References on the Administration of Cholinergic Agents Using ALZET® Osmotic Pumps

1. Acetylcholine

1922 Touvay, C., Pfister, A., Vilain, B., Carre, C., Page, C.P., Lellouch-Tubiana, A., Pignol, B., Mencia-Huerta, J.M., Braquet, P. Effect of long-term infusion of platelet-activating factor on pulmonary responsiveness and morphology in the guinea-pig. Pulmon. Pharm 1991; 4(--):43-51. >>> Acetylcholine; Platelet activating factor; Albumin, bovine serum; Saline; IV (jugular); guinea-pig; 2002; Cholinergic agent; stability verified by measuring biological activity of residual solution from pumps after 12 days, no loss of activity observed.

812 Shimazu, T., Noma, M., Saito, M. Chronic infusion of norepinephrine into the ventromedial hypothalmus induces obesity in rats. Brain Research 1986; 369(-1/2-):215-223. >>> Acetylcholine chloride; Cefalotin; Cholecystokinin tetrapeptide; Epinephrine HCl; Bombesin; Endorphin, B-; Enkephalin, methionine-; Norepinephrine HCl; Saline; Sodium bisulfite; CSF/CNS (hypothalamus); rat; 2002; Cholinergic agent; pumps replaced periodically; mp connected to perm. steel cannula in hypothalamus; cannula fitted w/removable protector; (see p.217); agents infused sep. (cefalotin infused w/each agent); long-term study; peptides.

439 Costall, B., Domeney, A.M., Naylor, R.J. Locomotor hyperactivity caused by dopamine infusion into the nucleus accumbens of rat brain: specificity of action. Psychopharmacology 1984; 82(--):174-180. >>> Acetylcholine HCl; Aminobutyric acid, Y-; Serotonin bimaleinate; Dopamine HCl; Norepinephrine bitartrate; Nitrogen; Sodium metabisulfite; CSF/CNS (nucleus accumbens); rat; 2002; Cholinergic agent; comparison of agents effects; no stress p. 175; stability of substances remaining in pump after 13 days was verified.

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2. Atropine

15218 Kashihara, T., Hirose, M., Shimojo, H., Nakada, T., Gomi, S., Hongo, M., Yamada, M. beta(2)-Adrenergic and M(2)-muscarinic receptors decrease basal t-tubular L-type Ca(2+) channel activity and suppress ventricular contractility in heart failure. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY 2014; 724(-;-):122-131. >>> Atropine; ICI118,551; Saline; DMSO; Mice; 1004; Animal info (male, C57BL6, 8-10 weeks old); cardiovascular;.

14914 Demion, M., Thireau, J., Gueffier, M., Finan, A., Khoueiry, Z., Cassan, C., Serafini, N., Aimond, F., Granier, M., Pasquie, J.L., Launay, P., Richard, S., Launay, P. Trpm4 Gene Invalidation Leads to Cardiac Hypertrophy and Electrophysiological Alterations. PLoS One 2014; 9(--):U821-U848. >>> Atropine; Mice; 2001; Animal info (male, Trpm4 -/-, 12-32 weeks old); cardiovascular;.

10685 Vrbova, G., Mehra, N., Shanmuganathan, H., Tyreman, N., Schachner, M., Gordon, T. Chemical communication between regenerating motor axons and Schwann cells in the growth pathway. European Journal of Neuroscience 2009; 30(-3-):366-375. >>> Gallamine triethiodide; tubocurarine; atropine; suramin; CSF/CNS (sciatic nerve); Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/saline; animal info (female, adult, Sprague Dawley, 200-220 g); schematic illustration of pump with silastic catheter, Fig 1b.

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3. Bethanechol Chloride

S0642 Imamura,K., Kasamatsu,T. Noradrenergic and cholinergic interaction in ocular dominance plasticity. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts, 16th Annual Meeting, Nov.9-14, Washington, DC 1986; 12(--):1372-. >>> Bethanechol chloride; Dopamine, 6-hydroxy-; Propranolol; CSF/CNS (visual cortex); cat (kitten); 1 week; Cholinergic agent; controls received mp w/vehicle; mp connected to cannula in visual cortex.

