. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 2004; 101(-16-):6226-6230. >>> Antibody, anti-nerve growth factor, neutralizing mouse; serum; immunoglobulin-G; penicillin; streptomycin; PBS; CSF/CNS (cortex); Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle.

1263 Kimoto, M., Kindler, V., Higaki, M., Ody, C., Izui, S., Vassalli, P. Recombinant murine IL-3 fails to stimulate T or B lymphopoiesis in vivo, but enhances immune responses to T cell-dependent antigens. J. Immunol 1988; 140(-6-):1889-1894. >>> Interleukin-3, recomb. mouse; Penicillin; Streptomycin; Glycerol; PBS; IP; SC; mice; 2001; 2002; controls received mp w/vehicle; 2002 mp infused IL-3 ip for 2 weeks, additional mps implanted sc; peptides; antibiotics; IL-3 infused simultaneously with penicillin and streptomycin.

1074 Astry, C.L., Nelson, S., Karam, G.H., Summer, W.R. Interactions of clindamycin with antibacterial defenses of the lung. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis 1987; 135(--):1015-1019. >>> Clindamycin HCl; Penicillin G; Sodium hydroxide; Water; SC; mice; Pump model not stated; controls received mp w/water; dose-response; mp primed overnight in PSB; 2 doses of agent infused; agent infused separately; antibiotic.

804 Kindler, V., Thorens, B., de Kossodo, S., Allet, B., Eliason, J.F., Thatcher, D., Farber, N., Vassalli, P. Stimulation of hematopoiesis in vivo by recombinant bacterial murine interleukin 3. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci 1986; 83(--):1001-1005. >>> Endotoxin, E. coli; Interleukin-3, recomb. mouse; Penicillin; Streptomycin; Glycerol; PBS; SC; mice; infusion supplemented w/ip injections; interleukin activity in blood varible - aggregation in pump? (see p. 1004); mp infusion in normal and irradiated mice; half-life; peptides; antibiotic.

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10. Rapamycin

16171 Scarpace, P. J., Matheny, M., Strehler, K. Y., Toklu, H. Z., Kirichenko, N., Carter, C. S., Morgan, D., Tumer, N. Rapamycin Normalizes Serum Leptin by Alleviating Obesity and Reducing Leptin Synthesis in Aged Rats. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2016; 71(-7-):891-9. >>> Rapamycin; DMSO; PEG 400; CSF/CNS; Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, F344 x Brown Norway, 24 months old); pumps replaced after 14 days; ALZET brain infusion kit used; 10% DMSO used; 90% PEG 400 used; post op. care (rats kept warm until recovered); used aCSF filled pump for 14 days, then replaced with rapamycin or vehicle for 28 day infusion; obesity; Dose (30 ug/day); Brain coordinates (1.3 mm posterior to bregma, 1.9 mm lateral to the midsaggital suture and to a depth of 3.5mm);.

16045 Toklu, H. Z., Bruce, E. B., Sakarya, Y., Carter, C. S., Morgan, D., Matheny, M. K., Kirichenko, N., Scarpace, P. J., Tumer, N. Anorexic response to rapamycin does not appear to involve a central mechanism. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2016; 43(-9-):802-7. >>> Rapamycin; DMSO; PEG 400; CSF/CNS (third ventricle); Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, F344 Brown Norway, 23-25 months old); 10% DMSO used; used PE-50 tubing; pumps initially filled with aCSF - after one week recovery, pumps replaced with rapamycin or vehicle pump; Dose (30 ug/day); Brain coordinates (1.1 mm posterior to Bregma and 1.6 mm ventral from the skull surface on the midline (medial s- sure), with the nose bar set at 4 mm below the ear bars (below zero)) pg 805;.

15777 Zongming Jiang, Shaoyong Wu, Xiujuan Wu, Junfeng Zhong, Anqing Lv, Jing Jiao, Zhonghua Chen. Blocking mammalian target of rapamycin alleviates bone cancer pain and morphine tolerance via u-opioid receptor. International Journal of Cancer 2016; 138(--):2013-2020. >>> Rapamycin; CTOP; LY297002; DMSO; saline; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (Wistar, 200-250g); 50% DMSO used; cancer (breast; bone); dose-response (pg 2015); behavioral testing (hindpaw withdrawal latency); Rapamycin is an mTOR antagonist; CTOP is an MOR antagonist; LY297002 an a PI3K inhibitor;.

