References on the Administration of Calcitonin and Calcitriol Using ALZET® Osmotic Pumps

1. Calcitonin

15150 Yan, J.G., Logiudice, J., Davis, J., Zhang, L.L., Agresti, M., Sanger, J., Matloub, H.S., Havlik, R., Yan, J.G. CALCITONIN PUMP IMPROVES NERVE REGENERATION AFTER TRANSECTION INJURY AND REPAIR. MUSCLE&NERVE 2015; 51(--):229-234. >>> Calcitonin; Water, distilled sterile; CSF/CNS (sciatic nerve); Rat; 2006; Animal info (Sprague Dawley, 250-300g, 3 months old); half-life (p.233); long-term study;“To achieve a continuous and gradual mode of delivery, a mini-osmotic pump was implanted to deliver medication at a constant 0.15 ul/h” pg 233;"Calcitonin has short absorption and elimination half-lives of 10–15 minutes and 50–80 minutes, respectively; however, using an osmotic pump allows for gradual and prolonged release."pg233; pg230 diagram of pump implantation;.

14366 Riera, C.E., Huising, M.O., Follett, P., Leblanc, M., Halloran, J., Van Andel, R., de Magalhaes, C.D., Merkwirth, C., Dillin, A., Dillin, A. TRPV1 Pain Receptors Regulate Longevity and Metabolism by Neuropeptide Signaling. Cell 2014; 157(--):1023-1036. >>> Calcitonin gene related peptide (8-37); Mice; Animal info (male, C57BL6J, 22 months old); functionality of mp verified by serum levels; peptides; diabetes; long-term study;.

14317 Navarro, D., Alvarado, M., Morte, B., Berbel, D., Sesma, J., Pacheco, P., De Escobar, G.M., Bernal, J., Berbel, P., Berbel, P. Late Maternal Hypothyroidism Alters the Expression of Camk4 in Neocortical Subplate Neurons: A Comparison with Nurr1 Labeling. Cerebral Cortex 2014; 24(--):2694-2706. >>> Parathormone (1-84), rat; calcitonin, rat; Acetate buffer; SC; Rat; 2001; Animal info (female, Wistar, E0); replacement therapy (thyroidectomy); teratology;.

13425 Yan, J.G., Zhang, L.L., Agresti, M., LoGiudice, J., Yan, Y.H., Wang, Z.Y., Sanger, J.R., Matloub, H.S. The effect of calcium modulating agents on peripheral nerve recovery after crush. Journal of Neuroscience Methods 2013; 217(-1-2-):54-62. >>> Nifedipine; calcitonin; CSF/CNS (sciatic nerve); Rat; 2006; Controls received mp w/ saline or sham only; animal info (3 month old, male, Sprague-Dawley 250-300g); functionality of mp verified by decrease in calcium levels; peptides; Picture of MP p56, Fig1A. MP Pump setup p56, Fig1B;.

13286 Brown, D., Bouley, R., Paunescu, T.G., Breton, S., Lu, H.A.J. New insights into the dynamic regulation of water and acid-base balance by renal epithelial cells. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-CELL PHYSIOLOGY 2012; 302(-10-):C1421-C1433. >>> Calcitonin; Rat; Animal info (Brattleboro rats); functionality of mp verified by measuring urine output and concentration; ALZET osmotic pumps used to infuse calcitonin to incrase trafficking of aquaporin 2 vesicles in collecting duct. Effect is short lived, despite continued calcitonin delivery; might need dose adjustment; diabetes;.

11720 Bouley, R., Lu, H.A.J., Nunes, P., Da Silva, N., McLaughlin, M., Chen, Y., Brown, D. Calcitonin Has a Vasopressin-like Effect on Aquaporin-2 Trafficking and Urinary Concentration. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 2011; 22(-1-):59-72. >>> Calcitonin; Saline; SC; Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; pumps removed and new pump implanted after 10 days; animal info (Brattleboro, VP-deficient, adult, male).

11581 Sample, S.J., Hao, Z.L., Wilson, A.P., Muir, P. Role of Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide in Bone Repair after Cyclic Fatigue Loading. PLoS One 2011; 6(-6-):U98-U107. >>> Calcitonin gene related peptide; calcitonin gene related peptide (8-37); SC; Rat; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (Sprague Dawley, male, 292-305 g, 67 days); CGRP (8-37) is a CGRP1 receptor antagonist; peptides.

