References on the Administration of Cyclosporin Using ALZET® Osmotic Pumps

16221 Oller, J., Alfranca, A., Mendez-Barbero, N., Villahoz, S., Lozano-Vidal, N., Martin-Alonso, M., Arroyo, A. G., Escolano, A., Armesilla, A. L., Campanero, M. R., Redondo, J. M. C/EBPbeta and Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cells Differentially Regulate Adamts-1 Induction by Stimuli Associated with Vascular Remodeling. Mol Cell Biol 2015; 35(-19-):3409-22. >>> Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, Angiotensin II, Losartan, Cyclosporine; Saline; SC; Mice; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Calcineurin (CN) B1 (Cnb1_/fl) conditional knockout mice, C57BL/6 mice); dose-response; vegf aka vascular endothelial growth factor; Dose (VEGF 25 ug/kg/day, AngII 1 ug/kg/min, CsA 5 mg/kg/day, Losartan 10 mg/kg/day);.

15213 Hamdi, H., Planat-Benard, V., Bel, A., Neamatalla, H., Saccenti, L., Calderon, D., Bellamy, V., Bon, M., Perrier, M.C., Mandet, C., Bruneval, P., Casteilla, L., Hagege, A.A., Puceat, M., Agbulut, O., Menasche, P. Long-Term Functional Benefits of Epicardial Patches as Cell Carriers. CELL TRANSPLANTATION 2014; 23(-1-):87-96. >>> Cyclosporine; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Animal info (female, Wistar); immunology;“Because of the planned long duration of the follow-up (6 months), concerns over daily injections of cyclosporine led us to use subcutaneously implanted microosmotic pumps preset to release the drug in a controlled fashion.” pg 93;.

14859 Cardinale, V., Renzi, A., Carpino, G., Torrice, A., Bragazzi, M.C., Giuliante, F., DeRose, A.M., Fraveto, A., Onori, P., Napoletano, C., Franchitto, A., Cantafora, A., Grazi, G., Caporaso, N., D'Argenio, G., Alpini, G., Reid, L.M., Gaudio, E., Alvaro, D., Alvaro, D. Profiles of Cancer Stem Cell Subpopulations in Cholangiocarcinomas. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY 2015; 185(--):1724-1739. >>> Cyclosporine; IP; Mice; 1004; Animal info (male, BALB/c, 13 weeks old); cancer (cholangiocarcinoma);.

14378 Sachewsky, N., Hunt, J., Cooke, M.J., Azimi, A., Zarin, T., Miu, C., Shoichet, M.S., Morshead, C.M., Morshead, C.M. Cyclosporin A enhances neural precursor cell survival in mice through a calcineurin-independent pathway. Disease Models&Mechanisms 2014; 7(--):953-961. >>> Cyclosporin; FK506; NIM811; Saline; SC; Mice; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, C57BL6J, 6-8 weeks old, 25-30g); pumps replaced every 2 weeks; ischemia (cerebral); post op. care (SC injection of warmed saline); behavioral testing (foot fault task);.

13281 Koellensperger, E., Niesen, W., Kolbenschlag, J., Gramley, F., Germann, G., Leimer, U. Human Adipose Tissue Derived Stem Cells Promote Liver Regeneration in a Rat Model of Toxic Injury. STEM CELLS INTERNATIONAL 2013; ;(-;-):U1-U10. >>> Cyclosporine; IP; Rat; 2ML4; Animal info (Sprague Dawley, model of toxic liver damage (two-thirds hepatectomy)); immunology; pumps replaced every 28 days; long-term study.

12484 Chang, A.Y., Sliwoski, J., Butler, S., Hearn, G., Lassmann, J., Chacko, S., Canning, D.A., Zderic, S.A. Calcineurin mediates bladder wall remodeling secondary to partial outlet obstruction. American Journal of Physiology-Renal Physiology 2011; 301(-4-):F813-F822. >>> Cyclosporine A; Mice (transgenic); 2004; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (male, pBOO tg).

11919 Schramm, R., Kirsch, S., Schaefers, H.J., Langer, F., Scheuer, C., Nickels, R., Harder, Y., Menger, M.D. Erythropoietin inhibits post-ischemic leukocyte adhesion but does not affect rejection in murine cardiac allografts. Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation 2010; 29(-10-):1185-1192. >>> Cyclosporine; SC; Mice; 2004; Animal info (Balb/c, male, C57BL/6, 26-28 g).

