References on the Administration of Antidepressants Using ALZET® Osmotic Pumps

1. Acetylphenelzine

P2971 Sherry-McKenna,R.L., Wong,J.T.F., Paetsch,P.R., Baker,G.B., Mousseau,D.D., McKenna,K.F., Coutts,R.T., Greenshaw,A.J. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors: effects on tryptophan concentrations in the rat brain. J.Neural Transm. 1994; 41(--):155-163. >>> Phenelzine; Tranylcypromine, 4-methoxy-; Acetylphenelzine, N2-; Tranylcypromine, 4-fluoro-; Tranylcypromine; Deprenyl; SC; IP; rat; 28 days; antidepressant; controls received mp with vehicle; comparison of TCP and PLZ ip injections vs. mp.

P2832 McKenna,K.F., McManus,D.J., Baker,G.B., Coutts,R.T. Chronic administration of the antidepressant phenelzine and its N-acetyl analogue: effects on GABAergic function. J.Neural Transm. 1994; 41(--):115-122. >>> Phenelzine sulfate; Acetylphenelzine, N2-; SC; rat; 2ML2; 28 days; antidepressant; controls received mp with water.

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2. Acetylphenelzine, N2

3077 Sherry-McKenna, R.L., Wong, J.T.F., Paetsch, P.R., Baker, G.B., Mousseau, D.D., McKenna, K.F., Coutts, R.T., Greenshaw, A.J. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors: effects on tryptophan concentrations in the rat brain. J. Neural Transm 1994; 41(--):155-163. >>> Phenelzine; Tranylcypromine, 4-methoxy-; Acetylphenelzine, N2-; Tranylcypromine, 4-fluoro-; Tranylcypromine; Deprenyl; SC; IP; rat; antidepressant; controls received mp with vehicle; comparison of TCP and PLZ ip injections vs. mp.

2933 McKenna, K.F., McManus, D.J., Baker, G.B., Coutts, R.T. Chronic administration of the antidepressant phenelzine and its N-acetyl analogue: effects on GABAergic function. J. Neural Transm 1994; 41(--):115-122. >>> Phenelzine sulfate; Acetylphenelzine, N2-; SC; rat; 2ML2; antidepressant; controls received mp with water.

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3. Adinazolam

433 Turmel, A., de Montigny, C. Sensitization of rat forebrain neurons to serotonin by adinazolam, an antidepressant triazolobenzodiazepine. Eur. J. Pharmacol 1984; 99(--):241-244. >>> Adinazolam; Diazepam; Benzyl alcohol; Ethanol; Propylene glycol; Sodium benzoate; Water; IP; rat; 2002; comparison of adinazolam. iv injec vs. mp infusion; comparison of agents effects; adinazolam. used with water vehicle, Diaz. with combination vehicle.

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4. Amitriptyline

10196 Bjartmar, L., Alkhori, L., Ruud, J., Mohammed, A.H., Marcusson, J., Hallbeck, M. Long-term treatment with antidepressants, but not environmental stimulation, induces expression of NP2 mRNA in hippocampus and medial habenula. Brain Research 2010; 1328(-;-):25-33. >>> Amitriptyline; moclobemide; citalopram hydrobromide; maprotiline; SC; Rat; Controls received mp w/isotonic saline; enzyme inhibitor (monoamine oxidase-A); animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 200-250 g);"This method of delivery was chosen to avoid daily injections and thus manipulation of the animals."(p. 30); antidepressants.

9310 Tai, Y.H., Tsai, R.Y., Wang, Y.H., Cherng, C.H., Tao, P.L., Liu, T.M., Wong, C.S. Amitriptyline induces nuclear transcription factor-kappa B-dependent glutamate transporter upregulation in chronic morphine-infused rats. Neuroscience 2008; 153(-3-):823-831. >>> Morphine; amitriptyline; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (male, Wistar, 350-400 g.); intrathecal catheter constructed using polyethylene (0.008 in ID, 0.014 in OD) and silastic tube; behavioral testing (antinociception assay, hot water immersion, tail flick latency).

9205 Rossi, D.V., Valdez, M., Gould, G.G., Hensler, J.G. Chronic administration of venlafaxine fails to attenuate 5-HT1A receptor function at the level of receptor-G protein interaction. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY 2006; 9(-4-):393-406. >>> Amitriptyline HCl; sertraline HCl; venlafaxine HCl; Water, sterile; ethanol; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ saline; functionality of mp verified by serum drug concentrations; dose- response (fig. 1); animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 200-275 g.); 40% ethanol used; behavioral testing (hypothermic response).

8470 Sud, R., Ignatowski, T.A., Lo, C.P.K., Spengler, R.N. Uncovering molecular elements of brain-body communication during development and treatment of neuropathic pain. BRAIN BEHAVIOR AND IMMUNITY 2007; 21(-1-):112-124. >>> Tumor necrosis Factor-a, recomb. rat: tumor necrosis factor-a, recomb. rat, heat-inactivated; amitriptyline; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS; Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle, or heat-inactivated rr-TNFa; comparison of ip injections vs. mp; peptides; animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 300-350g); chronic constriction injury to the right sciatic nerve; neuropathic pain.

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5. Amytriptyline

Q0004 Bjartmar,L., Alkhori,L., Ruud,J., Mohammed,A.H., Marcusson,J., Hallbeck,M. Long-term treatment with antidepressants, but not environmental stimulation, induces expression of NP2 mRNA in hippocampus and medial habenula. Brain Research 2010; 1328(-;-):25-33. >>> Amitriptyline; moclobemide; citalopram hydrobromide; maprotiline; SC; Rat; 3, 21 days; Controls received mp w/isotonic saline; enzyme inhibitor (monoamine oxidase-A); animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 200-250 g); "This method of delivery was chosen to avoid daily injections and thus manipulation of the animals." (p. 30); antidepressants.

P9075 Tai,Y.H., Tsai,R.Y., Wang,Y.H., Cherng,C.H., Tao,P.L., Liu,T.M., Wong,C.S. Amitriptyline induces nuclear transcription factor-kappa B-dependent glutamate transporter upregulation in chronic morphine-infused rats. Neuroscience 2008; 153(-3-):823-831. >>> Morphine; amitriptyline; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 2001; ; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (male, Wistar, 350-400 g.); intrathecal catheter constructed using polyethylene (0.008 in ID, 0.014 in OD) and silastic tube; behavioral testing (antinociception assay, hot water immersion, tail flick latency).

P8973 Rossi,D.V., Valdez,M., Gould,G.G., Hensler,J.G. Chronic administration of venlafaxine fails to attenuate 5-HT1A receptor function at the level of receptor-G protein interaction. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY 2006; 9(-4-):393-406. >>> Amitriptyline HCl; sertraline HCl; venlafaxine HCl; Water, sterile; ethanol; SC; Rat; 2ML4; 21 days; Controls received mp w/ saline; functionality of mp verified by serum drug concentrations; dose- response (fig. 1); animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 200-275 g.); 40% ethanol used; behavioral testing (hypothermic response).

P8246 Sud,R., Ignatowski,T.A., Lo,C.P.K., Spengler,R.N. Uncovering molecular elements of brain-body communication during development and treatment of neuropathic pain. BRAIN BEHAVIOR AND IMMUNITY 2007; 21(-1-):112-124. >>> Tumor necrosis Factor-a, recomb. rat: tumor necrosis factor-a, recomb. rat, heat-inactivated; amitriptyline; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS; Rat; 8 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle, or heat-inactivated rr-TNFa; comparison of ip injections vs. mp; peptides; animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 300-350g); chronic constriction injury to the right sciatic nerve; neuropathic pain.

P8011 Tai,Y.H., Wang,Y.H., Wang,J.J., Tao,P.L., Tung,C.S., Wong,C.S. Amitriptyline suppresses neuroinflammation and up-regulates glutamate transporters in morphine-tolerant rats. Pain 2006; 124(-1-2-):77-86. >>> Amitriptyline; morphine; Saline; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); SC; Rat; 2001; 5 days; Tolerance; animal info (male, Wistar, 350-400 grams); behavioral study.