10277 Morte, B., Diez, D., Auso, E., Belinchon, M.M., Gil-Ibanez, P., Grijota-Martinez, C., Navarro, D., De Escobar, G.M., Berbel, P., Bernal, J. Thyroid Hormone Regulation of Gene Expression in the Developing Rat Fetal Cerebral Cortex: Prominent Role of the Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase IV Pathway. Endocrinology 2010; 151(-2-):810-820. >>> Parathyroid hormone (1-84); calcitonin, rat; Acetate buffer; SC; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, Wistar, adult, 250-300 g); replacement therapy (parathyroidectomy).

10195 Berbel, P., Navarro, D., Auso, E., Varea, E., Rodriguez, A.E., Ballesta, J.J., Salinas, M., Flores, E., Faura, C.C., De Escobar, G.M. Role of Late Maternal Thyroid Hormones in Cerebral Cortex Development: An Experimental Model for Human Prematurity. Cerebral Cortex 2010; 20(-6-):1462-1475. >>> Parathyroid hormone, rat (1-84); calcitonin, rat; thyroxine; Acetate buffer; SC; Rat (pregnant); 2001; Teratology; peptides; animal info (Female, Wistar, 250-300 g); replacement therapy (parathyroidectomy).

10096 Becklund, B.R., Hansen, DW Jr, DeLuca, H.F. Enhancement of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-mediated suppression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by calcitonin. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 2009; 106(-13-):5276-5281. >>> Calcitonin, salmon; SC; Mice; 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by residual volume; dose-response (Fig. 2); animal info (female, C57BL/6, 6 wks old).

7036 Yuan, B.Z., Xing, Y., Horst, R.L., Drezner, M.K. Evidence for abnormal translational regulation of renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1alpha-hydroxylase activity in the Hyp-mouse. Endocrinology 2004; 145(-8-):3804-3812. >>> Parathyroid hormone, bovine 1-34; calcitonin, salmon; Saline, physiological; cysteine hydrochloride; SC; Mice; 1003D; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle.

6509 Dani, B.A., DeLuca, P.P. Skeletal Effects of Parathyroid Hormone (1-34) in Ovariectomized Rats With or Without Concurrent Administration of Salmon Calcitonin. Pharmsci 2001; 3(-4-):1-7. >>> Parathyroid hormone, human 1-34; calcitonin, salmon; Acetate buffer; saline; SC; Rat; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle or sham ovx + mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by serum levels; replacement therapy (ovariectomy); comparison of daily PTH sc injections vs. mp; peptides.

5491 Wang, W., Lewin, E., Olgaard, K. Role of calcitonin in the rapid minute-to-minute regulation of plasma Ca2+ homeostasis in the rat. European Journal of Clinical Investigation 2002; 32(-9-):674-681. >>> Calcitonin, salmon; Acetic acid; Sodium acetic; Sodium chloride; water, distilled; SC; Rat; 2ML1; Functionality of mp verified by calcitonin plasma levels.

4326 Li, M., Shen, Y., Burton, Y., DeLuca, P.P., Mehta, P.P., Baumann, B.D., Wronski, T.J. A comparison of the skeletal effects of intermittent and continuous administration of calcitonin in ovariectomized rats. Bone 1996; 18(-4-):375-380. >>> Calcitonin, salmon; Saline; Benzyl alcohol; Gelatin; rat; controls received mp w/vehicle; functionality of mp verified by calcitonin plasma levels by radioimmunoassay; comparison of s.c. injections vs. mp; pumps replaced after 3 weeks; peptides.

15436 Tordoff, M.G., Hughes, R.L., Pilchak, D.M. Calcium intake by rats: influence of parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Am. J. Physiol 1998; 274(-43-):R214-R231. >>> Parathyroid hormone; Calcitonin; Vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxy-; NaCl; HCl; Cysteine; Saline, isotonic; SC; rat; 2002; controls received sham tubing; functionality of mp verified by hormone assays; replacement therapy (thyroidectomy, thyroparathyroidectomy); dose-response; stress/adverse reaction: high doses led to animal death; peptides; agents given singly and in combination.

3303 Hemmingsen, C., Staun, M., Lewin, E., Olgaard, K. Regulation of renal calbindin-D28K: the role of calcitonin. Calcif. Tissue Int 1995; 56(--):372-375. >>> Calcitonin, salmon; Aminocaproic acid; HCI; rat; 2ML1; controls received mp with vehicle.

2273 Golomb, G., Avramoff, A., Hoffman, A. A new route of drug administration: intrauterine delivery of insulin and calcitonin. Pharmaceut. Res 1993; 10(-6-):828-833. >>> Calcitonin, human; intrauterine; SC; rat; 2001; tissue perfusion (uterus); dose-response (graph, p.832); comparison of polyurethane matrices vs mp.