11371 Groth, K., Braennstroem, M., Moelne, J., Wranning, C.A. Cyclosporine A exposure during pregnancy in mice: effects on reproductive performance in mothers and offspring. Human Reproduction 2010; 25(-3-):697-704. >>> Cyclosporine A; Propylene glycol; SC; Mice (pregnant); 2001; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (C57CBA-F1, female); pumps replaced after 1 weeks; 90% propylene glycol used; wound clips used.

11326 Esteban, V., Mendez-Barbero, N., Jimenez-Borreguero, L.J., Roque, M., Novensa, L., Garcia-Redondo, A.B., Salaices, M., Vila, L., Arbones, M.L., Campanero, M.R., Redondo, J.M. Regulator of calcineurin 1 mediates pathological vascular wall remodeling. Journal of Experimental Medicine 2011; 208(-10-):2125-2139. >>> Angiotensin II; PD123319; cyclosporin A; losartan; SC; Mice; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (2 mo old, ApoE -/-, Rcan1 -/-); peptides.

11323 Erlandsson, A., Lin, C.H.A., Yu, F.G., Morshead, C.M. Immunosuppression promotes endogenous neural stem and progenitor cell migration and tissue regeneration after ischemic injury. Experimental Neurology 2011; 230(-1-):48-57. >>> Epidermal growth factor, recomb. human; erythropoietin; cyclosporine A; CSF/CNS; SC; Mice (NOD/SCID); 1007D; Animal info (male, C57/BL6, 8-10 wks old); pumps replaced after 7 days; ALZET brain infusion kit 3 used.

10949 Sachan, N., Dey, A., Rotter, D., Grinsfelder, D.B., Battiprolu, P.K., Sikder, D., Copeland, V., Oh, M., Bush, E., Shelton, J.M., Bibb, J.A., Hill, J.A., Rothermel, B.A. Sustained Hemodynamic Stress Disrupts Normal Circadian Rhythms in Calcineurin-Dependent Signaling and Protein Phosphorylation in the Heart. Circulation Research 2011; 108(-4-):437-U100. >>> Cyclosporine; SC; Mice; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, C57BL/6, 6-8 wks old); wound clips used.

10839 Ingram, E.A., Toyoda, I., Wen, X.L., Buckmaster, P.S. Prolonged infusion of inhibitors of calcineurin or L-type calcium channels does not block mossy fiber sprouting in a model of temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsia 2009; 50(-1-):56-64. >>> Nicardipine; FK-506; cyclosporin A; DMSO; ethanol; fluorescein; CSF/CNS (dorsal left dentate gyrus); Rat; 2004; Controls were treated identically without status epilepticus; animal info (34-52 day old, male, Sprague-Dawley, status epilepticus); functionality of mp verified by fluorescein labeling; ALZET brain infusion kit 2 used; 50% DMSO used; 15% ethanol used.

10794 Hicks, A.U., Lappalainen, R.S., Narkilahti, S., Suuronen, R., Corbett, D., Sivenius, J., Hovatta, O., Jolkkonen, J. Transplantation of human embryonic stem cell-derived neural precursor cells and enriched environment after cortical stroke in rats: cell survival and functional recovery. European Journal of Neuroscience 2009; 29(-3-):562-574. >>> Cyclosporine A; PEG 400; SC; Rat; 2ML4; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Wistar, 275-300 g, dMCAO); functionality of mp verified by residual volume; behavioral testing (Montoya's staircase test).

10642 Toriumi, H., Yoshikawa, M., Matsuda, R., Nishimura, F., Yamada, S.I., Hirabayashi, H., Nakase, H., Nonaka, J.I., Ouji, Y., Ishizaka, S., Sakaki, T. Treatment of Parkinson's disease model mice with allogeneic embryonic stem cells: necessity of immunosuppressive treatment for sustained improvement. NEUROLOGICAL RESEARCH 2009; 31(-3-):220-227. >>> Cyclosporine A; Propylene glycol; SC; Mice; 2004; Animal info (C57BL/6, BALB/c, C3H/HeN PD, 129SvJ PD); pumps replaced"at 2 week intervals".

10371 Hunt, J., Cheng, A., Hoyles, A., Jervis, E., Morshead, C.M. Cyclosporin A Has Direct Effects on Adult Neural Precursor Cells. Journal of Neuroscience 2010; 30(-8-):2888-2896. >>> Cyclosporin A; IV; SC; Mice; 2002; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (male, CD1, 6-8 weeks old, 25-30 g).

