References on the Administration of Cocaine Using ALZET® Osmotic Pumps

15697 Radke, A.K., Zlebnik, N.E., Carroll, M.E., Radke, A.K. Cocaine withdrawal in rats selectively bred for low (LoS) versus high (HiS) saccharin intake. PHARMACOLOGY BIOCHEMISTRY AND BEHAVIOR 2015; 129(--):51-55. >>> Cocaine hydrochloride; Saline, sterile; SC; Rat; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Holtzmann/Harlan Sprague Dawley); no stress (see pg.53); post op. care (topical antibiotic ointment); behavioral testing (saccharin intake); dependence; pumps removed after 2 weeks;.

13906 Pudiak, C.M., KuoLee, R., Bozarth, M.A., Pudiak, C.M. Tolerance to cocaine in brain stimulation reward following continuous cocaine infusions. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 2014; 122(--):246-252. >>> Cocaine; Saline; sodium metabisulfate; SC; Rat; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Long-Evans, 275-350g); functionality of mp verified by residual volume; 0.3% sodium metabisulfate used to prevent degredation; stress/adverse reaction: (see pg.294); post op. care (neosporin); dependence;"Cocaine delivered continuously via osmotic minipump may better mimic the high drug-plasma concentrations maintained by an addict during a binge than daily administered cocaine injections."pg 250; pumps removed after 14 days; pumps primed at 37C for at least 4 hours;.

13879 Narayana, P.A., Herrera, J.J., Bockhorst, K.H., Esparza-Coss, E., Xia, Y., Steinberg, J.L., Moeller, F.G. Chronic cocaine administration causes extensive white matter damage in brain: Diffusion tensor imaging and immunohistochemistry studies. PSYCHIATRY RESEARCH-NEUROIMAGING 2014; 221(-3-):220-230. >>> Cocaine; Saline; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 280-300g); behavioral testing (fine motor movement; ambulation; rearing activities; general motor behavior); dependence; MRI; pumps primed for 24 hours in 37C saline;.

13728 Caputi, F.F., Di Benedetto, M., Carretta, D., Candia, S.B.D., D'Addario, C., Cavina, C., Candeletti, S., Romualdi, P. Dynorphin/KOP and nociceptin/NOP gene expression and epigenetic changes by cocaine in rat striatum and nucleus accumbens. PROGRESS IN NEURO-PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY&BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY 2014; 49(-;-):36-46. >>> Cocaine; SC; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 200-250g); dependence; pumps primed overnight in 37C saline;.

12447 Stoker, A.K., Olivier, B., Markou, A. Involvement of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 in brain reward deficits associated with cocaine and nicotine withdrawal and somatic signs of nicotine withdrawal. Psychopharmacology 2012; 221(-2-):317-327. >>> Nicotine; cocaine hydrochloride; Saline, sterile; SC; IP; Mice; 2004; 1003D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (mGlu5 KO, wt).

11975 Stoker, A.K., Markou, A. Withdrawal from chronic cocaine administration induces deficits in brain reward function in C57BL/6J mice. Behavioural Brain Research 2011; 223(-1-):176-181. >>> Cocaine hydrochloride; Saline, sterile; IP; Mice; 1003D; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (C57BL/6, male, 7-8 wks old) withdrawal;"continuous cocaine administration via intraperitoneal osmotic minipumps is an excellent tool for the assessment of the effects of cocaine administration and withdrawal on various behavioral measures."pg 180.

9927 Narayana, P.A., hobila-Vajjula, P., Ramu, J., Herrera, J., Steinberg, J.L., Moeller, F.G. Diffusion tensor imaging of cocaine-treated rodents. PSYCHIATRY RESEARCH-NEUROIMAGING 2009; 171(-3-):242-251. >>> Cocaine; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/saline; good methods pg. 243; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 250-300 g); microdialysis fiber attached to exit port to prevent development of necrotic skin.

8456 D'Addario, C., Di Benedetto, M., Izenwasser, S., Candeletti, S., Romualdi, P. Role of serotonin in the regulation of the dynorphinergic system by a kappa-opoid agonist and cocaine treatment in rat CNS. Neuroscience 2007; 144(-1-):157-164. >>> Cocaine; Water, sterile; CSF/CNS; Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 200-250 grams).