14931 Fields, J., Dumaop, W., Elueteri, S., Campos, S., Serger, E., Trejo, M., Kosberg, K., Adame, A., Spencer, B., Rockenstein, E., He, J.J., Masliah, E., Masliah, E. HIV-1 Tat Alters Neuronal Autophagy by Modulating Autophagosome Fusion to the Lysosome: Implications for HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders. JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE 2015; 35(--):1921-1938. >>> Rapamycin; CSF/CNS; Mice; 1007D; Animal info (GFAP-Tat tg, 7-8 months old); neurodegenerative (HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder);“Because Rapam poorly crosses into the CNS, it was infused intracerebrally into the lateral ventricle of 9-month-old mice at a concentration of 20 mg/kg.” pg 1923; Rapamycin is an autophagy activator;.

13522 Li, H.L., Lee, J.Y., He, C.Y., Zou, M.H., Xie, Z.L. Suppression of the mTORC1/STAT3/Notch1 pathway by activated AMPK prevents hepatic insulin resistance induced by excess amino acids. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-ENDOCRINOLOGY AND METABOLISM 2014; 306(-2-):E197-E209. >>> Rapamycin; Mice; Control animals received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (C57BL/6, 12 wks old, male).

12666 Paliouras, G.N., Hamilton, L.K., Aumont, A., Joppe, S.E., Barnabe-Heider, F., Fernandes, K.J.L. Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Signaling Is a Key Regulator of the Transit-Amplifying Progenitor Pool in the Adult and Aging Forebrain. Journal of Neuroscience 2012; 32(-43-):15012-15026. >>> Rapamycin; epidermal growth factor; DMSO; CSF/CNS; Mice (pregnant); 1007D; Control animals received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (C57BL/6, female, 2, 10, 18 mo old); ALZET brain infusion kit 3 used.

12332 Klucken, J., Poehler, A.M., Ebrahimi-Fakhari, D., Schneider, J., Nuber, S., Rockenstein, E., Schloetzer-Schrehardt, U., Hyman, B.T., McLean, P.J., Masliah, E., Winkler, J. Alpha-synuclein aggregation involves a bafilomycin A1-sensitive autophagy pathway. Autophagy 2012; 8(-5-):754-766. >>> Bafilomycin, A1; rapamycin; CSF/CNS; Mice; 1007D; Animal info (wt, alpha synuclein, 9 mo old); neurodegenerative (Parkinson's disease).

12260 Yang, S.B., Tien, A.C., Boddupalli, G., Xu, A.W., Jan, Y.N., Jan, L.Y. Rapamycin Ameliorates Age-Dependent Obesity Associated with Increased mTOR Signaling in Hypothalamic POMC Neurons. Neuron 2012; 75(-3-):425-436. >>> Rapamycin; PEG 400; DMSO; cremophor; CSF/CNS; Mice; 1004; Animal info (C57BL/6, 2, 12 mo old); ALZET brain infusion kit used; 10% DMSO used; 60% PEG 400 used; 30% cremophor used.

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11. Streptomycin

7766 Chan, C.C.M., Khodarahmi, K., Liu, J., Sutherland, D., Oschipok, L.W., Steeves, J.D., Tetzlaff, W. Dose-dependent beneficial and detrimental effects of ROCK inhibitor Y27632 on axonal sprouting and functional recovery after rat spinal cord injury. Experimental Neurology 2005; 196(-2-):352-364. >>> Y-27632; streptomycin; PBS, sterile; penicillin; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by ROCK inhibitory activity in CSF; dose-response (fig. 3); stability of Y27632 verified by ROCK inhibitory activity after 13 days in mp at 37 C; enzyme inhibitor (RHO Kinase); animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley); cervical 4/5 dorsal column transection; spinal cord injury.

6544 Harrington, A.W., Leiner, B., Blechschmitt, C., Arevalo, J.C., Lee, R., Moerl, L., Meyer, M., Hempstead, B.L., Yoon, S.O., Giehl, K.M. Secreted proNGF is a pathophysiological death-inducing ligand after adult CNS injury. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 2004; 101(-16-):6226-6230. >>> Antibody, anti-nerve growth factor, neutralizing mouse; serum; immunoglobulin-G; penicillin; streptomycin; PBS; CSF/CNS (cortex); Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle.

5799 Horiike, O., Shimogori, H., Ikeda, T., Yamashita, H. Protective effect of edaravone against streptomycin-induced vestibulot oxicity in the guinea pig. European Journal of Pharmacology 2003; 464(-1-):75-78. >>> Streptomycin; Saline; Ear (cochlea); Guinea-pig; 2002; tissue perfusion (round window).