10344 Xu, Y., Gong, B., Yang, Y.L., Awasthi, Y.C., Boor, P.J. Adenovirus-Mediated Overexpression of Glutathione-S-Transferase Mitigates Transplant Arteriosclerosis in Rabbit Carotid Allografts. Transplantation 2010; 89(-4-):409-416. >>> Cyclosporin A; IP; Rabbit; Animal info (DB, NZW, 3 months old, male).

10087 Zerwes, H.G., Li, J., Kovarik, J., Streiff, M., Hofmann, M., Roth, L., Luyten, M., Pally, C., Loewe, R.P., Wieczorek, G., Baenteli, R., Thoma, G., Luckow, B. The chemokine receptor Cxcr3 is not essential for acute cardiac allograft rejection in mice and rats. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION 2008; 8(-8-):1604-1613. >>> Cyclosporin A; NIBR2130; SC; Mice; 2002; 2ML2; Animal info (CXCR3 deficient, C47BL/6, 8-12 wks old); NIBR2130 is a CXCR3 inhibitor; functionality of mp verified by plasma drug levels.

9552 Hippert, C., Dubois, G., Morin, C., Disson, O., Ibanes, S., Jacquet, C., Schwendener, R., Antignac, C., Kremer, E.J., Kalatzis, V. Gene transfer may be preventive but not curative for a lysosomal transport disorder. MOLECULAR THERAPY 2008; 16(-8-):1372-1381. >>> Cyclosporin A; SC; Mice; Controls received no treatment; functionality of mp verified by blood CsA levels; animal info (male, 1295v/C57BL6 Ctns -/-; 3, 5 months old);"A whole blood immunoassay demonstrated that CsA was continually administered over the 28-day period"(p.1375); metabolic disorders.

9351 Kwun, J., Hazinedaroglu, S.M., Schadde, E., Kayaoglu, H.A., Fechner, J., Hu, H.Z., Roenneburg, D., Torrealba, J., Shiao, L., Hong, X., Peng, R., Szewczyk, J.W., Sullivan, K.A., DeMartino, J., Knechtle, S.J. Unaltered graft survival and intragraft lymphocytes infiltration in the cardiac allograft of Cxcr3-/- mouse recipients. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION 2008; 8(-8-):1593-1603. >>> Cyclosporin; SC; Mice; 1002; Animal info (male, C57BL/6, 6-8 wks old, Cxcr3-/-).

8967 Addy, N.A., Fornasiero, E.F., Stevens, T.R., Taylor, J.R., Picciotto, M.R. Role of calcineurin in nicotine-mediated locomotor sensitization. Journal of Neuroscience 2007; 27(-32-):8571-8580. >>> Cyclosporin; FK-506; rapamycin; PBS; Tween 20; DMSO; ethanol; cremaphor; CSF/CNS (ventral tegmental area); CSF/CNS (nucleus accumbens); Rat; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; no stress (see pg. 8573); animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 200-250g); 25% DMSO.

8762 Muramatsu, Y., Furuichi, Y., Tojo, N., Moriguchi, A., Maemoto, T., Nakada, H., Hino, M., Matsuoka, N. Neuroprotective efficacy of FR901459, a novel derivative of cyclosporin A, in in vitro mitochondrial damage and in vivo transient cerebral ischemia models. Brain Research 2007; 1149(--):181-190. >>> Cyclosporin A; FR901459; Cremophor EL; saline;; CSF/CNS; Rat; 1003D; Dose-response (fig. 7); comparison of IV bolus injections vs. mp; ischemia (cerebral); animal info (male, Wistar, 9-10 weeks old, 274-280 grams, MCAO).

8672 Coenen, J.J.A., Koenen, H.J.P.M., van Rijssen, E., Kasran, A., Boon, L., Hilbrands, L.B., Joosten, I. Rapamycin, not cyclosporine, permits thymic generation and peripheral preservation of CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ T cells. Bone Marrow Transplantation 2007; 39(-9-):537-545. >>> Cyclosporin A; SC; Mice; 2004; Controls received mp w/PBS; dose-response (fig. 1); cardiovascular; immunology; animal info (C3H (H-2K), BALB/C (H-2d), 8-12 wks old).