1711 Yates, A.J., Gutierrez, G.E., Garrett, I.R., Nuss, G.W., Schreiber, A.B., Mundy, G.R. A noncyclical analog of salmon calcitonin (N-a-propionyl di-Ala1,7,des-Leu19 sCT) retains full potency without inducing anorexia in rats. Endocrinology 1990; 126(-6-):2845-2849. >>> Calcitonin analog; Calcitonin, synthetic salmon; Gelatin; Saline; SC; mice; 2001; pumps were reimplanted in a second animal; analog is RG-12851.

1252 Rebut-Bonneton, C., Demignon, J., Amor, B., Miravet, L. Effect of calcitonin in pregnant rats on bone resorption in fetuses. J. Endocrinol 1983; 99(-3-):347-353. >>> Calcitonin, salmon; Albumin, bovine serum; PBS; SC; rat (pregnant); pump model not stated; replacement therapy (thyroparathyroidectomy); peptides.

1087 Bouizar, Z., Rostene, W.H., Milhaud, G. Down-regulation of rat kidney calcitonin receptors by salmon calcitonin infusion evidenced by autoradiography. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci 1987; 84(--):5125-5128. >>> Calcitonin, salmon; Aminocaproic acid; SC; rat; 2002; controls received mp w/vehicle; dose-response; mp primed w/saline 12 hours before implantation; stability; peptides.

863 Jaeger, P., Jones, W., Clemens, T.L., Hayslett, J.P. Evidence that calcitonin stimulates 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D production and intestinal absorption of calcium in vivo. J. Clin. Invest 1986; 78(--):456-461. >>> Calcitonin; SC; rat; 2002; controls received sham implantation; replacement therapy (thyroparathyroidectomy); peptides.

272 Bastian, J.W., Luna, P.D., Aldred, G.P. (Calcitonin: consideration of its dosage and other aspects). In'Calcitoninia: Nuove Acquisizioni e Prospettive,'G. De Bastiani, A. Pecile, V. Pietrogrande, and C. Sirtori (eds. ), Fondazione Carlo Erba, Milano (Italian) 1979; (--):. >>> Calcitonin, salmon; SC; rat; comparison of human vs. animal data; intermittent vs. mp infusion; peptides.

31 Obie, J.F., Cooper, C.W. Loss of calcemic effects of calcitonin and parathyroid hormone infused continuously into rats using the ALZET osmotic minipump. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther 1979; 209(-3-):422-428. >>> Calcitonin; Parathyroid hormone, bovine; Cysteine HCl; HCl; Saline; SC; rat; organ replacement therapy (thyroparathyroidectomy); peptides.

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2. Calcitriol

14890 Chou, C.L., Pang, C.Y., Lee, T.J.F., Fang, T.C., Fang, T.C. Beneficial Effects of Calcitriol on Hypertension, Glucose Intolerance, Impairment of Endothelium-Dependent Vascular Relaxation, and Visceral Adiposity in Fructose-Fed Hypertensive Rats. PLoS One 2015; 10(--):U2028-U2046. >>> Calcitriol; PEG; SC; Rat; 2002; Animal info (male, Wistar-Kyoto, 200-230g); functionality of mp verified by residual volume; pumps replaced every 2 weeks; post op. care (penicillin SC injection 5000 U/kg); bp measured using tail cuff;.

13964 Takenaka, T., Inoue, T., Ohno, Y., Miyazaki, T., Nishiyama, A., Ishii, N., Suzuki, H., Takenaka, T. Calcitriol Supplementation Improves Endothelium-Dependent Vasodilation in Rat Hypertensive Renal Injury. KIDNEY&BLOOD PRESSURE RESEARCH 2014; 39(--):17-27. >>> Calcitriol; SC; Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Spontaneously hypertensive rats, stroke-prone, 8 weeks old); cardiovascular; long-term study;.

13519 Goyal, R., Zhang, L.B., Blood, A.B., Baylink, D.J., Longo, L.D., Oshiro, B., Mata-Greenwood, E. Characterization of an animal model of pregnancy-induced vitamin D deficiency due to metabolic gene dysregulation. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-ENDOCRINOLOGY AND METABOLISM 2014; 306(-3-):E256-E266. >>> Calcitriol; Ethanol; propylene glycol; SC; Rat; 2004; Control animals received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Sprague Dawley, P9); 50% ethanol used; 50% propylene glycol used.

8675 Goodwin, K.D., Ahokas, R.A., Bhattacharya, S.K., Sun, Y., Gerling, I.C., Weber, K.T. Preventing oxidative stress in rats with aldosteronism by calcitriol and dietary calcium and magnesium supplements. American Journal of the Medical Sciences 2006; 332(-2-):73-78. >>> Aldosterone; calcitriol; SC; Rat; 2004; 2ML4; Controls received no treatment; replacement therapy (uninephrectomy); cardiovascular; animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 8 wks old).