P7726 Gould,G.G., Altamirano,A.V., Javors,M.A., Frazer,A. A comparison of the chronic treatment effects of venlafaxine and other antidepressants on serotonin and norepinephrine transporters. Biological Psychiatry 2006; 59(-5-):408-414. >>> Venlafaxine; sertraline; amitriptyline; paroxetine; desipramine; citalopram; Saline; water, deionized; ethanol; SC; Rat; 2ML4; 21 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by serum drug concentrations; dose-response (fig1); anmial info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 150-200g); 50% EtoH in H2O.

P7514 West,C.H.K., Weiss,J.M. A selective test for antidepressant treatments using rats bred for stress-induced reduction of motor activity in the swim test. Psychopharmacology 2005; 182(-1-):9-23. >>> Amitriptyline HCl; venlafaxine HCl; clordiazepoxide HCl; imipramine HCl; phenelzine sulfate; scopolamine HBr; desipramine HCl; bupropion HCl; chlorpheniramine maleate; fluoxetine HCl; sertraline; amphetamine sulfate, D-; Water, sterile distilled; PEG; SC; Rat; 2ML2; 6,14 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by agent blood levels; dose-response (fig. 5); animal info (male, female, susceptible, selectively bred); some animals had saline-filled catheter attached to mp to delay drug infusion by 5 days; "The most notable advantage of minipump delivery is that it eliminates stress resulting from daily injection of drug....minipumps also provide constant infusion of drug" (pg. 22).

P7089 Andin,J., Stenfors,C., Ross,S.B., Marcusson,J. Modulation of neuronal glutamate transporter rEAAC1 mRNA expression in rat brain by amitriptyline. MOLECULAR BRAIN RESEARCH 2004; 126(-1-):74-77. >>> Amitriptyline hydrochloride; Saline; SC; Rat; 3,7,21 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle, or no treatment.

P5693 Pringsheim,T., Diksic,M., Dobson,C., Nguyen,K., Hamel,E. Selective decrease in serotonin synthesis rate in rat brainstem raphe nuclei following chronic administration of low doses of amitriptyline: an effect compatible with an anti-migraine effect. Cephalalgia 2003; 23(-5-):367-375. >>> Amitriptyline; Saline; IP; Rat; 2ML2; 21 days; Controls received the mp w/ vehicle; tricyclic antidepressant.

P2779 Ohshima,N., Kotaki,H., Sawada,Y., Iga,T. The relationship between the pharmacological effect of amitriptyline based on an improved forced-swimming test and plasma concentration in rats. Biol.Pharm.Bull 1995; 18(-1-):70-74. >>> Amitriptyline; IP; rat; 2ML1; 7 days; antidepressant; functionality of mp verified by an in vitro study and by assaying plasma levels; stability verified by in vitro studies for 7 days at 37 degrees C.

P2733 Goodnough,D.B., Baker,G.B. Tranylcypromine does not enhance the effects of amitriptyline on 5-HT2 receptors in rat cerebral cortex. J.Pharm.Sci. 1994; 83(-1-):100-103. >>> Amitriptyline; Tranylcypromine; Water, distilled; SC; rat; 2ML2; 4, 10 or 28 days; antidepressant; controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor; tranylcypromine is an MAO inhibitor; amitriptyline infused alone and in combination with tranylcypromine.

P2654 Brodin,K., Ogren,S.-O., Brodin,E. Clomipramine and clonazepam increase cholecystokinin levels in rat ventral tegmental area and limbic regions. Eur.J.Pharmacol. 1994; 263(--):175-180. >>> Nortriptyline; Amitriptyline; Clomipramine; Alaproclate; Clonazepam; Alcohol; Saline; SC; rat; 2ML2; 14 days; antidepressant; controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by plasma levels; dose-response (Table 1; pg. 177); enzyme inhibitor; clonazepam is a benzodiazepene; the others are monoamine uptake inhibitors.

P1577 Yakubu,M.A., Deighton,N.M., Hamilton,C.A., Reid,J.L. Differences in the regulation of [3H]idazoxan and [3H]yohimbine binding sites in the rabbit. Eur.J.Pharmacol. 1990; 176(--):305-311. >>> Amitriptyline; Idazoxan; Norepinephrine; Saline; IP; IV (femoral); rabbit; 5, 10, 21 days; not clear that amitriptyline delivered by pumps.

P1513 Gravel,P., de Montigny,C. Noradrenergic denervation prevents sensitization of rat forebrain neurons to serotonin by tricyclic antidepressant treatment. Synapse 1987; 1(--):233-239. >>> Amitriptyline HCl; IP; rat; 2002; 14 days; comparison of ip injections vs. mp infusion; functionality of mp verified by brain concentration.

P1040 Nobrega,J.N., Coscina,D.V. Effects of chronic Amitriptyline and Desipramine on food intake and body weight in rats. Pharmacol.Biochem.Behav. 1987; 27(--):105-112. >>> Amitriptyline; Desipramine; Saline; SC; rat; 2001; 2002; 21/28 days; controls received mp w/vehicle; 2 sep. exp. using mp.; DMI infused in pilot trails; comparison of ip inject. vs. mp infusion; drugs also adm. by food and water; mp replaced every 7/14 days.

P0908 Frey,P. Changes in cholecystokinin content in rat brain after subchronic treatment with neuroleptics. Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci. 1985; 448(--):601-603. >>> Flupenthixol, cis-; Flupenthixol, trans-; Amitriptyline; Amphetamine; Atropine; Chlorpromazine; Clozapine; Fluphenazine; Haloperidol; Morphine; Prazosin; SC; rat; 2 weeks; mp model not stated; comparison of sc injections vs. mp infusion; antihypertensive.

P0694 Lloyd,K.G., Thuret,F., Pilc,A. Upregulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B binding sites in rat frontal cortex: a common action of repeated administration of different classes of antidepressants and electroshock. J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther. 1985; 235(-1-):191-199. >>> Maprotiline; Nomifensine; Amitriptyline; Citalopram; Desipramine; Pargyline; Trazodone; Viloxazine; Zimeldine; SC; rat; 2002; 6-18 days; comparison of agents effects; comparison of single dose ip injec vs. mp infusion and repeated ip injec of other psychotropic drugs vs. electroshock treatment; antihypertensive.

P0552 Pilc,A., Lloyd,K.G. Chronic antidepressants and GABA 'B' receptors: a GABA hypothesis of antidepressant drug action. Life Sci. 1984; 35(-21-):2149-2154. >>> Amitriptyline; Citalopram; Desipramine; Pargyline; Viloxazine; Saline; SC; rat; 2002; 18 days; comparison of acute ip injec vs. mp infusion; comparison of agents effects; antihypertensive.

P0384 Nobrega,J.N., Coscina,D.V. Effects of chronic antidepressant treatment on feeding behavior in rats. In 'Neural Basis of Feeding and Reward,' B.G.Hoebel and D.Novin (eds.), Haer Institute, Brunswick, ME 1982; (--):525-534. >>> Amitriptyline; Saline; SC; rat; 2001; 2002; 21 and 25 days; 2001 pumps replaced every week; mp used in 3 separate experiments.

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6. Befloxatone

15565 Haddjeri, N., de Montigny, C., Curet, O., Blier, P. Effect of the reversible monoamine oxidase-A inhibitor befloxatone on the rat 5-hydroxytryptamine neurotransmission. Eur. J. Pharmacol 1998; 343(--):179-192. >>> Befloxatone; Pindolol; Water; Ethanol; SC; rat; controls received mp w/vehicle; befloxatone is an antidepressant; agents infused separately or concomitantly; antihypertensive.

4154 Haddjeri, N., de Montigny, C., Curet, O., Blier, P. Effect of the reversible monoamine oxidase-A inhibitor befloxatone on the rat 5-hydroxytryptamine neurotransmission. Eur. J. Pharmacol 1998; 343(--):179-192. >>> Befloxatone; Pindolol; Water; Ethanol; SC; rat; controls received mp w/vehicle; befloxatone is an antidepressant; agents infused separately or concomitantly; antihypertensive.