8593 Wranning, C.A., El-Akouri, R.R., Groth, K., Moelne, J., Parra, A.K., Braennstroem, M. Rejection of the transplanted uterus is suppressed by cyclosporine A in a semi-allogeneic mouse model. Human Reproduction 2007; 22(-2-):372-379. >>> Cyclosporin A; Propylene glycol; SC; Mice; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle, or no treatment; functionality of mp verified by serum CyA levels; dose-response (Table 1); immunology; post (buprenorphin, carprofen, cefuroxine); animal info (female, C57BL/6, B6CBAF1, 6-8 wks old, uterine transplant).

8385 Marchal, F., Tran, N., Marchal, S., Leroux, A., Marchal, C., Bolotine, L., Guillemin, F.O., Villemot, J.P. Development of an HT29 liver metastases model in nude rats. Oncology Reports 2005; 14(-5-):1203-1207. >>> Cyclosporin A; IP; Rat (nude); 2ML4; Controls received no treatment; no stress (see pg. 1204); cancer (colorectal); peptides; animal info (male, athymic Rowett nude, 300 grams).

7312 Minami, S.B., Yamashita, D., Schacht, J., Miller, J.M. Calcineurin activation contributes to noise-induced hearing loss. Journal of Neuroscience Research 2004; 78(-3-):383-392. >>> FK-506; cyclosporin A; Perilymph, artificial; Ear (cochlea); Guinea-pig; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle, or contralateral untreated cochlea; dose-response (fig. 3); stress/adverse reaction: (see pg. 385) 4 of 43 animals developed middle ear infections; 4 of 43 animals had post surgical hearing loss; calcineurin inhibitors;"Systematic application may therefore have unwanted side effects that may be avoided by intracochlear perfusion by osmotic pump. The use of an osmotic pumps also allows relatively precise control over the timing and concertration of drugs applied to the tissues of the inner ear."(pg. 389); tissue perfusion (cochlea).

6993 Luckow, B., Joergensen, J., Chilla, S., Li, J.P., Henger, A., Kiss, E., Wieczorek, G., Roth, L., Hartmann, N., Hoffmann, R., Kretzler, M., Nelson, P.J., de Lema, G.P., Maier, H., Wurst, W., Balling, R., Pfeffer, K., Groene, H.J., Schloendorff, D., Zerwes, H.G. Reduced intragraft mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinases Mmp3, Mmp12, Mmp13 and Adam8, and diminished transplant arteriosclerosis in Ccr5-deficient mice. European Journal of Immunology 2004; 34(-9-):2568-2578. >>> Cyclosporin A; SC; Mice; 2002; Heart transplant; cardiovascular.

6669 Bai, S., Stepkowski, S.M., Kahan, B.D., Brunner, L.J. Metabolic interaction between cyclosporine and sirolimus. Transplantation 2004; 77(-10-):1507-1512. >>> Cyclosporin; sirolimus; Sandimmune IV solution; dimethylacetamide; Tween 80; PEG 400; IV (femoral); Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; multiple pumps per animal (2); CSA was purchased as sandimmune IV solution (cremophor or castor oil and 33% ethanol); SRL was dissolved in Tween 80 (10%), PEG 400 (70%), and dimethyl acetamide, N-N- (20%); Immunology.

6331 Nikolovski, Z., Hof, A., Baumlin, Y., Hof, R.P. Efficacy of SDZ RAD compared with CsA monotherapy and combined RAD/FTY720 treatment in a murine cardiac allotransplantation model. TRANSPLANT IMMUNOLOGY 2001; 9(--):43-49. >>> SDZ RAD; cyclosporin A; Propanediol propylene glycol, 1,2-; sandimmune IV solution; SC; Mice; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; pumps replaced every two weeks; cardiovascular; SDZ RAD (everolimus or certican) is an immunosuppresant;"SDZ RAD has a shorter half-life than rapamycin; CsA was dissolved in sandimmune IV solution; long-term study.

6047 Matsumoto, Y., Hof, A., Baumlin, Y., Hof, R.P. Differential effect of cyclosporine A and SDZ RAD on neointima formation of carotid allografts in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Transplantation 2003; 76(-8-):1166-1170. >>> SDZ RAD; cyclosporin A; Propylene glycol; sandimmune IV solution; SC; Mice (knockout); 2002; Dose-response (survival dose response) p. 1168; pumps replaced every 2 weeks; immunology; (RAD) is a novel rapamycin derivative and is an immunosuppresant, aka everolimus or certican; sandimmune IV solution used;"CSA&RAD were administered by ALZET minipumps, which we prefer because of the well-defined drug exposure."p. 1168; long-term study.