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4. Carbachol

14422 Suzuki, Y., Shimizu, H., Ishizuka, N., Kubota, N., Kubota, T., Senoo, A., Kageyama, H., Osaka, T., Hirako, S., Kim, H.J., Matsumoto, A., Shioda, S., Mori, M., Kadowaki, T., Inoue, S., Inoue, S. Vagal Hyperactivity Due to Ventromedial Hypothalamic Lesions Increases Adiponectin Production and Release. Diabetes 2014; 63(--):1637-1648. >>> Carbachol; Saline; SC; Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, Sprague-Dawley, 13 weeks old); carbachol is a parasympathetic stimulator; obesity;.

12285 Osaki, A., Shimizu, H., Ishizuka, N., Suzuki, Y., Mori, M., Inoue, S. Enhanced expression of nesfatin/nucleobindin-2 in white adipose tissue of ventromedial hypothalamus-lesioned rats. Neuroscience Letters 2012; 521(-1-):46-51. >>> Carbachol; Saline; SC; Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Sprague Dawley, female, 13 wks old).

10491 Van Kampen, J.M., Eckman, C.B. Agonist-induced restoration of hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive improvement in a model of cholinergic denervation. Neuropharmacology 2010; 58(-6-):921-929. >>> Physostigmine; carbachol; nicotine; pirenzepine; oxotremorine; mecamylamine; Saline; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2002; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, Sprague Dawley, 250 g.); neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's Disease).

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5. Oxotremorine

10491 Van Kampen, J.M., Eckman, C.B. Agonist-induced restoration of hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive improvement in a model of cholinergic denervation. Neuropharmacology 2010; 58(-6-):921-929. >>> Physostigmine; carbachol; nicotine; pirenzepine; oxotremorine; mecamylamine; Saline; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2002; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, Sprague Dawley, 250 g.); neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's Disease).

1408 Miyamoto, M., Narumi, S., Nagaoka, A., Coyle, J.T. Effects of continuous infusion of cholinergic drugs on memory impairment in rats with basal forebrain lesions. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther 1989; 248(-2-):825-835. >>> Oxotremorine; Physostigmine sulfate; Saline; SC; rat; 2002; no comment posted.

683 Pedigo Jr, N.W., Polk, D.M. Reduced muscarinic receptor plasticity in frontal cortex of aged rats after chronic administration of cholinergic drugs. Life Sci 1985; 37(-15-):1443-1449. >>> Methylatropine; Oxotremorine; Saline; CSF/CNS; rat; 2ML4; comparison of agents effects in young and old rats; stability of drugs at 37C determined at weekly intervals for 5 wks by bioassay; delivery into lateral cerebroventricle.

663 Fernando, J.C.R., Hoskins, B., Ho, I.K. Rapid induction of supersensitivity to muscarinic antagonists-induced motor excitation by continuous stimulation of cholinergic receptors. Life Sci 1985; 37(-9-):883-892. >>> Oxotremorine; Physostigmine sulfate; Saline; SC; rat; 2002; comparison of single sc injec vs. daily injec vs. mp infusion of agents effects.

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6. Physostigmine

16023 Holschneider, D. P., Guo, Y., Wang, Z., Roch, M., Scremin, O. U. Remote brain network changes after unilateral cortical impact injury and their modulation by acetylcholinesterase inhibition. J Neurotrauma 2013; 30(-11-):907-19. >>> physostigmine; water; SC; rat; 2ML4; controls received mp w/ saline; animal info: sprague-dawley, male, 250-300g; functionality of mp verified by residual volume; enzyme inhibitor (Acetylcholine); neurodegenerative (Traumatic brain injury); except for model number, paper does not mention ALZET much; dose: 1.6 micromoles/kg/day.