2944 Mongeau, R., de Montigny, C., Blier, P. Electrophysiologic evidence for desensitization of a2-adrenoceptors on serotonin terminals following long-term treatment with drugs increasing norepinephrine synaptic concentration. Neuropsychopharm 1994; 10(-1-):41-51. >>> Befloxatone; Nisoxetine; Paroxetine; SC; rat; antidepressant; controls received mp with saline; in vitro studies were also done (p49).

2732 Blier, P., Bouchard, C. Modulation of 5-HT release in the guinea-pig brain following long-term administration of antidepressant drugs. Br. J. Pharmacol 1994; 113(--):485-495. >>> Paroxetine; Befloxatone; Ethanol; Water; guinea-pig; antidepressant; controls received mp w/ vehicles; Paroxetine is a selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and Befloxatone is a Type A monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI).

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7. Bupropion

14727 El Mansari, M., Manta, S., Oosterhof, C., El Iskandrani, K.S., Chenu, F., Shim, S., Blier, P., El Mansari, M. Restoration of Serotonin Neuronal Firing Following Long-Term Administration of Bupropion but Not Paroxetine in Olfactory Bulbectomized Rats. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY 2015; 18(--):U87-U94. >>> Bupropion; paroxetine; Water; ethanol; SC; Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 300-500g, olfactory bulbectomized); 50% ethanol used; behavioral testing (open field);.

11805 Ghanbari, R., El Mansari, M., Blier, P. Enhancement of serotonergic and noradrenergic neurotransmission in the rat hippocampus by sustained administration of bupropion. Psychopharmacology 2011; 217(-1-):61-73. >>> Bupropion; SC; Rat; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (Sprague Dawley, male, 270-320 g).

11702 West, C.H.K., Weiss, J.M. Effects of chronic antidepressant drug administration and electroconvulsive shock on activity of dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmentum. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY 2011; 14(-2-):201-210. >>> Desipramine hydrochloride; imipramine hydrochloride; fluoxetine hydrochloride; paroxetine hydrochloride; sertraline hydrochloride; venlafaxine hydrochloride; bupropion hydrochloride; phenelzine sulfate; Polyethylene glycol; DMSO; water; water, distilled; SC; IP; Rat; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, albino, Sprague-Dawley, 550-700 g); functionality of mp verified by drug levels in circulation; good methods, pg 4; 25% DMSO used; IP catheter used; silastic tubing used;"The distal end of the silastic tubing, including the bulb, was then introduced surgically into the peritoneal cavity and the peritoneal wall sutured closed so that the bulb prevented the tubing from being withdrawn back into the subcutaneous space, thereby enabling... delivery of drug from the pump into the peritoneal cavity."pg 4;.

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8. Citalopram

16158 Qesseveur, G., Petit, A. C., Nguyen, H. T., Dahan, L., Colle, R., Rotenberg, S., Seif, I., Robert, P., David, D., Guilloux, J. P., Gardier, A. M., Verstuyft, C., Becquemont, L., Corruble, E., Guiard, B. P. Genetic dysfunction of serotonin 2A receptor hampers response to antidepressant drugs: A translational approach. Neuropharmacology 2016; 105(--):142-53. >>> Fluoxetine hydrochloride; escitalopram hydrochloride; Saline; SC; Mice; 1007D; 1002; animal info (male, WT or 5-HT2A mutant, 10-14 weeks old, 25-35g); behavioral testing (tail suspension test; novelty surpassed feeding); behavioral testing (tail suspension test; novelty surpassed feeding);.

16006 Flandreau, E. I., Bourke, C. H., Ressler, K. J., Vale, W. W., Nemeroff, C. B., Owens, M. J. Escitalopram alters gene expression and HPA axis reactivity in rats following chronic overexpression of corticotropin-releasing factor from the central amygdala. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2013; 38(-8-):1349-61. >>> escitalopram; PEG 300; SC; rat; animal info: male, Wistar, PND70; functionality of mp verified by plasma escitalopram concentrations (LC-MS/MS assay); behavioral testing (elevated plus maze (EPM), defensive withdrawl (DW), social interaction (SI)); normalization of CRF neurotransmission; mp were used to assess whether chronic administration of the escitalopram (SSRI) can reverse the behavioral effects of CeA CRF-OE, and prevent CeA CRF-OE-induced HPA axis hyperactivity; dose: 10 mg/kg/day;.

15866 El Mansari, M., Lecours, M., Blier, P. Effects of acute and sustained administration of vortioxetine on the serotonin system in the hippocampus: electrophysiological studies in the rat brain. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2015; 232(-13-):2343-52. >>> Vortioxetine; escitalopram; SC; Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dalwey, adult, 250-300g); Dose (Vortioxetine 5 mg/kg/day; escitalopram 5 mg/kg/day);.

15769 Achikam Haima,, Christopher Albin-Brooks, Morgan Sherer, Emily Mills, Benedetta Leuner. The effects of gestational stress and Selective Serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant treatment on structural plasticity in the postpartum brain— A translational model for postpartum depression. Hormones and Behavior 2016; 77(--):124-131. >>> Citalopram HBr; Saline; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, Sprague-Dawley, GD); functionality of mp verified by residual volume; post op. care (ibuprofen 15 mg/kg in drinking water for 7 days); post op. care (ibuprofen 15 mg/kg in drinking water for 7 days); teratology; Therapeutic indication (post partum stress); Dose (10 mg/kg/day);.

15711 Elizabeth I. Flandreau,, Chase H. Bourke,, Kerry J. Ressler,, Wylie W. Vale,, Charles B. Nemeroff,, Michael J. Owens. Escitalopram alters gene expression and HPA axis reactivity in rats following chronic overexpression ofcorticotropin-releasing factor from the central amygdala. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2013; 38(--):1349-1361. >>> escitalopram; PEG 300; SC; rat; not specified; 10 mg/kg/day dose; male, Wistar, PND70 rats; functionality of mp verified by plasma escitalopram concentrations (LC-MS/MS assay); behavioral testing (elevated plus maze (EPM), defensive withdrawl (DW), social interaction (SI));.

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9. Clomipramine

5621 Dremencov, E., Gur, E., Lerer, B., Newman, M.E. Effects of chronic antidepressants and electroconvulsive shock on serotonergic neurotransmission in the rat hypothalamus. PROGRESS IN NEURO-PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY&BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY 2002; 26(-6-):1029-1034. >>> Clomipramine; venlafaxine; Mice; Antidepressants.

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10. Cotinine

11250 Bordia, T., Campos, C., McIntosh, J.M., Quik, M. Nicotinic Receptor-Mediated Reduction in L-DOPA-Induced Dyskinesias May Occur via Desensitization. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 2010; 333(-3-):929-938. >>> Nicotine, free base; cotinine; Rat; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 190-225 g).

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11. Desipramine

16297 Bravo, L., Mico, J. A., Rey-Brea, R., Camarena-Delgado, C., Berrocoso, E. Effect of DSP4 and desipramine in the sensorial and affective component of neuropathic pain in rats. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2016; 70(--):57-67. >>> Desipramine; Saline; SC; Rat; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Adult male Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats, 200-250 g); functionality of mp verified by pain level measurements; functionality of mp verified by pain level measurements; Noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor; Chronic Constriction Injury (CCI); Therapeutic indication (Pain); Dose (10 mg/kg/d);.

14397 Shah, A., Frazer, A., Shah, A. Influence of acute or chronic administration of ovarian hormones on the effects of desipramine in the forced swim test in female rats. Psychopharmacology 2014; 231(--):3685-3694. >>> Desipramine hydrochloride; Water, distilled; IP; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, Sprague Dawley, 250-350g, ovariectomized); functionality of mp verified by serum levels; comparison of injection vs mp; dose-response (pg 3690); post op. care (penicillin and saline injection; atipamezol 1 mg/kg); behavioral testing (forced swimming test; locomotor activity); replacement therapy (estradiol pellets); solutions filtered through 0.9 um nitrocellulose filters; pumps primed at room temperature saline; used sutures;.