5629 Haouzi, D., Cohen, I., Vieira, H.L.A., Poncet, D., Boya, P., Castedo, M., Vadrot, N., Belzacq, A.S., Fau, D., Brenner, C., Feldmann, G., Kroemer, G. Mitochondrial permeability transition as a novel principle of hepatorenal toxicity in vivo. Apoptosis 2002; 7(-5-):395-405. >>> Cyclosporin A; Ethanol; SC; Mice; 1003D; .

4775 Ramirez, C, Olmo, A, O'Valle, F, Masseroli, M, Aguilar, M, Gomez-Morales, M, Revelles, F, Garcia-Chicano, M.J, Arrebola, F, Reguero, J.E, del Moral, R.G  Experimental Nephrology 2000; 8(--):161-172. >>> Cyclosporin A; Endothelin-1; Endothelin-3;; Saline; propylene glycol; SC;; rat;; 2ML4;; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by whole blood CsA levels; long-term study, pumps replaced after 28 days; antihypertensive; cardiovascular; secretion in nephrotoxicity, relationship with Angiotensin II in renal expression propylene glycol used as vehicle for CsA..

4682 Shirbacheh, M.V, Harralson, T.A, Jones, J.W, Breidenbach, W.C, Jevans, A.W, Maldonado, C, Barker, J.H, Gruber, S.A  The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 1999; 289(-3-):1191-1195. >>> Cyclosporin A; Cremophor; sandimmune IV solution; IA (brachial); Rabbit; 2ML1; Dose-response (p. 1192-1194); immunology; sandimmune (CSA) solution used; intramedic PE-60/PE-10 infusion catheter used; to acheive highest dose; two pumps were implanted and catheters were joined via a Y-connector;.

4681 Shirbacheh, M.V, Ren, X, Jones, J.W, Breidenbach, W.C, Jevans, A.W, Fernandez-Botran, G.R, Maldonado, C, Barker, J.H, Gruber, S.A  The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 1999; 289(-3-):1185-1190. >>> Cyclosporin A; Sandimmune IV solution; IA (brachial); IV (jugular);; rabbit;; 2ML1;; good surgical methods (p. 1186); immunology; diagram of pump/catheter system (p. 1186); PE-60 tubing was glued to PE-10 tubing; Sandimmune (CSA) solution used;.

15504 Brandle, D., Joergensen, J., Zenke, G., Burki, K., Hof, R.P. Contribution of donor-specific antibodies to acute allograft rejection. Transplantation 1998; 65(-11-):1489-1493. >>> Cyclosporin A; SC; mice; dose-response (0, 3, 10 mg/kg/d); immunology.

4093 Brandle, D., Joergensen, J., Zenke, G., Burki, K., Hof, R.P. Contribution of donor-specific antibodies to acute allograft rejection. Transplantation 1998; 65(-11-):1489-1493. >>> Cyclosporin A; SC; mice; dose-response (0, 3, 10 mg/kg/d); immunology.

15502 Oliver, S.J., Cheng, T.P., Banquerigo, M.L., Brahn, E. Suppression of collagen-induced arthritis by an angiogenesis inhibitor, AGM-1470, in combination with cyclosporin: reduction of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Cellular Immunol 1995; 166(--):196-206. >>> Cyclosporin A; PEG 300; SC; rat; 2ML4; photo of rat showing implanted pump (pg. 204); no stress (see pp. 199, 204, 205); immunology; controls received sham surgeries.

4091 Oliver, S.J., Cheng, T.P., Banquerigo, M.L., Brahn, E. Suppression of collagen-induced arthritis by an angiogenesis inhibitor, AGM-1470, in combination with cyclosporin: reduction of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Cellular Immunol 1995; 166(--):196-206. >>> Cyclosporin A; PEG 300; SC; rat; 2ML4; photo of rat showing implanted pump (pg. 204); no stress (see pp. 199, 204, 205); immunology; controls received sham surgeries.

3996 Stepkowski, S.M., Wang, M.E., Amante, A., Kalinin, D., Qu, X., Blasdel, T., Condon, T., Kahan, B.D., Bennett, F.C. Antisense ICAM-1 oligonucleotides block allograft rejection in rats. Transplant. Proc 1997; 29(--):1285. >>> Cyclosporin; Oligodeoxynucleotide, antisense; Cremophor; IV; rat; immunology; antisense; controls received scrambled antisense.