12362 Miyazaki, R., Ichiki, T., Hashimoto, T., Ikeda, J., Kamiharaguchi, A., Narabayashi, E., Matsuura, H., Takeda, K., Sunagawa, K. Acetyleholinesterase inhibitors attenuate angiogenesis. Clinical Science 2012; 123(-3-4-):241-249. >>> Physostigmine; Mice; Animal info (C57BL/6, 9 wks old); enzyme inhibitor (acetylcholinesterase); hindlimb ischemia.

10674 Mauck, B., Lucot, J.B., Paton, S., Grubbs, R.D. Cholinesterase inhibitors and stress: Effects on brain muscarinic receptor density in mice. Neurotoxicology 2010; 31(-5-):461-467. >>> Pyridostigmine bromide; physostigmine; SC; Mice; Controls received mp w/saline; animal info (male, C57BL6, 25 g); enzyme inhibitor (cholinesterase).

10491 Van Kampen, J.M., Eckman, C.B. Agonist-induced restoration of hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive improvement in a model of cholinergic denervation. Neuropharmacology 2010; 58(-6-):921-929. >>> Physostigmine; carbachol; nicotine; pirenzepine; oxotremorine; mecamylamine; Saline; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2002; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, Sprague Dawley, 250 g.); neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's Disease).

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7. Pyridostigmine

15970 Lataro, R. M., Silva, C. A., Tefe-Silva, C., Prado, C. M., Salgado, H. C. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition Attenuates the Development of Hypertension and Inflammation in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats. Am J Hypertens 2015; 28(-10-):1201-8. >>> Pyridostigmine bromide; donepezil; SC; Rat; 2004; animal info (male, Wistar-Kyoto or SHR); pumps replaced every 4 weeks; long-term study; cardiovascular; bp measured using tail cuff; Dose (Pyridostigmine bromide 1.5 mg/kg/day; donepezil 1.4 mg/kg/day);.

15818 Halil Sayin, Bruno Chapuis, Philippe Chevalier, Christian Barrès, Claude Julien. Assessment of cardiac autonomic tone in conscious rats. Autonomic Neuroscience-Basic&Clinical 2016; 194(--):26-31. >>> Pyridostigmine bromide; SC; Rat; 2ML4; animal info (male, SHR, 46 weeks old); cardiovascular; bp measured using radiotelemetry; Dose (15 mg/kg/day);.

14716 Durand, M.T., Becari, C., de Oliveira, M., do Carmo, J.M., Silva, C.A.A., Prado, C.M., Fazan, R.Jr, Salgado, H.C., Salgado, H.C. Pyridostigmine Restores Cardiac Autonomic Balance after Small Myocardial Infarction in Mice. PLoS One 2014; 9(--):U327-U335. >>> Pyridostigmine; Saline, sterile; SC; Mice; 1004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, C57BL6, 10-15 weeks old, 25-30g); ischemia (cardiac); cardiovascular; pyrostigmine is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor; pyrostigmine aka PYR; bp measured using radiotelemetry; pumps primed at 37C saline for 48 hours;.

13565 Richtsfeld, M., Yasuhara, S., Fink, H., Blobner, M., Martyn, J.A.J. Prolonged Administration of Pyridostigmine Impairs Neuromuscular Function with and without Downregulation of Acetylcholine Receptors. Anesthesiology 2013; 119(-2-):412-421. >>> Pyridostigmine; Saline; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 220-260g); dose-response (p.416, 418); post op. care (antibiotic ointment); incision closed with (4-0) suture;.

10674 Mauck, B., Lucot, J.B., Paton, S., Grubbs, R.D. Cholinesterase inhibitors and stress: Effects on brain muscarinic receptor density in mice. Neurotoxicology 2010; 31(-5-):461-467. >>> Pyridostigmine bromide; physostigmine; SC; Mice; Controls received mp w/saline; animal info (male, C57BL6, 25 g); enzyme inhibitor (cholinesterase).