12422 Furmaga, H., Carreno, F.R., Frazer, A. Vagal Nerve Stimulation Rapidly Activates Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Receptor TrkB in Rat Brain. PLoS One 2012; 7(-5-):U65-U74. >>> Sertraline; desipramine; Ethanol; saline; IP; Rat; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Sprague Dawley, adult, male, 250-350 g); nitrocellulose filters used; 10% ethanol used.

12291 ba-Delgado, C., Mico, J.A., Sanchez-Blazquez, P., Berrocoso, E. Analgesic antidepressants promote the responsiveness of locus coeruleus neurons to noxious stimulation: Implications for neuropathic pain. Pain 2012; 153(-7-):1438-1449. >>> Desipramine; duloxetine; Saline; cyclodextrin, methyl-beta; SC; Rat; 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Sprague Dawley, male, 250-300 g).

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12. Duloxetine

14404 Skelly, M.J., Weiner, J.L., Weiner, J.L. Chronic treatment with prazosin or duloxetine lessens concurrent anxiety-like behavior and alcohol intake: evidence of disrupted noradrenergic signaling in anxiety-related alcohol use. BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR 2014; 4(--):468-483. >>> Prazosin; propranolol; duloxetine; DMSO; saline, sterile; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Long Evans, adult, 300g); functionality of mp verified by residual volume; 10% DMSO used; stress/adverse reaction: (see pg. 472); post op. care (ketoprofen 3 mg/kg SC); behavioral testing (ethanol intake, open field test, locomotor activity, elevated plus maze); dependence;"Drug doses were calculated based on the estimated mean weight of animals in each group halfway through the drug delivery period (taking the mean weight at baselineand adding projected weight gain across 2 weeks)"pg 470; pumps removed after 4 weeks;.

12291 ba-Delgado, C., Mico, J.A., Sanchez-Blazquez, P., Berrocoso, E. Analgesic antidepressants promote the responsiveness of locus coeruleus neurons to noxious stimulation: Implications for neuropathic pain. Pain 2012; 153(-7-):1438-1449. >>> Desipramine; duloxetine; Saline; cyclodextrin, methyl-beta; SC; Rat; 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Sprague Dawley, male, 250-300 g).

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13. Escitalopram

16158 Qesseveur, G., Petit, A. C., Nguyen, H. T., Dahan, L., Colle, R., Rotenberg, S., Seif, I., Robert, P., David, D., Guilloux, J. P., Gardier, A. M., Verstuyft, C., Becquemont, L., Corruble, E., Guiard, B. P. Genetic dysfunction of serotonin 2A receptor hampers response to antidepressant drugs: A translational approach. Neuropharmacology 2016; 105(--):142-53. >>> Fluoxetine hydrochloride; escitalopram hydrochloride; Saline; SC; Mice; 1007D; 1002; animal info (male, WT or 5-HT2A mutant, 10-14 weeks old, 25-35g); behavioral testing (tail suspension test; novelty surpassed feeding); behavioral testing (tail suspension test; novelty surpassed feeding);.

16006 Flandreau, E. I., Bourke, C. H., Ressler, K. J., Vale, W. W., Nemeroff, C. B., Owens, M. J. Escitalopram alters gene expression and HPA axis reactivity in rats following chronic overexpression of corticotropin-releasing factor from the central amygdala. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2013; 38(-8-):1349-61. >>> escitalopram; PEG 300; SC; rat; animal info: male, Wistar, PND70; functionality of mp verified by plasma escitalopram concentrations (LC-MS/MS assay); behavioral testing (elevated plus maze (EPM), defensive withdrawl (DW), social interaction (SI)); normalization of CRF neurotransmission; mp were used to assess whether chronic administration of the escitalopram (SSRI) can reverse the behavioral effects of CeA CRF-OE, and prevent CeA CRF-OE-induced HPA axis hyperactivity; dose: 10 mg/kg/day;.

15866 El Mansari, M., Lecours, M., Blier, P. Effects of acute and sustained administration of vortioxetine on the serotonin system in the hippocampus: electrophysiological studies in the rat brain. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2015; 232(-13-):2343-52. >>> Vortioxetine; escitalopram; SC; Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dalwey, adult, 250-300g); Dose (Vortioxetine 5 mg/kg/day; escitalopram 5 mg/kg/day);.

15711 Elizabeth I. Flandreau,, Chase H. Bourke,, Kerry J. Ressler,, Wylie W. Vale,, Charles B. Nemeroff,, Michael J. Owens. Escitalopram alters gene expression and HPA axis reactivity in rats following chronic overexpression ofcorticotropin-releasing factor from the central amygdala. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2013; 38(--):1349-1361. >>> escitalopram; PEG 300; SC; rat; not specified; 10 mg/kg/day dose; male, Wistar, PND70 rats; functionality of mp verified by plasma escitalopram concentrations (LC-MS/MS assay); behavioral testing (elevated plus maze (EPM), defensive withdrawl (DW), social interaction (SI));.

15020 Ehrlich, D.E., Neigh, G.N., Bourke, C.H., Nemeth, C.L., Hazra, R., Ryan, S.J., Rowson, S., Jairam, N., Sholar, C.A., Rainnie, D.G., Stowe, Z.N., Owens, M.J., Neigh, G.N. Prenatal stress, regardless of concurrent escitalopram treatment, alters behavior and amygdala gene expression of adolescent female rats. NEUROPHARMACOLOGY 2015; 97(--):251-258. >>> Escitalopram oxalate; Saline; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, nulliparious Sprague Dalwey, 200-225g); behavioral testing (open field, social interaction, novel object recognition, elevated plus maze; teratology;.

13646 Kostyalik, D., Katai, Z., Vas, S., Pap, D., Petschner, P., Molnar, E., Gyertyan, I., Kalmar, L., Tothfalusi, L., Bagdy, G. Chronic escitalopram treatment caused dissociative adaptation in serotonin (5-HT) 2C receptor antagonist-induced effects in REM sleep, wake and theta wave activity. Experimental Brain Research 2014; 232(-3-):935-946. >>> Escitalopram; Water, distilled; hydrochloric acid; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Wistar, 250-280g); behavioral testing (sleeping pattern); used electrodes from Plastics One to measure sleep;.

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14. Fluoxetine

16158 Qesseveur, G., Petit, A. C., Nguyen, H. T., Dahan, L., Colle, R., Rotenberg, S., Seif, I., Robert, P., David, D., Guilloux, J. P., Gardier, A. M., Verstuyft, C., Becquemont, L., Corruble, E., Guiard, B. P. Genetic dysfunction of serotonin 2A receptor hampers response to antidepressant drugs: A translational approach. Neuropharmacology 2016; 105(--):142-53. >>> Fluoxetine hydrochloride; escitalopram hydrochloride; Saline; SC; Mice; 1007D; 1002; animal info (male, WT or 5-HT2A mutant, 10-14 weeks old, 25-35g); behavioral testing (tail suspension test; novelty surpassed feeding); behavioral testing (tail suspension test; novelty surpassed feeding);.

15076 Schumacher, S.M., Gao, E.H., Zhu, W.Z., Chen, X.W., Chuprun, J.K., Feldman, A.M., Tesmer, J.J.G., Koch, W.J., Schumacher, S.M. Paroxetine-Mediated GRK2 Inhibition Reverses Cardiac Dysfunction and Remodeling After Myocardial Infarction. JOURNAL OF CARDIAC FAILURE 2015; 21(--):S109-S109. >>> Paroxetine; fluoxetine; DMSO; water; SC; Mice; 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, C57BL6, myocardial infarction); functionality of mp verified by serum levels; ischemia (cardiac);.

14845 Betry, C., Etievant, A., Pehrson, A., Sanchez, C., Haddjeri, N., Haddjeri, N. Effect of the multimodal acting antidepressant vortioxetine on rat hippocampal plasticity and recognition memory. PROGRESS IN NEURO-PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY&BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY 2015; 58(--):38-46. >>> Vortioxetine; fluoxetine; SR57227; Cyclodextrin, 2-hydroxypropyl-B; SC; Rat; Controls received mp w/ fluoxetine as positive control; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 260-320g); behavioral testing (object recognition testing);.