8377 Di Benedetto, M., D'Addario, C., Candeletti, S., Romualdi, P. Alterations of CREB and DARPP-32 phosphorylation following cocaine and monoaminergic uptake inhibitors. Brain Research 2007; 1128(-1-):33-39. >>> Cocaine; fluoxetine; GBR12909; nisoxetine; Water, sterile; SC; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2001; 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; no stress (see pg. 37); animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 200-250 grams).

7270 King, G.R., Hillburn, C., Pinto, G., Konen, J. The effects of continuous cocaine dose, treatment, and withdrawal duration on the induction of behavioral tolerance and dopamine autoreceptor function. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 2004; 78(-2-):293-300. >>> Cocaine HCL; Saline, isotonic; SC; Rat; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; dose-response; tolerance;"mp slightly modified by adding a microdialysis fiber to the output portal to eliminate tissue necrosis from the cocaine."(pg. 294); mp primed in 37 degree Celsius water for 4 hours.

6921 Matell, M.S., King, G.R., Meck, W.H. Differential modulation of clock speed by the administration of intermittent versus continuous cocaine. Behavioral Neuroscience 2004; 118(-1-):150-156. >>> Cocaine, hydrochloride; Saline; SC; Rat; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by residual volume; comparison of IP injections vs. SC mp; tolerance;"The cocaine pumps were slightly modified by adding a microdialysis fiber to the output portal to minimize tissue necrosis from the cocaine."p. 151; behavioral study.

6529 Collins, S.L., Kunko, P.M., Ladenheim, B., Cadet, J.L., Carroll, F.I., Izenwasser, S. Chronic Cocaine Increases k-Opioid Receptor Density: Lack of Effect by Selective Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors. Synapse 2002; 45(--):153-158. >>> Cocaine; RTI-117; GBR 12909; Saline; DMSO; water, sterile; SC; Rat; 2ML1; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; brain tissue distribution; 50% DMSO used for GBR12909.

5619 Ellinwood, E.H., Davidson, C., Yu, G.Z., King, G.R., Lee, T.H. Effect of daily dosing duration of direct and indirect dopamine receptor agonists: cocaine cross-tolerance following chronic regimens. European Neuropsychopharmacology 2002; 12(-5-):407-415. >>> Cocaine; pramipexole; Saline; SC; Rat; 2ML2; Functionality of mp verified by measuring residual volume; pulsed delivery - drugs administered either continuously or for 16 or 20 hrs per day (p. 409); study included behavioral testing; pramipexole is a direct dopamine agonist; microdialysis fiber attached to pump via catheter to minimize tissue necrosis caused by the cocaine (p. 408); intermittent delivery made possible by disconnecting and reconnecting an externalized catheter.

5582 Izenwasser, S., French, D. Tolerance and sensitization to the locomotor-activating effects of cocaine are mediated via independent mechanisms. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 2002; 73(-4-):877-882. >>> Cocaine; SC; Rat; 2001; Tolerance.

5579 King, G.R., Pinto, G., Konen, J., Hillburn, C., Tran, S., Love, W., Cayse, R., Castro, G. The effects of continuous cocaine duration on the induction of behavioral tolerance and dopamine autoreceptor function. European Journal of Pharmacology 2002; 446(-1-3-):111-118. >>> Cocaine HCl; Saline, isotonic; SC; Rat; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; tolerance; dependence;"The pumps were slightly modified by adding a microdialysis fiber to the output portal to eliminate tissue necrosis from the cocaine."(p. 112).

4992 Ellinwood, E.H., King, G.R., Davidson, C., Lee, T.H. The dopamine D-2/D-3 antagonist DS121 potentiates the effect of cocaine on locomotion and reduces tolerance in cocaine tolerant rats. Behavioural Brain Research 2000; 116(--):169-175. >>> Cocaine HCl; Saline; SC; rat; 2ML2; controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by residual volume;"The pumps were modified by adding a microdialysis fiber to the output portal to eliminate cocaine-induced tissue necrosis". p. 170..

4890 Howell, L.L., Schama, K.F., Ellis, J.E., Grimley, P.J., Kitchens, A.J., Byrd, L.D. Fetal development in rhesus monkeys exposed prenatally to cocaine.. Neurotoxicol. Teratol 2001; 23(--):133-140. >>> Cocaine;; Saline;; SC;; monkey (pregnant);; 2ML4;; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by cocaine serum levels; dose-response (table 4 p. 136); long-term study, pumps replaced every 28 days for up to 180 days (until birth); teratology;.