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8. Scopolamine

14810 Saijo, H., Tatsumi, N., Arihiro, S., Kato, T., Okabe, M., Tajiri, H., Hashimoto, H., Hashimoto, H. Microangiopathy triggers, and inducible nitric oxide synthase exacerbates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis. LABORATORY INVESTIGATION 2015; 95(--):728-748. >>> Butylscopolamine; PBS; SC; Mice; 1007D; Animal info (male, C57BL6J, 9-10 weeks old); ischemia (colitis);.

13574 Chen, W.W., Cheng, X., Chen, J.Z., Yi, X., Nie, D.K., Sun, X.H., Qin, J.B., Tian, M.L., Jin, G.H., Zhang, X.H. Lycium barbarum Polysaccharides Prevent Memory and Neurogenesis Impairments in Scopolamine-Treated Rats. PLoS One 2014; 9(-2-):U1116-U1128. >>> Scopolamine; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Control animals received mp w/ saline; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 200-220 g, adult);.

12500 Raufman, J.P., Shant, J., Xie, G., Cheng, K., Gao, X.M., Shiu, B., Shah, N., Drachenberg, C.B., Heath, J., Wess, J., Khurana, S. Muscarinic receptor subtype-3 gene ablation and scopolamine butylbromide treatment attenuate small intestinal neoplasia in Apc(min/+) mice. Carcinogenesis 2011; 32(-9-):1396-1402. >>> Scopolamine butylbromide; PBS; SC; Mice; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (6 wks old, male, APC min/+); long-term study; pumps replaced after 4 weeks; post op. care (betadine).

12377 Gross, E.R., Gershon, M.D., Margolis, K.G., Gertsberg, Z.V., Cowles, R.A. Neuronal Serotonin Regulates Growth of the Intestinal Mucosa in Mice. Gastroenterology 2012; 143(-2-):408-U430. >>> Scopolamine; Saline; IP; Mice; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (SERTKO, TPH1KO, wt).

11801 Yoo, D.Y., Woo, Y.J., Kim, W., Nam, S.M., Lee, B.H., Yeun, G.H., Yoon, Y.S., Won, M.H., Park, J.H., Hwang, I.K. Effects of a new synthetic butyrylcholinesterase inhibitor, HBU-39, on cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus in a scopolamine-induced amnesia animal model. NEUROCHEMISTRY INTERNATIONAL 2011; 59(-5-):722-728. >>> Scopolamine; Saline, physiological; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Wistar, male).

11771 Jain, P., Li, R.H., Lama, T., Saragovi, H.U., Cumberlidge, G., Meerovitch, K. An NGF mimetic, MIM-D3, stimulates conjunctival cell glycoconjugate secretion and demonstrates therapeutic efficacy in a rat model of dry eye. Experimental Eye Research 2011; 93(-4-):503-512. >>> Scopolamine hydrobromide; SC; Rat; 2ML2; 2ML4; Controls did not receive any scopolamine; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 6-8 wks old).

11688 Yoo, D.Y., Kim, W., Yoo, K.Y., Lee, C.H., Choi, J.H., Kang, I.J., Yoon, Y.S., Kim, D.W., Won, M.H., Hwang, I.K. Effects of Nelumbo nucifera Rhizome Extract on Cell Proliferation and Neuroblast Differentiation in the Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus in a Scopolamine-induced Amnesia Animal Model. PHYTOTHERAPY RESEARCH 2011; 25(-6-):809-815. >>> Scopolamine; Saline; SC; Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Wistar, 5 wks old).

11650 Viau, S., Pasquis, B., Maire, M.A., Fourgeux, C., Gregoire, S., Acar, N., Bretillon, L., Creuzot-Garcher, C.P., Joffre, C. No consequences of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid deficiency on the severity of scopolamine-induced dry eye. Graefes Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 2011; 249(-4-):547-557. >>> Scopolamine; SC; Rat; 2ML2; Animal info (Lewis, female, 6 wks old).

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“However, the s.c. mini-osmotic pump delivery of recombinant leptin raised circulating leptin into the physiological range (Table 2). These data confirmed the effectiveness of the s.c. infusion of leptin at 0.1 mg/day in restoring serum leptin levels.” Zhang et al. Journal of Endocrinology 2002; 174:455-461.