14799 Rayen, I., Gemmel, M., Pauley, G., Steinbusch, H.W.M., Pawluski, J.L., Pawluski, J.L. Developmental exposure to SSRIs, in addition to maternal stress, has long-term sex-dependent effects on hippocampal plasticity. PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY 2015; 232(--):1231-1244. >>> Fluoxetine; Propylenediol; saline; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, Sprague Dawley, adult, 250-300g); 50% propylenediol used; teratology;“These implants also reduced the effect of stress associated with repeated injections or oral gavage.” pg 1233;.

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15. Fluvoxamine

P7312 Zhou,R., Gray,N.A., Yuan,P.X., Li,X.X., Chen,J.S., Chen,G., mschroder-Williams,P., Du,J., Zhang,L., Manji,H.K. The anti-apoptotic, glucocorticoid receptor cochaperone protein BAG-1 is a long-term target for the actions of mood stabilizers. Journal of Neuroscience 2005; 25(-18-):4493-4502. >>> Amphetamine; fluvoxamine; haloperidol; Water; ethanol; SC; Rat; 2ML4; 3 weeks; Functionality of mp verified by residual volume; 50% ethanol used [not suggested by ALZET].

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16. Haloperidol

Q2717 Tadokoro,S., Okamura,N., Sekine,Y., Kanahara,N., Hashimoto,K., Iyo,M. Chronic Treatment With Aripiprazole Prevents Development of Dopamine Supersensitivity and Potentially Supersensitivity Psychosis. SCHIZOPHRENIA BULLETIN 2012; 38(-5-):1012-1020. >>> Haloperidol; ariprprazole; Acetic acid, glacial; water; SC; Rat; 2ML2; 28 days; Control animals received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Sprague Dawley, male, 240-260 g); wound clips used; pumps replaced after 14 days; good methods "When a subsequent pump was implanted in exchange for a former one, the most recent pump was inserted on the other side of the scapulae across from the former pump." pg 1013.

Q2678 Mondelli,V., Anacker,C., Vernon,A.C., Cattaneo,A., Natesan,S., Modo,M., Dazzan,P., Kapur,S., Pariante,C.M. Haloperidol and olanzapine mediate metabolic abnormalities through different molecular pathways. TRANSLATIONAL PSYCHIATRY 2013; 3(-;-):U25-U31. >>> Haloperidol; olanzapine; SC; Rat; 2ML4; 8 weeks; Control animals received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Sprague Dawley, male, 9 wks old, 240-250 g); pumps replaced after 28 days; long-term study.

Q2054 Vernon,A.C., Natesan,S., Crum,W.R., Cooper,J.D., Modo,M., Williams,S.C.R., Kapur,S. Contrasting Effects of Haloperidol and Lithium on Rodent Brain Structure: A Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study with Postmortem Confirmation. Biological Psychiatry 2012; 71(-10-):855-863. >>> Haloperidol; Cyclodextrin, hydroxypropyl beta; ascorbic acid; SC; Rat; 2ML4; 8 weeks; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Sprague Dawley, male, 10 wks old); MRI; 20% cyclodextrin used; long-term study; pump functionality verified via plasma drug levels.

Q1815 Steward,L.J., Kennedy,M.D., Morris,B.J., Pratt,J.A. Chronic phencyclidine (PCP)-induced modulation of muscarinic receptor mRNAs in rat brain : Impact of antipsychotic drug treatment. Neuropharmacology 2012; 62(-3-):1554-1563. >>> Clozapine; haloperidol; Acetic acid; saline; water; SC; Rat; 2ML4; ; Animal info (Hooded Long Evans, 186-248 g); pump functionailty verified via residual volume.

Q1378 Vernon,A.C., Natesan,S., Modo,M., Kapur,S. Effect of Chronic Antipsychotic Treatment on Brain Structure: A Serial Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study with Ex Vivo and Postmortem Confirmation. Biological Psychiatry 2011; 69(-10-):936-944. >>> Haloperidol; olanzapine; Cyclodextrin, beta-hydroxypropyl; SC; Rat; 2ML4; 8 weeks; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 240-250 g, 9 wks old); pumps replaced after 28 days; half-life 2.5 hours (p. 937); "MRI-safe" pumps; 20% cyclodextrin used; long-term study.

Q1343 Simpson,E.H., Kellendonk,C., Ward,R.D., Richards,V., Lipatova,O., Fairhurst,S., Kandel,E.R., Balsam,P.D. Pharmacologic Rescue of Motivational Deficit in an Animal Model of the Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 2011; 69(-10-):928-935. >>> Haloperidol; Saline; SC; Mice; 2004; 4 weeks; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (D2R-OE).

Q0902 Bedard,A.M., Maheux,J., Levesque,D., Samaha,A.N. Continuous, but not Intermittent, Antipsychotic Drug Delivery Intensifies the Pursuit of Reward Cues. Neuropsychopharmacology 2011; 36(-6-):1248-1259. >>> Haloperidol; Acetic acid, glacial; water; SC; Rat; 2ML2; 19 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 200-225 g); comparison of injections vs mp.

P9788 Ginovart,N., Wilson,A.A., Hussey,D., Houle,S., Kapur,S. D2-Receptor Upregulation is Dependent upon Temporal Course of D2-Occupancy: A Longitudinal [11C]-Raclopride PET Study in Cats. Neuropsychopharmacology 2009; 34(-3-):662-671. >>> Haloperidol; SC; Cat; 2ML4; 4 weeks; Comparison of bolus injections vs. SC mp; multiple pumps per animal (4).

P9449 Stone,E.A., Lin,Y., Quartermain,D. Evaluation of the repeated open-space swim model of depression in the mouse. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 2008; 91(-1-):190-195. >>> Imipramine HCl, desmethyl; diazepam; fluoxetine; haloperidol; Saline; DMSO; water; SC; Mice; 1002; 14 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; half-life (p. 191); animal info (male, Swiss Webster, 8-10 wks old); 25% ,50%, or 100% DMSO used; behavioral testing (swimming behavior, tail-suspension test, sucrose suspension test); "since drugs have relatively short half-lives in mice, to more closely mimic the human condition in which blood levels are maintained for prolonged periods, all agents were administered by osmotic minipump." (p. 191).

P9083 Samaha,A.N., Reckless,G.E., Seeman,P., Diwan,M., Nobrega,J.N., Kapur,S. Less is more: Antipsychotic drug effects are greater with transient rather than continuous delivery. Biological Psychiatry 2008; 64(-2-):145-152. >>> Haloperidol; Acetic acid, glacial; water; SC; Rat; 2ML2; 19 days; Comparison of SC injections vs. mp; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 225-250 g.); behavioral testing (conditioned avoidance).

P8543 Rasmussen,K., Hsu,M.A., Yang,Y.L. The orexin-1 receptor antagonist SB-334867 blocks the effects of antipsychotics on the activity of A9 and A10 dopamine neurons: Implications for antipsychotic therapy. Neuropsychopharmacology 2007; 32(-4-):786-792. >>> Olanzapine; haloperidol; Water, distilled; sodium hydroxide; lactic acid; SC; Rat; 2ML2; 21 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; pumps replaced after 2 weeks; animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 280-330 grams).

P8434 Samaha,A.N., Seeman,P., Stewart,J., Rajabi,H., Kapur,S. "Breakthrough" dopamine supersensitivity during ongoing antipsychotic treatment leads to treatment failure over time. Journal of Neuroscience 2007; 27(-11-):2979-2986. >>> Haloperidol; olanzapine; Acetic acid, glacial; water; NaOH; SC; Rat; 2ML2; 2,12,13 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; dose-response (fig. 4); comparison of SC injections vs. mp; half-life (p. 2985), 24 hours in humans, 1.4 hours in rats; tolerance; animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 225-250 grams); "Animal studies that use a mode of drug administration that more closely mimics clinical antipsychotic treatment (i.e., relatively continuous treatment) might be more informative about the true effects of these drugs in humans." (p. 2985).