4668 Li, M.-Y, Reith, M.E.A. Continuous cocaine treatment and monoamine transmission measured by microdialysis in the rat ventral tegmental area.. Addiction Biology 1998; 3(--):447-451. >>> Cocaine;; Saline;; SC;; rat;; 2ML2;; controls received mp w/vehicle; functionality of mp verified by residual volume; no stress (P. 448); tolerance; At the end of the experiment, the tissue surrounding the minipumps was inspected and found to be normal (p. 448);.

4623 King, G.R., Xiong, Z., Ellinwood, E.H. Blockade of accumbens 5-HT3 receptor down-regulation by ondansetron administered during continuous cocaine administration.. European Journal of Pharmacology 1999; 364(--):79-87. >>> Cocaine HCl;; Saline, isotonic;; SC;; rat;; 2ML2;; controls received mp w/vehicle; functionality of mp verified by measuring residual volume; comparison of SC injections vs. mp; tolerance; microdialysis; pumps were modified by adding a microdialysis fiber to eliminate tissue necrosis from cocaine administration..

4622 Lee, T.H., Gao, W-Y, Davidson, C, Ellinwood, E.H. Altered activity of midbrain dopamine neurons following 7-day withdrawal from chronic cocaine abuse is normalized by D2 receptor stimulation during the early withdrawal phase.. Neuropsychopharmacology 1999; 21(--):127-136. >>> Cocaine;; Saline;; SC;; rat;; 2ML2;; comparison of SC injections vs. mp; tolerance; modified flow moderators used;.

4401 Izenwasser, S., French, D., Carroll, F.I., Kunko, P.M. Continuous infusion of selective dopamine uptake inhibitors or cocaine produces time-dependent changes in rat locomotor activity. Behav. Brain Res 1999; 99(--):201-208. >>> Cocaine; GBR 12909; Fluoxetine HCl; Nisoxetine HCl, RTI-117;; DMSO; Water, sterile;; SC;; rat;; 2001; 2ML1; 2ML2;; antidepressant; controls received mp w/ saline; RTI-117 is a dopamine uptake inhibitor; 2ML1 used to deliver GBR 12909, due to its limited solubility;.

4294 Azaryan, A.V., Clock, B.J., Rosenberger, J.G., Cox, B.M. Transient upregulation of m opioid receptor mRNA levels in nucleus accumbens during chronic cocaine administration. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol 1998; 76(--):278-283. >>> Cocaine HCl; SKF-82958; Bromocriptine; Hydrobromide, R(+)-6-bromo-APB; PD 128907; Saline; SC; rat; 2ML1; controls received mp w/vehicle; dopamine agonists.

15693 Kunko, P.M., French, D., Izenwasser, S. Alterations in locomotor activity during chronic cocaine administration: effect of dopamine receptors and interaction with opioids. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther 1998; 285(-1-):277-284. >>> Cocaine; Naltrexone HCl; Morphine sulfate; Saline; SC; rat; 2001; controls received mp w/vehicle; functionality of mp verified by plasma levels; dose-response (p. 279-280); tolerance.

4282 Kunko, P.M., French, D., Izenwasser, S. Alterations in locomotor activity during chronic cocaine administration: effect of dopamine receptors and interaction with opioids. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther 1998; 285(-1-):277-284. >>> Cocaine; Naltrexone HCl; Morphine sulfate; Saline; SC; rat; 2001; controls received mp w/vehicle; functionality of mp verified by plasma levels; dose-response (p. 279-280); tolerance.

15684 Dingeon, P., Latour, C., Fiet, J., Nahas, G. Cardiovascular tolerance to cocaine and b2 lymphocytes adrenoreceptors. Advances Biosciences 1991; 80(--):177-185. >>> Cocaine; IP; rat; controls received mp w/saline; dose-response; comparison of injections vs. mp; tolerance.

4273 Dingeon, P., Latour, C., Fiet, J., Nahas, G. Cardiovascular tolerance to cocaine and b2 lymphocytes adrenoreceptors. Advances Biosciences 1991; 80(--):177-185. >>> Cocaine; IP; rat; controls received mp w/saline; dose-response; comparison of injections vs. mp; tolerance.

15461 King, G.R., Xiong, Z., Ellinwood Jr, E.H. Blockade of the expression of sensitization and tolerance by aldosterone, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, administered during withdrawal from intermittent and continuous cocaine. Psychopharmacology 1998; 135(--):263-269. >>> Cocaine HCl; Saline, sterile; SC; rat; 2ML2; controls received mp w/vehicle; functionality of mp verified by residual volume; good methods (p.265); dependence; microdialysis.