1263 Kimoto, M., Kindler, V., Higaki, M., Ody, C., Izui, S., Vassalli, P. Recombinant murine IL-3 fails to stimulate T or B lymphopoiesis in vivo, but enhances immune responses to T cell-dependent antigens. J. Immunol 1988; 140(-6-):1889-1894. >>> Interleukin-3, recomb. mouse; Penicillin; Streptomycin; Glycerol; PBS; IP; SC; mice; 2001; 2002; controls received mp w/vehicle; 2002 mp infused IL-3 ip for 2 weeks, additional mps implanted sc; peptides; antibiotics; IL-3 infused simultaneously with penicillin and streptomycin.

804 Kindler, V., Thorens, B., de Kossodo, S., Allet, B., Eliason, J.F., Thatcher, D., Farber, N., Vassalli, P. Stimulation of hematopoiesis in vivo by recombinant bacterial murine interleukin 3. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci 1986; 83(--):1001-1005. >>> Endotoxin, E. coli; Interleukin-3, recomb. mouse; Penicillin; Streptomycin; Glycerol; PBS; SC; mice; infusion supplemented w/ip injections; interleukin activity in blood varible - aggregation in pump? (see p. 1004); mp infusion in normal and irradiated mice; half-life; peptides; antibiotic.

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12. Tetracycline

2445 Freeman, K., Ludington Jr, J.R., Svec, T.A., Pinero, G.J., Hoover, J. Continuously infused calcium hydroxide: its influence on hard tissue repair. J. Endodontics 1994; 20(-6-):272-275. >>> Calcium hydroxide; Barium hydroxide; Tetracycline; Glycerol; bone (femur); rat; no stress (see pg. 274); tissue perfusion; good methods.

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13. Tobramycin

820 Powell, S.H., Thompson, W.L., Luthe, M.A., Stern, R.C., Grossniklaus, D.A., Bloxham, D.D., Groden, D.L., Jacobs, M.R., DiScenna, A.O., Cash, H.A., Klinger, J.D. Once-daily vs. continuous aminoglycoside dosing: efficacy and toxicity in animal and clinical studies of gentamicin, netilimicin, and tobramycin. J. Infect. Dis 1983; 147(-5-):918-932. >>> Tobramycin; IP; guinea-pig; rat; 2ML1; comparison of single injection vs. mp infusion; mps primed in saline for 4 hours; studies also used dogs and humans; one study used rabbits w/ infusaid pumps; antibiotics.

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14. Tunicamycin

13696 Legry, V., Van Rooyent, D.M., Lambert, B., Sempoux, C., Poekes, L., Espanol-Suner, R., Molendi-Coste, O., Horsmans, Y., Farrell, G.C., Leclercq, I.A., Leclercq, I.A. Endoplasmic reticulum stress does not contribute to steatohepatitis in obese and insulin-resistant high-fat-diet-fed foz/foz mice. Clinical Science 2014; 127(--):507-518. >>> Tunicamycin; DMSO; SC; Mice; 1004; Control animsl received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (HFD-fed foz/foz).

5083 Orsini, G., Zalzal, Y., Nanci, A. Localized infusion of tunicamycin in rat hemimandibles: Alteration of the basal lamina associated with maturation stage ameloblasts. JOURNAL OF HISTOCHEMISTRY&CYTOCHEMISTRY 2001; 49(--):165-176. >>> Tunicamycin; Saline; bone (mandible); rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; tissue perfusion (bony elevation over incisor);article incorrectly states use of 2001D pump, but states 7 day delivery period and pump; Tunicamycin is an antibiotic that interferes with N-glycosylation;.

1692 Kubota, H., Asakura, M., Tsukamoto, T., Imafuku, J., Nishizaki, J., Sato, A., Nakanishi, J., Ogawa, Y., Hasegawa, K. Mechanisms of the B-adrenoceptor down-regulation by the treatment with antidepressants in the rat cerebral cortex: effects of continuous administration of antidepressants by an osmotic pump. Jpn. J. Psychiatry Neurol 1990; 44(-1-):135-136. >>> Tunicamycin; Cycloheximide; Desipramine; Fluoxetine; Mianserin; Trazodone; CSF/CNS; SC; rat; 2001; 2ML1; comparison of sc injections vs. mp; cyclo. and tunica. delivered icv for 5 days.

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What researchers are saying ...

“Considering the secretion rate of CSF in rats (120 to 320 ul/h), this low rate of infusion – 0.5µl/h – was not likely to affect CSF pressure.” Wang et al., Hypertension 2002;40:96-100.