P8279 Lin,E.J.D., Lee,N.J., Slack,K., Karl,T., Duffy,L., O'Brien,E., Matsumoto,I., Dedova,I., Herzog,H., Sainsbury,A. Distinct endocrine effects of chronic haloperidol or risperidone administration in male rats. Neuropharmacology 2006; 51(-7-8-):1129-1136. >>> Haloperidol; risperidone; Acetic acid; SC; Rat; 2ML4; 28 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; no stress (see pg. 1131); half-life (p. 1131) 4-6 times shorter in rodents than in humans; post op. care (bupivicaine); animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 9-10 weeks old, 280-430 grams); "This dosing regimen also takes into consideration the reported 4-6 times shorter half-life of antipsychotic drugs in rodents than humans and highlights the advantage of using minipumps in the present study for continuous drug administration to achieve receptor occupancies comparable to clinical use in humans." (p. 1131).

P7448 Li,M., Budin,R., Fleming,A.S., Kapur,S. Effects of chronic typical and atypical antipsychotic drug treatment on maternal behavior in rats. SCHIZOPHRENIA RESEARCH 2005; 75(-2-3-):325-336. >>> Haloperidol; olanzapine; Water, double distilled; acetic acid, glacial; SC; Rat; 2ML4; 3 weeks; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by plasma drug levels; comparison of daily SC injections vs. mp; tolerance; animal info (female, Sprague-Dawley, 60-100 day old, postpartum, 250-380 g).

P7421 Siegel,S.J., Maxwell,C.R., Majumdar,S., Trief,D.F., Lerman,C., Gur,R.E., Kanes,S.J., Liang,Y. Monoamine reuptake inhibition and nicotine receptor antagonism reduce amplitude and gating of auditory evoked potentials. Neuroscience 2005; 133(-3-):729-738. >>> Bupropion, HCL; haloperidol; Water; SC; Mice; 1002; 12 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (C57BL/6J, 10-16 weeks old).

P7334 Turrone,P., Remington,G., Kapur,S., Nobrega,J.N. Continuous but not intermittent olanzapine infusion induces vacuous chewing movements in rats. Biological Psychiatry 2005; 57(-4-):406-411. >>> Haloperidol; olanzapine; SC; Rat; 2ML4; 8 weeks; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; comparison of injections vs. mp; long-term study; pumps replaced every four weeks in a new incision; post op. care (placed in heated plexiglass cage); wound clips and vetbond were used to close incision.

P7312 Zhou,R., Gray,N.A., Yuan,P.X., Li,X.X., Chen,J.S., Chen,G., mschroder-Williams,P., Du,J., Zhang,L., Manji,H.K. The anti-apoptotic, glucocorticoid receptor cochaperone protein BAG-1 is a long-term target for the actions of mood stabilizers. Journal of Neuroscience 2005; 25(-18-):4493-4502. >>> Amphetamine; fluvoxamine; haloperidol; Water; ethanol; SC; Rat; 2ML4; 3 weeks; Functionality of mp verified by residual volume; 50% ethanol used [not suggested by ALZET].

P7254 Kippin,T.E., Kapur,S., van der Kooy,D. Dopamine specifically inhibits forebrain neural stem cell proliferation, suggesting a novel effect of antipsychotic drugs. Journal of Neuroscience 2005; 25(-24-):5815-5823. >>> Haloperidol; domperidone; water, distilled; saline; SC; Rat; mice; 1002; 2ML2; 2ML4; 14, 30 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by plasma drug levels; dose-response (fig. 1); comparison of ip injections vs. mp; dopamine D2 receptor antagonist.

P6604 Marino,M.J., Awad-Granko,H., Ciombor,K.J., Conn,P.J. Haloperidol-induced alteration in the physiological actions of group I mGlus in the subthalamic nucleus and the substantia nigra pars reticulata. Neuropharmacology 2002; 43(-2-):147-159. >>> Haloperidol; Lactic acid; NaOH; saline; SC; Rat (neonate); 2001; 16 hours; Cyanoacrylate adhesive applied over sutures; animal info (15-18 days old, 20-37 grams).

P6365 Turrone,P., Remington,G., Kapur,S., Nobrega,J.N. Differential effects of within-day continuous vs transient dopamine D2 receptor occupancy in the development of vacuous chewing movements (VCMs) in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology 2003; 28(-8-):1433-1439. >>> Haloperidol; SC; Rat; 2ML4; 8 weeks; Haloperidol plasma levels taken; comparison of SC injections vs. SC mp; long-term study; pumps replaced every 4 weeks; Vetbond glue and wound clips used to close wounds; "...minipump treated animals had stable haloperidol plasma levels throughout the day...subcutaneously [injection] treated rats experienced a dramatic decline over the same period." p. 1437.

P6201 Cochran,S.M., Kennedy,M., McKerchar,C.E., Steward,L.J., Pratt,J.A., Morris,B.J. Induction of metabolic hypofunction and neurochemical deficits after chronic intermittent exposure to phencyclidine: Differential modulation by antipsychotic drugs. Neuropsychopharmacology 2003; 28(-2-):265-275. >>> Clozapine; haloperidol; Acetic acid, glacial; water; SC; Rat; 2ML4; 21 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle.

P6169 Kapur,S, Susan C. Antipsychotic Dosing in Preclinical Models is Often Unrepresentative of the Clinical Condition: A Suggested Solution Based on in Vivo Occupancy. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 2003; 305(-2-):625-631. >>> Haloperidol; olanzapine; risperidone; quetiapine; clozapine; Water; acetic acid, glacial; SC; Rat; 2ML2; 7 days; Plasma levels taken; dose-response (p. 629); comparison of daily injections vs. chronic mp; half-life (p. 626) 2-4 hours; haloperidol and risperidone were dissolved in distilled water; olanzapine, quetiapine and clozapine were dissolved in 1% to 2% acetic acid; great dose information; "we propose that only administration by pump (or administration more than four times a day[injections]) can provide clinical-like occupancies for haloperidol, olanzapine, and risperidone." p. 630.

P5292 Kaplan,G.B., Leite-Morris,K.A., Keith,D.J. Differential effects of treatment with typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs on adenylyl cyclase and G proteins. Neurosci.Lett. 1999/10/8; 273(-3-):147-150. >>> Haloperidol; Olanzapine; PEG; SC; Mice; 2002; 14 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; atypical antipsychotics; 2001 pump model listed, but release rate given as 0.5 ul/hr.

P4958 Powell,K.R., Iuvone,P.M., Holtzman,S.G. The role of dopamine in the locomotor stimulant effects and tolerance to these effects of caffeine. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 2001; 69(--):59-70. >>> Haloperidol; SC; rat; 2ML2; 14 days; controls received sham pumps; tolerance; caffeine tolerance.

P4835 Andersen,M.P., Pouzet,B. Effects of acute versus chronic treatment with typical or atypical antipsychotics on d-amphetamine-induced sensorimotor gating deficits in rats.. Psychopharmacology 2001; 156(--):291-304. >>> Haloperidol; Olanzapine; Sertindole;; Saline; HCl; Tartaric acid;; SC;; rat;; 2ML4;; 21 days;; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by drug plasma levels (" ... the continuous infusion via mini-pumps is certainly the most relevant way to mimic conditions of treatment in clinic." p. 302); dose response (p. 302); comparison of SC injections vs. mp; half-life (p. 293); compared acute, subchronic (3 day) vs chronic (21 day) treatment; oral administration also examined; antipsychotics; schizophrenia; neurodegenerative (Huntington's disease); Olanzapine and sertindole were dissolved in a minimum amount of dilute HCl before dilution in saline; Haloperidol dissolved in minimal amount of dilute tartaric acid before final dilution in 0.9% saline;.

P4765 Martinez,Z.A., Oostwegel,J, Geyer,M.A., Ellison,G.D., Swerdlow,N.R. "Early" and "Late" effects of sustained haloperidol on apomorphine- and phencyclidine-induced sensorimotor gating deficits.. Neuropsychopharmacology 2000; 23(-5-):517-527. >>> Haloperidol;; Saline;; SC;; rat;; 28-day pump;; 28, 49 days;; Controls received mp w/ vehicle or sham pump; pumps replaced after 28 days; Schizophrenia; Haloperidol is a high-potency dopamine antagonist (D2 receptor); antipsychotic drugs; rats were housed singly to prevent excessive perturbation of the pumps; sham pumps consisted of silastic polymer pellets of approx. the same size and shape as minipumps..