4050 King, G.R., Xiong, Z., Ellinwood Jr, E.H. Blockade of the expression of sensitization and tolerance by aldosterone, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, administered during withdrawal from intermittent and continuous cocaine. Psychopharmacology 1998; 135(--):263-269. >>> Cocaine HCl; Saline, sterile; SC; rat; 2ML2; controls received mp w/vehicle; functionality of mp verified by residual volume; good methods (p.265); dependence; microdialysis.

3960 King, G.R., Xiong, Z., Ellinwood Jr, E.H. Blockade of cocaine sensitization and tolerance by the co-administration of odansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, and cocaine. Psychopharmacology 1997; 130(--):159-165. >>> Cocaine HCl; Saline, sterile isotonic; SC; rat; 2ML2; controls received saline injection; functionality of mp verified by measuring residual volume; comparison of injections vs mp; tolerance; microdialysis.

3848 Kunko, P.M., Loeloff, R.J., Izenwasser, S. Chronic administration of the selective dopamine uptake inhibitor GBR 12909, but not cocaine, produces marked decreases in dopamine transporter density. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Arch. Pharmacol 1997; 356(--):562-569. >>> Cocaine HCl; GBR 12909; Saline; DMSO; Water, sterile; SC; rat; 2001; 2ML1; controls received mp w/ vehicle; tolerance.

3666 Bernards, C.M., Cullen, B.F., Kern, C., Powers, K.M. Effect of chronic cocaine administration on the hemodynamic response to acute hemorrhage in awake and anesthetized sheep. J. Trauma: Injury, Infection and Crit. Care 1997; 42(-1-):42-48. >>> Cocaine HCl; SC; sheep; 2ML2; no comment posted.

3628 Hitri, A., Little, K.Y., Ellinwood Jr, E.H. Effect of cocain on dopamine transporter receptors depends on routes of chronic cocaine administration. Neuropsychopharm 1996; 14(-3-):205-210. >>> Cocaine HCl; SC; rat; 2ML2; controls received saline infusion; comparison of intermittent sc injections vs. mp; pump connected to 3 cm of dialysis tubing.

3621 Lundien, M., Andy, O.J., Rockhold, R.W., Andrews, M., Dearman, C. Dextrorphan effects on cocaine and brainstem perturbation. Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science 1996; 31(-3-):224-230. >>> Cocaine; IV (femoral); rat; 2001; no comment posted.

3610 Romualdi, P., Donatini, A., Izenwasser, S., Cox, B.M., Ferri, S. Chronic intracerebroventricular cocain differentially affects prodynorphin gene expression in rat hypothalamus and caudate-putamen. Mol. Brain Research 1996; 40(--):153-156. >>> Cocaine HCl; CSF/CNS; rat; 2001; controls received mp w/ aCSF.

3602 Maillet, M., Chiarasini, D., Nahas, G. Myocardial damage induced by cocaine administration of a week's duration in the rat. In'Advances in the Biosciences', Pergamon Press 1991; 80(--):187-197. >>> Cocaine HCl; rat; controls received mp w/ saline; cardiovascular.

3592 Matell, M.S., King, G.R. 5-HT(3) receptor mediated dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens during withdrawal from continuous cocaine. Psychopharmacology 1997; 130(--):242-248. >>> Cocaine HCl; Saline; SC; rat; 2ML2; controls received mp w/ saline; functionality of mp verified by residual solution; tolerance; microdialysis fiber added to delivery port to eliminate tissue necrosis.

3574 Neisewander, J.L., Lucki, I., McGonigle, P. Changes in behavioral sensitivity to SKF-38393 and quinpirole following withdrawal from continuous cocaine administration in rats. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav 1996; 53(-4-):935-942. >>> Cocaine HCl; Saline; SC; rat; 2ML2; functionality of mp verified by measuring residual volume; no stress (see p. 936) - no observed skin necrosis.

3554 Azaryan, A.V., Clock, B.J., Cox, B.M. Mu opioid receptor mRNA in nucleus accumbens is elevated following dopamine receptor activation. Neurochem. Res 1996; 21(-11-):1411-1415. >>> Hydrobromide, R(+)-6-bromo-APB-SKF-38393; Nafadotride, (5)-bromocriptine; Cocaine HCl; Saline; rat; 2ML1; controls received mp w/ saline.