4580 Szabo, A., Freesmeyer, M.G, Abendroth, K, Stein, G, Rosivall, L., El-Shakmak, A., Ritz, E. Physiological doses of calcium regulatory hormones do not normalize bone cells in uraemic rats.. European Journal of Clinical Investigation 1999; 29(--):529-535. >>> Parathyroid hormone 1-34; Calcitriol;; Cysteine; Propylene glycol; Saline;; rat;; 2002;; controls received mp w/vehicle; replacement therapy (parathyroidectomy; nephrectomy); peptides;.

3345 Long, J.F., Nagode, L.A., Steinmeyer, C.L., Renkes, G. Comparative effects of calcitriol and parathyroid hormone on serum aluminum in vitamin D-depleted rabbits fed an aluminum-supplemented diet. Res. Commun. Chem. Pathol. Pharmacol 1994; 83(-1-):3-14. >>> Calcitriol; Parathyroid hormone (1-34); Cysteine; HCI; Saline; rabbit; functionality of mp verified by serum levels; peptides.

2750 Brown, A.J., Finch, J., Grieff, M., Ritter, C., Kubodera, N., Nishii, Y., Slatopolsky, E. The mechanism for the disparate actions of calcitriol and 22-oxacalcitriol in the intestine. Endocrinology 1993; 133(-3-):1158-1164. >>> Oxacalcitriol, 22-; Vitamin D3, 1,25-dihydroxy-; Propylene glycol; SC; rat; 2002; controls received mp w/ vehicle; comparison of ip injections vs. mp; agent is 1,25-(OH)2D3.

2417 Long, J.F., Renkes, G., Steinmeyer, C.L., Nagode, L.A. Effect of calcitriol infusions on serum aluminum in vitamin D-depleted rabbits fed an aluminum-supplemented ration. Res. Commun. Chem. Pathol. Pharmacol 1991; 74(-1-):89-104. >>> Calcitriol; Propylene glycol; SC; rabbit; functionality of mp verified by plasma levels; toxicology.

2136 Shimosawa, T., Ando, K., Fujita, T. Enhancement of vasoconstrictor response by a noncalcemic analogue of vitamin D3. Hypertension 1993; 21(-2-):253-258. >>> Oxacalcitriol, 22-; Vitamin D3, 24,25-dihydroxy-; Vitamin D3, 1,25-dihydroxy-; Propylene glycol; SC; rat; 2002; no comment posted.

1653 Patel, S., Simpson, R.U., Hsu, C.H. Effect of vitamin D metabolites on calcitriol metabolism in experimental renal failure. Kidney Int 1989; 36(--):234-239. >>> Calcitriol; Vitamin D3, 1,25-dihydroxy-; Ethanol; Propylene glycol; SC; rat; 2001; functionality of mp verified by measuring residual volume.

1651 Long, J.F., Steinmeyer, C.L., Thornton, D.J., Nagode, L.A. Serum calcitriol and parathyroid hormone levels following prolonged infusion of calcitriol in vitamin D replete and depleted rabbits. Res. Commun. Chem. Pathol. Pharmacol 1989; 64(-2-):273-286. >>> Calcitriol; Propylene glycol; SC; rabbit; 2ML1; 2ML4; functionality of mp verified by serum calcitriol levels; dose-response (graphs); 3 doses of calcitriol infused.

1501 Popoff, S.N., McGuire, J.L., Zerwekh, J.E., Marks, S.C. Treatment of congenital osteopetrosis in the rabbit with high-dose 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. J. Bone and Min. Res 1989; 4(-1-):57-67. >>> Calcitriol; Propylene glycol; SC; rabbit; dose-response; functionality of mp verified by serum levels.

508 Parfitt, A.M., Mathews, C.H.E., Brommage, R., Jarnagin, K., DeLuca, H.F. Calcitriol but no other metabolite of vitamin D is essential for normal bone growth and development in the rat. J. Clin. Invest 1984; 73(--):576-586. >>> Calcitriol; Propylene glycol; SC; rat; 2002; comparison of calcitriol or OHD2 po 3x/wk vs. mp infusion; intermittent oral dosing; mp replaced every 2 weeks; no stress implied by the normal growth of the animals.

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“The measurement of substrate flux utilization is based on the novel use of the (ALZET) miniosmotic pump to supply a continuous infusion of one of three tracers... Xu et al., The Journal of Biological Chemistry 2002;277(52):50237-50244.