P3459 Bergeron,R., de Montigny,C., Debonnel,G. Effect of short-term and long-term treatments with sigma ligands on the N-methyl-D-aspartate response in the CA(3) region of the rat dorsal hippocampus. Br.J.Pharmacol. 1997; 120(--):1351-1359. >>> Haloperidol; JO-1784; Pentazocine; DTG; SC; rat; 2-21 days; controls received mp w/saline; DTG is di(2-tolyl)guanidin.

P3085 Yamada,T., Hirayama,K., Kimura,H. Differential responses of noradrenaline and dopamine neurons in the mouse forebrain induced by continuous parenteral infusion of haloperidol. Eur.Neurol. 1991; 31(-Supl1-):28-33. >>> Haloperidol; Lactic acid; IP; mice; 2001; 1 week; controls received mp with vehicle; multiple pumps per animal (2).

P2833 Merchant,K.M., Dobie,D.J., Filloux,F.M., Totzke,M., Aravagiri,M., Dorsa,D.M. Effects of chronic haloperidol and clozapine treatment on neurotensin and c-fos mRNA in rat neostriatal subregions. J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther. 1994; 271(-1-):460-471. >>> Haloperidol; Clozapine; SC; rat; 2ML2; 28 days; controls received mp with saline; pumps replaced at 14 days.

P2717 Konings,P.N.M., Culling-Berglund,A., Davis,T.P. Chronic haloperidol and chlorpromazine treatment alters in vitro B-endorphin metabolism in rat brain. Eur.J.Pharmacol. 1990; 191(--):115-128. >>> Haloperidol; Chlorpromazine; Saline, sterile; SC; rat; 2001; 2ML1; 8 days; controls received mp w/ vehicle.

P2611 Alberch,J., Arenas,E., Perez-Navarro,E., Marsal,J. Control of tachykinin-evoked acetylcholine release from rat striatal slices by dopaminergic neurons. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Arch.Pharmacol. 1993; 348(--):445-449. >>> Haloperidol; SCH-23390; SC; rat; 14 days; controls received mp w/ saline.

P2204 Ericson,H., Ross,S.B. Subchronic treatment of rats with remoxipride fails to modify sigma binding sites in the brain. Eur.J.Pharmacol.- Mol.Pharmacol.Sect. 1992; 226(--):157-161. >>> Remoxipride HCl; Haloperidol; Water; Acetic acid; SC; rat; 3,14 days; controls received sham operations.

P1802 See,R.E., Ellison,G. Intermittent and continuous haloperidol regimens produce different types of oral dyskinesias in rats. Psychopharmacology 1990; 100(--):404-412. >>> Haloperidol; Acetic acid; Sodium hydroxide; Water; SC; rat; 2ML4; 28 days; controls received an empty plastic pellet of identical size.

P1706 See,R.E., Ellison,G. Comparison of chronic administration of haloperidol and the atypical neuroleptics, clozapine and raclopride, in an animal model of tardive dyskinesia. Eur.J.Pharmacol. 1990; 181(--):175-186. >>> Clozapine; Haloperidol; Raclopride; Acetic acid, glacial; HCl; Sodium hydroxide; Water; SC; rat; 2ML4; 28 days; controls received an empty plastic pellet of identical size.

P1444 Ueda,H. Time course study of changes in the activity of rats during intraventricular infusion of 6-hydroxydopamine, haloperidol and sulpiride: a study of the relationship between an origin of the negative symptoms in schizophrenia and catecholamines. J.Iwate Med.Assoc. 1988; 40(-3-):385-398. >>> Dopamine, 6-hydroxy-; Haloperidol; Sulpiride; CSF/CNS; rat; 8 days; Japanese, English abstract.

P1345 Tanaka,M., Morimasa,T., Kaneyuki,T., Shohmori,T. Dopaminergic activity and met-enkephaline levels in the rat striatum after continuous treatment with various dopaminergic agents. Neuroscience 1988; 14(--):114-116. >>> Apomorphine; Haloperidol; Methamphetamine; SC; rat; 2 weeks; japanese with english abstract.

P1137 Davis,T.P., Culling-Berglund,A. Neuroleptic drug treatment alters in vitro central neurotensin metabolism. Psychoneuroendocrinology 1987; 12(-4-):253-260. >>> Chlorpromazine; Haloperidol; SC; rat; 2001; 2ML1; 8 days; controls received sham op; concomitant infusion of agents; comparison of agents effects; functionality of mp verified by gravimetric analyses.

P0908 Frey,P. Changes in cholecystokinin content in rat brain after subchronic treatment with neuroleptics. Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci. 1985; 448(--):601-603. >>> Flupenthixol, cis-; Flupenthixol, trans-; Amitriptyline; Amphetamine; Atropine; Chlorpromazine; Clozapine; Fluphenazine; Haloperidol; Morphine; Prazosin; SC; rat; 2 weeks; mp model not stated; comparison of sc injections vs. mp infusion; antihypertensive.

P0838 Matsuda,L.A., Schmidt,C.J., Hanson,G.R., Gibb,J.W. Effect of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) on striatal tyrosine hydroxylase and tryptophan hydroxylase in rat. Neuropharmacology 1986; 25(-3-):249-255. >>> Haloperidol; MPTP; Water; SC; rat; 2ML1; 24 hours; same mp used in many animals; sc space around mp filled w/saline to facilitate pump action; controls received mp w/vehicle; see also P568.

P0813 McMillen,B.A. Comparative chronic effects of buspirone or neuroleptics on rat brain dopaminergic neurotransmission. J.Neural Transm. 1985; 64(-1-):1-12. >>> Buspirone-HCl; Haloperidol; SC; rat; 2 weeks; mp model not stated; comparison of chronic administration in drinking water vs. mp infusion; stability of agent; toxicology.

P0623 McMillen,B.A. Acute and subchronic effects of MJ-13859, a potential antipsychotic drug, on rat brain dopaminergic function. J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther. 1985; 233(-2-):369-375. >>> Haloperidol; MJ-13859; SC; rat; 2 weeks; mp model not stated; comparison of agents effects; comparison of ip or sc injection vs. mp infusion; controls had an incision only; 2 doses MJ-13859 infused; MJ-13859 is an antipsychotic.

P0595 George,S., Kertesz,M. Met-enkephalin concentrations in straitum respond reciprocally to alterations in dopamine neurotransmission. Peptides 1987; 8(-3-):487-492. >>> Apomorphine; FK-33824; Haloperidol; Naloxone; Ethanol; Tartaric acid; Water; SC; rat; 5, 9 days; mp model not stated; controls received mp w/unspecified vehicle or were sham-operated; agents infused separately w/appropriate vehicle; comparison of sc inject. vs. mp infusion.

P0556 Gysling,K., Beinfeld,M.C. Failure of chronic haloperidol treatment to alter levels of cholecystokinin in the rat brain striatum and olfactory tubercle-nucleus accumbens area. Neuropeptides 1984; 4(-5-):421-423. >>> Haloperidol; Saline; SC; rat; 2ML4; 2 weeks; comparison of daily sc injec vs. mp infusion; stability of residual Hal. verified by HPLC; peptides.

P0472 Joseph,J.A., Bartus,R.T., Clody,D., Morgan,D., Finch,C., Beer,B., Sesack,S. Psychomotor performance in the senescent rodent: reduction of deficits via striatal dopamine receptor up-regulation. Neurobiol.Aging 1983; 4(-4-):313-319. >>> Haloperidol; HCl; Water; SC; rat; 2 weeks; 2 pumps/animal.

P0465 Le Douarin,C., Fage,D., Scatton,B. Effects of cyclo (Leu-Gly) on neurochemical indices of striatal dopaminergic supersensitivity induced by prolonged haloperidol treatment. Life Sci. 1984; 34(-4-):393-399. >>> Haloperidol; SC; rat; 2002; 2 weeks; concomitant deliv. cyclo (Leu-Gly).