3536 Izenwasser, S., Heller, B., Cox, B.M. Continuous cocaine administration enhances m- but not d-opioid receptor-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity in nucleus accumbens. Eur. J. Pharmacol 1996; 297(--):187-191. >>> Cocaine HCl; SC; rat; 2001; no comment posted.

3421 Azaryan, A.V., Coughlin, L.J., Buzas, B., Clock, B.J., Cox, B.M. Effect of chronic cocaine treatment on m- and d-opioid receptor mRNA levels in dopaminergically innervated brain regions. J. Neurochem 1996; 66(--):443-448. >>> Cocaine HCl; Eticlopride; SCH-23390; Saline; SC; rat; 2001; controls received mp w/saline; eticlopride is a D1&D2 receptor antagonist.

3378 Mahone, P.R., Scott, K., Sleggs, G., D'Antoni, T., Woods, J.R. Cocaine and metabolites in amniotic fluid may prolong fetal drug exposure. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol 1994; 171(-2-):465-469. >>> Cocaine; sheep (fetus); functionality of mp verified by plasma, amniotic fluid, and meconium samples; stability verified by in vitro testing at 39 degrees; teratology; pump released drug into amniotic fluid; pump placed on fetal back; ampicillin added to amniotic fluid.

3257 Gingras, J.L., Weese-Mayer, D.E., Dalley, L.B., Klemka-Walden, L.M. Prenatal cocaine exposure alters postnatal ornithine decarboxylase activity in rabbit brain. Biochem. Med. Meta. Bio 1993; 50(--):284-291. >>> Cocaine; Water, sterile; rabbit (pregnant); controls received mp with water; teratology; 2 mps implanted.

3178 Neisewander, J.L., Lucki, I., McGonigle, P. Time-dependent changes in sensitivity to apomorphine and monoamine receptors following withdrawal from continuous cocaine administration in rats. Synapse 1994; 16(--):1-10. >>> Cocaine HCl; Saline, sterile; SC; rat; 2ML2; controls received mp with saline; functionality of mp verified by residual volume; possible minipump failure noted.

2976 Fung, Y.K., Richard, L.A. Behavioural consequences of cocaine withdrawal in rats. J. Pharm. Pharmacol 1994; 46(--):150-152. >>> Cocaine; Saline; SC; rat; 2ML4; controls received mp with saline; dependence; pump incision site covered with an antibiotic and 5% lignocaine to prevent discomfort and infection.

2909 King, G.R., Joyner, C., Ellinwood Jr, E.H. Continuous or intermittent cocaine administration: effects of flupenthixol treatment during withdrawal. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav 1994; 49(-4-):883-889. >>> Cocaine HCl; Saline; SC; rat; 2ML2; functionality of mp verified by residual volume; comparison of sc injections vs. mp; tolerance; microdialysis fiber added to pump's outflow portal to increase surface area distribution, and to avoid necrotic skin lesions.

2908 King, G.R., Xue, Z., Calvi, C., Ellinwood Jr, E.H. 5-HT3 agonist-induced dopamine overflow during withdrawal from continuous or intermittent cocaine administration. Psychopharmacology 1995; 117(--):458-465. >>> Cocaine HCl; Saline; SC; rat; 2ML2; controls received mp with saline; comparison of sc injections vs. mp; tolerance.

2758 Chen, N.-H., Reith, M.E.A. Dopamine and serotonin release-regulating autoreceptor sensitivity in A9/A10 cell body and terminal areas after withdrawal of rats from continuous infusion of cocaine. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther 1993; 267(-3-):1445-1453. >>> Cocaine HCl; Saline; SC; rat; 2ML2; controls received mp w/ saline; functionality of mp verified by residual volume; tolerance; gentamicin applied after surgery; no tissue necrosis seen.

2669 Inada, T., Polk, K., Purser, K., Hume, A., Hoskins, A., Ho, I.K., Rockhold, R.W. Behavioral and neurochemical effects of continuous infusion of cocaine in rats. Neuropharmacology 1992; 31(-7-):701-708. >>> Cocaine; Saline; IV (vena cava); rat; 2ML2; controls received mp w/ saline; tolerance; loop of catheter tubing exposed to terminate infusion.