3995 Wehr, S., Rudin, M., Joergensen, J., Hof, A., Hof, R.P. Allo- and autotransplantation of carotid artery - a new model of chronic graft vessel disease. Transplantation 1997; 64(-1-):20-27. >>> Cyclosporin; SC; rat; 2ML4; 2ML2; controls received mp w/vehicle; functionality of mp verified by CsA blood levels at 1 and 8 weeks; immunology; long-term study.

3994 Sandberg, J.-O., Benda, B., Lycke, N., Korsgren, O. Xenograft rejection of porcine islet-like cell clusters in normal, interferon-gamma, and interferon-gamma receptor deficient mice. Transplantation 1997; 63(-10-):1446-1452. >>> Cyclosporin; SC; mice; 2002; controls received mp w/vehicle; functionality of mp verified by blood CsA levels and visual inspection at study end; immunology.

3716 Tice, D.G., Bruch, D., Ikramuddin, S. Anti-VLA-4 and cyclosporine synergistically prolong rat heterotopic small bowel allografts. Transplant. Proc 1996; 28(-5-):2496. >>> Cyclosporin A; rat; immunology.

3471 Tu, Y., Stepkowski, S.M., Chou, T.-C., Kahan, B.D. The synergistic effects of cyclosporine, sirolimus, and brequinar on heart allograft survival in mice. Transplantation 1995; 59(-2-):177-183. >>> Cyclosporin A; Rapamycin; Cremophor; Dimethylacetamide; Tween 80; PEG 400; IV (jugular); mice; 1007D; pumps replaced after 7 days; immunology; CSA and rapamycin given singly and via same pump.

8437 Larsen, C.P., Elwood, E.T., Alexander, D.Z., Ritchie, S.C., Hendrix, R., Tucker-Burden, C., Cho, H.R., Aruffo, A., Hollenbaugh, D., Linsley, P.S. Long-term acceptance of skin and cardiac allografts after blocking CD 40 and CD 28 pathways. Nature 1996; 381(-6581-):434-438. >>> Cyclosporin A; SC; Mice; 2002; No stress (see pg. 437); immunology; animal info (C57BL/6).

3090 Ferraresso, M., Rigotti, P., Stepkowski, S.M., Chou, T.-C., Kahan, B.D. Immunosuppressive effects of defibrotide. Transplantation 1993; 56(-4-):928-933. >>> Defibrotide; Cyclosporin A; PBS; Cremophor; IA (innominate); IV (lumbar); rat; 2002; 2ML1; Controls were untreated; comparison of ip injections or oral gavage vs. mp; defibrotide infused into artery of graft or recipient vein; defibrotide is an immunosuppressant w/ antithrombotic and profibrinolytic activities.

2254 Ferraresso, M., Ghobrial, R., Stepkowski, S.M., Kahan, B.D. The mechanism of unresponsiveness to allografts induced by rapamycin and rapamycin/cyclosporine treatment in rats. Transplantation 1993; 55(-4-):888-894. >>> Cyclosporin; Rapamycin; Cremophor; Dimethylacetamide; Ethanol; PEG 400; Tween 80; IV (lumbar); rat; 2002; immunology.

2237 DiJoseph, J.F., Mihatsch, M.J., Sehgal, S.N. Influence of rat strain on rapamycin's kidney effects. Transplant. Proc 1993; 25(-1-):714-715. >>> Cyclosporin A; Rapamycin; Cremophor; Dimethylacetamide; Ethanol; PEG 400; Tween; IV (jugular); rat; 2002; controls received mp w/vehicle; functionality of mp verified by HPLC analysis; immunology.

2044 Stepkowski, S.M., Tu, Y., Condon, T.P., Bennett, C.F. Blocking of heart allograft rejection by intercellular adhesion molecule-1 antisense oligonucleotides alone or in combination with other immunosuppressive modalities. J. Immunol 1994; 153(--):5336-5346. >>> Oligodeoxynucleotide, phosphorothioate antisense; Cyclosporin A; Rapamycin; Oligodeoxynucleotide, scrambled; Cremophor; Tween 80; Dimethylacetamide; PEG 400; IV (jugular); mice; oligo of interest was IP-3082; controls received no treatment, unrelated oligo IP-1082, or scrambled oligo IP-4189; immunology;"...this study reports the first example of pharmacologic activity of an antisense PS-oligo by i.v. systemic administration in a model of a complex inflammatory process".