2664 Kinsley, C.H., Turco, D., Bauer, A., Beverly, M., Wellman, J., Graham, A.L. Cocaine alters the onset and maintenance of maternal behavior in lactating rats. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav 1994; 47(-4-):857-864. >>> Cocaine; Saline; SC; rat (pregnant); 2ML2; controls received mp w/ saline; comparison of sc injections vs. mp.

2663 King, G.R., Joyner, C.M., Ellinwood, E.H. 5-HT3 receptor modulation of behavior during withdrawal from continuous or intermittent cocaine. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav 1994; 47(-3-):399-407. >>> Cocaine HCl; Saline, sterile; SC; rat; 2ML2; functionality of mp verified by measuring residual amount; comparison of ip injections vs mp; no stress (pg. 400); good methods:"minipumps were modified by adding a microdialysis fiber . . . to increase surface area over which cocaine is delivered."This allowed higher dose delivery without necrotic skin lesion.

2506 Torres, G., Rivier, C. Cocaine-induced ACTH secretion: dependence of plasma levels of the drug and mode of exposure. Brain Res. Bull 1992; 29(-1-):51-56. >>> Cocaine HCl; Sodium chloride; IP; rat; 2001; controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by residual pump volume and plasma levels; comparison of iv injections vs. mp.

2459 King, G.R., Joyner, C., Lee, T.H., Ellinwood Jr, E.H. Withdrawal from continuous or intermittent cocaine: effects of NAN-190 on cocaine-induced locomotion. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav 1993; 44(--):253-262. >>> Cocaine HCl; Saline; SC; rat; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ saline; comparison of sc injections vs. mp; tolerance; animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 100-125 grams).

2402 King, G.R., Joyner, C., Lee, T., Kuhn, C., Ellinwood Jr, E.H. Intermittent and continuous cocaine administration: residual behavioral states during withdrawal. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav 1992; 43(--):243-248. >>> Cocaine HCl; Saline; SC; rat; 2ML2; functionality of mp verified by residual volume upon explant; comparison of sc injections vs. mp; tolerance; advantages of mp (pg. 247).

2401 King, G.R., Kuhn, C., Ellinwood Jr, E.H. Dopamine efflux during withdrawal from continuous or intermittent cocaine. Psychopharmacology 1993; 111(--):179-184. >>> Cocaine HCl; Saline; SC; rat; 2ML2; functionality of mp verified measuring residual amount; comparison of SC injections vs. mp; no stress (see pg. 180); tolerance; microdialysis fiber.

2290 Joyner, C., King, G., Lee, T.H., Ellinwood, E.H. Technique for the continuous infusion of high doses of cocaine by osmotic minipump. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav 1993; 44(-4-):971-973. >>> Cocaine; Saline; SC; rat; good methods; microdialysis; pump modified; modification eliminated necrosis.

2250 Factor, E.M., Hart, R.P., Jonakait, G.M. Neurochemical development of the raphe after continuous prenatal cocaine exposure. Brain Res. Bull 1993; 31(--):49-56. >>> Cocaine; SC; rat (pregnant); 2ML2; controls received sham op; functionality of mp verified by plasma levels; no stress (see p. 50).

2209 Cain, S.T., Griff, D., Joyner, C.M., Ellinwood, E.H., Nemeroff, C.B. Chronic continuous or intermittent infusion of cocaine differentially alter the concentration of neurotensin-like immunoreactivity in specfic rat brain regions. Neuropsychopharmacology 1993; 8(--):259-265. >>> Cocaine HCl; Saline; SC; rat; 2ML2; controls received mp w/saline; functionality of mp verified upon removal; stability verified upon removal; tolerance.

2186 Di Francesco, P., Pica, F., Croce, C., Favalli, C., Tubaro, E., Garaci, E. Effect of acute or daily cocaine administration on cellular immune response and virus infection in mice. Nat. Immun. Cell Growth Regul 1990; 9(--):397-405. >>> Cocaine HCl; Hank's solution; SC; mice; 2001; no comment posted.

2177 Burger, L.Y., Martin-Iverson, M.T. Day/night differences in D1 but not D2 DA receptor protection from EEDQ denaturation in rats treated with continuous cocaine. Synapse 1993; 13(--):20-29. >>> SCH-23390; Cocaine HCl; Raclopride; Water; SC; rat; 2ML2; no comment posted.

2024 Izenwasser, S., Cox, B.M. Inhibition of dopamine uptake by cocaine and nicotine: tolerance to chronic treatments. Brain Research 1992; 573(--):119-125. >>> Cocaine HCl; Nicotine tartrate; Saline; SC; rat; 2001; tolerance.

2006 Torres, G., Rivier, C. Differential effects of intermittent or continuous exposure to cocaine on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and c-fos expression. Brain Research 1992; 571(-2-):204-211. >>> Cocaine HCl; Saline; IV (jugular); rat; 2001; comparison of intermittent injections vs mp.

1973 Weese-Mayer, D.E., Klemka-Walden, L.M., Chan, M.K., Gingras, J.L. Effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on perinatal morbidity and postnatal growth in the rabbit. Dev. Pharmacol. Ther 1991; 4(--):221-230. >>> Cocaine HCl; Water; SC; rabbit; 2ML4; teratology.

1897 Reith, M.E.A., Fischette, C.T. Sertraline and cocaine-induced locomotion in mice. Psychopharmacology 1991; 103(--):306-313. >>> Cocaine HCl; Saline; SC; mice; 2002; no comment posted.

1877 Krueger, R.J., Lin, C., Fung, Y.K. Effect of chronic administration of nicotine or cocaine on steroidogenesis in rat adrenocortical cells. J. Pharm. Pharmacol 1991; 43(--):200-203. >>> Cocaine HCl; Nicotine tartrate; Saline; SC; rat; 2002; no comment posted.

1544 Ryan, L.J., Martone, M.E., Linder, J.C., Groves, P.M. Continuous amphetamine administration induces tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive patches in the adult rat neostriatum. Brain Research 1988; 21(--):133-137. >>> Amphetamine sulfate, d-; Cocaine HCl; Saline; IV (jugular); SC; rat; 2ML1; controls received silastic plug implant.

1514 Fung, Y.K., Reed, J.A., Lau, Y.-S. Prenatal cocaine exposure fails to modify neurobehavioral responses and the striatal dopaminergic system in newborn rats. Gen. Pharmacol 1989; 20(-5-):689-693. >>> Cocaine; Saline; SC; rat (pregnant); 2ML4; toxicology/teratology.

1489 Howell, L.L., Morse, W.H. Behavioral effects of chronically administered cocaine in squirrel monkeys. Psychopharmacology 1989; 97(--):12-16. >>> Cocaine HCl; Saline; SC; monkey; 2002; dose-response; functionality of mp verified by plasma levels; pump replaced>than or = to 2 months elapsed between implants; toxicology/teratology.

1483 Pitts, D.K., Marwah, J. Chronic cocaine reduces alpha2-adrenoceptor elicited mydriasis and inhibition of locus coeruleus neurons. Eur. J. Pharmacol 1989; 160(--):201-209. >>> Cocaine; Water; SC; rat; 2001; controls received plastic sham pumps; stress/adverse reaction (localized vasoconstriction); pump replaced.

1249 Kleven, M., Woolverton, W., Schuster, C., Seiden, L. Behavioral and neurochemical effects of repeated or continuous exposure to cocaine. NIDA Res. Monogr. Ser. 81 1988; 81(--):86-93. >>> Cocaine; IV (jugular); rat; 2ML4; tolerance.

1244 Shah, A., Niazi, S., Jung, D. Effect of chronic exposure of cocaine on antipyrine disposition in rats. Res. Common. Subst. Abuse 1985; 6(-1-):59-62. >>> Cocaine HCl; Saline; SC; rat; pump model not stated; controls received mp w/ saline.

15376 Reith, M.E.A., Benuck, M., Lajtha, A. Cocaine disposition in the brain after continuous or intermittent treatment and locomotor stimulation in mice. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther 1987; 243(-1-):281-287. >>> Cocaine HCl; Saline; SC; mice; no comment posted.

1120 Reith, M.E.A., Benuck, M., Lajtha, A. Cocaine disposition in the brain after continuous or intermittent treatment and locomotor stimulation in mice. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther 1987; 243(-1-):281-287. >>> Cocaine HCl; Saline; SC; mice; no comment posted.

 

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“This study demonstrates the value of osmotic pumps as effective delivery vehicles for drugs in wild demersal fish.” (p.1024). “We conclude that the administration of T3 by osmotic pumps is an effective means of creating experimental hyperthyroidism in wild Atlantic cod.Similarly, the administration of methimazole, thiourea, or testosterone with osmotic pumps was effective in rendering cod hypothyroid.” (p.1025) Comeau et al., Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 2003;132:1021-1026.