2012 Stepkowski, S.M., Chen, H.F., Wang, M.E., Daloze, P., Kahan, B.D. Inhibition of host-versus-graft and graft-versus-host responses after small bowel transplantation in rats by rapamycin. Transplantation 1992; 53(-2-):258-264. >>> Cyclosporin; Rapamycin; Dimethylacetamide; PEG 400; Tween; IV (lumbar); rat; 2002; tissue perfusion (allograft); immunology.

1954 Brahn, E., Peacock, D.J., Banquerigo, M.L. Suppression of collagen-induced arthritis by combination cyclosporin A and methotrexate therapy. Arthritis Rheum 1991; 34(-10-):1282-1288. >>> Cyclosporin A; PEG 300; rat; 2ML4; dose response (graph, p. 1284); immunology.

1937 Bernareggi, A., Rowland, M. Physiologic modeling of cyclosporin kinetics in rat and man. J. Pharmacokinet. Biopharm 1991; 19(-1-):21-49. >>> Cyclosporin; Cremophor; Ethanol; SC; rat; blood and tissue concentrations, volume of distribution on blood and tissues.

1818 Pereira, G.M.B., Miller, J.F., Shevach, E.M. Mechanism of action of cyclosporine A in vivo. J. Immunol 1990; 144(-6-):2109-2116. >>> Cyclosporin A; PBS; sandimmune IV solution; mice; 2001; functionality of mp verified by measuring CsA plasma levels (HPLC); used Sandimmune iv formulation.

1726 Textor, S.C., Smith-Powell, L., Telles, T. Altered pressor responses to NE and ANG II during cyclosporin A administration to conscious rats. Am. J. Physiol. (Heart Circ. Physiol. 27) 1990; 258(-3-):H854-H860. >>> Cyclosporin A; Olive oil; IP; rat; controls received pumps with olive oil only; two doses infused.

1688 Lee, Y.B., Lee, Y.K. The effect of continuous injection of cyclosporine A on the cardiac allograft in the rats. J. Catholic Med. College 1989; 42(-2-):459-469. >>> Cyclosporin A; IV; rat; 2002; comparison of daily IV injections vs. mp; graft survival: heart transplant; Japanese with English summary, English captions on graphs and tables.

1685 Pereira, G.M.B., Furtado, C., Yokoyama, W.M., Kipnis, T.L., Shevach, E.M. Comparative aspects of T cell activation in vivo following stimulation with anti-CD3 MAB, allogenic cells and trypanosoma cruzi. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 1988; 1(-83-):284-291. >>> Cyclosporin A; SC; mice; 2001; immunology.

1564 Stepkowski, S.M., Goto, S., Ito, T., Reynolds, K., Didlake, R., Kim, E.K., Kahan, B.D. Prolongation of heterotropic heart allograft survival by local delivery of continuous low-dose cyclosporine therapy. Transplantation 1989; 47(-1-):17-23. >>> Cyclosporin; Cremophor; IA (innominate); IV; rat; 2002; dose-response; comparison of gavage vs. mp infusion; functionality of mp verified by blood levels; tissue perfusion (heart allograft).

880 Ruers, T.J., van der Linden, C.J., Buurman, W.A., Kootstra, G. 2'Deoxycoformycin: a new immunosuppressive drug with a potency comparable to cyclosporine. Transplant. Proc. XVII 1985; 17(-1-):1333-1335. >>> Cyclosporin A; Deoxycoformycin, 2'-; Ethanol; Saline; IP; rat; 2ML2; controls received mp w/saline; comparison of agents effects; animals rec'd skin grafts; comparison of ip injections vs. mp infusion; immunology.


Since 1977, scientist around the world have used ALZET pumps to conduct their research, publishing their results in high-impact journals. The ALZET bibliography now contains over 16,000 publications! We can perform a custom search for references relevant to your research.

Request your ALZET bibliography search!


Order the ALZET SurgicalImplantation Video

What researchers are saying...

“...opioid and nonopioid analgesics were continuously infused from subcutaneously implanted osmotic mini-pumps, a convenient modality of drug delivery that allows for drug delivery at constant rate for prolonged periods of time without experimenter intervention.” Bruins Slot et al., Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 2002;72:943-951.