P0447 Davis,T.P., Schoemaker,H., Culling,A.J. Centrally acting drugs alter in vitro B-endorphin processing in the rat. Eur.J.Pharmacol. 1984; 100(--):249-251. >>> Chlorpromazine; haloperidol; phenobarbital; promethazine; SC; Rat; 2001; 8 days; Comparison of agents effects.

P0420 Scatton,B., Fage,D. Hypophysectomy fails to affect the supersensitivity of striatal dopamine target cells induced by prolonged haloperidol treatment. Eur.J.Pharmacol. 1984; 98(--):1-7. >>> Haloperidol; SC; rat; 2002; 2 weeks; no comment posted.

P0385 Frey,P. Cholecystokinin octapeptide levels in rat brain are changed after subchronic neuroleptic treatment. Eur.J.Pharmacol. 1983; 95(--):87-92. >>> Chlorpromazine; Clozapine; Haloperidol; HCl; Saline; SC; rat; 2ML2; 2ML4; 2 and 4 weeks; comparison of single injec vs. infusion; comparison of agents effects; Hal. given for 2&4 weeks, Chlor.&Cloz. for 2 weeks; saline&HCl vehicle used w/Cloz., others used saline only; stability of Hal., Chlor.&Cloz. by TLC.

P0371 Le Douarin,C., Oblin,A., Fage,D., Scatton,B. Influence of lithium on biochemical manifestations of striatal dopamine target cell supersensitivity induced by prolonged haloperidol treatment. Eur.J.Pharmacol. 1983; 93(--):55-62. >>> Haloperidol; SC; rat; 2002; 2 weeks; no comment posted.

P0301 Chang,R.S.L., Lotti,V.J., Martin,G.E., Chen,T.B. Increase in brain 125I-cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor binding following chronic haloperidol treatment, intracisternal 6-hydroxydopamine or ventral tegmental lesions. Life Sci. 1983; 32(--):871-878. >>> Haloperidol; SC; guinea-pig; mice; 2002; 2ML2; 8-21 days; 2002 in mice, 2ML2 in GP.

P0208 Kapetanovic,I.M., Sweeney,D.J., Rapoport,S.I. Age effects on haloperidol pharmacokinetics in male, Fischer-344 rats. J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther. 1982; 221(-2-):434-438. >>> Haloperidol; Acetic acid; IP; rat; 4 days; comparison of bolus ip injection vs. infusion.

P0166 Login,I.S., Nagy,I., MacLeod,R.M. Restoration of pituitary prolactin synthesis and release by the administration of morphine to rats bearing a transplanted prolactin-secreting tumor. Neuroendocrinology 1981; 33(-2-):101-104. >>> Haloperidol; Morphine sulfate; Lactic acid; Saline; Water; SC; rat; 1701; 4 days; cancer.

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17. Imipramine

12410 Carrier, N., Kabbaj, M. Testosterone and imipramine have antidepressant effects in socially isolated male but not female rats. Hormones and Behavior 2012; 61(-5-):678-685. >>> Imipramine hydrochloride; Saline, sterile; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (adult, male, 250-270 g, female, 200-225 g, 2-3 mo old); replacement therapy (gonadectomy).

12119 Carrier, N., Kabbaj, M. Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 2 Signaling in the Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus Mediates the Antidepressant Effects of Testosterone. Biological Psychiatry 2012; 71(-7-):642-651. >>> Imipramine hydrochloride; Saline; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Sprague Dawley, male, adult, 250-270 g).

11702 West, C.H.K., Weiss, J.M. Effects of chronic antidepressant drug administration and electroconvulsive shock on activity of dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmentum. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY 2011; 14(-2-):201-210. >>> Desipramine hydrochloride; imipramine hydrochloride; fluoxetine hydrochloride; paroxetine hydrochloride; sertraline hydrochloride; venlafaxine hydrochloride; bupropion hydrochloride; phenelzine sulfate; Polyethylene glycol; DMSO; water; water, distilled; SC; IP; Rat; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, albino, Sprague-Dawley, 550-700 g); functionality of mp verified by drug levels in circulation; good methods, pg 4; 25% DMSO used; IP catheter used; silastic tubing used;"The distal end of the silastic tubing, including the bulb, was then introduced surgically into the peritoneal cavity and the peritoneal wall sutured closed so that the bulb prevented the tubing from being withdrawn back into the subcutaneous space, thereby enabling... delivery of drug from the pump into the peritoneal cavity."pg 4;.

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18. Lithium

13669 Wu, Q., Zheng, R.M., Srisai, D., McKnight, G.S., Palmiter, R.D. NR2B subunit of the NMDA glutamate receptor regulates appetite in the parabrachial nucleus. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 2013; 110(-36-):14765-14770. >>> Lithium chloride; RO25-6981; bretazenil; Saline; CSF/CNS (fourth ventricle; parabrachial nucleus); Mice; 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle or sham surgery; animal info (male, Agrp DTR/+ or WT); bilateral cannula used; dose-response (pg.14766, fig.3; pg.14769, fig.6); behavioral testing (food intake); tissue perfusion (fourth ventricle; parabrachial nucleus); Cannula placement verified; RO25-6981 is a NR2B antagonist; bilateral infusion;.

9488 Dill, J., Wang, H.Y., Zhou, F.Q., Li, S.X. Inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 promotes axonal growth and recovery in the CNS. Journal of Neuroscience 2008; 28(-36-):8914-8928. >>> Lithium Chloride; Saline, physiological; SC; Mice; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (Glycogen synthase kinase-3); animal info (female, C57BL/6, 8-10 wks old, spinal cord injury/laminectomy); behavioral testing (BBB locomotor scale, grid walking, foot print analysis).

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19. Maprotiline

10196 Bjartmar, L., Alkhori, L., Ruud, J., Mohammed, A.H., Marcusson, J., Hallbeck, M. Long-term treatment with antidepressants, but not environmental stimulation, induces expression of NP2 mRNA in hippocampus and medial habenula. Brain Research 2010; 1328(-;-):25-33. >>> Amitriptyline; moclobemide; citalopram hydrobromide; maprotiline; SC; Rat; Controls received mp w/isotonic saline; enzyme inhibitor (monoamine oxidase-A); animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 200-250 g);"This method of delivery was chosen to avoid daily injections and thus manipulation of the animals."(p. 30); antidepressants.

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20. Mianserin

2426 Mitchell, P.J., Redfern, P.H. Chronic treatment with clomipramine and mianserin increases the hierarchial position of subdominant rats housed in triads. Behav. Pharmacology 1992; 3(--):239-247. >>> Clomipramine; Mianserin; Water; SC; rat; 2002; antidepressant; controls received mp w/ water or sham op; no stress (see pg. 241).

1692 Kubota, H., Asakura, M., Tsukamoto, T., Imafuku, J., Nishizaki, J., Sato, A., Nakanishi, J., Ogawa, Y., Hasegawa, K. Mechanisms of the B-adrenoceptor down-regulation by the treatment with antidepressants in the rat cerebral cortex: effects of continuous administration of antidepressants by an osmotic pump. Jpn. J. Psychiatry Neurol 1990; 44(-1-):135-136. >>> Tunicamycin; Cycloheximide; Desipramine; Fluoxetine; Mianserin; Trazodone; CSF/CNS; SC; rat; 2001; 2ML1; comparison of sc injections vs. mp; cyclo. and tunica. delivered icv for 5 days.

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21. Milnacipran

10027 Takeda, R., Watanabe, Y., Ikeda, T., Abe, H., Ebihara, K., Matsuo, H., Nonaka, H., Hashiguchi, H., Nishimori, T., Ishida, Y. Analgesic effect of milnacipran is associated with c-Fos expression in the anterior cingulate cortex in the rat neuropathic pain model. NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH 2009; 64(-4-):380-384. >>> Milnacipran; Saline; SC; Rat; 2ML2; Controls received sham operation; animal info (Sprague Dawley, 320-350 g.); behavioral testing (withdrawal response);"The pump makes it possible to precisely and continuously administer systemic drug-delivery without any repeated harmful treatment"pg. 381.

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22. Mirtazapine

16030 Ito, N., Ito, K., Koshimichi, H., Hisaka, A., Honma, M., Igarashi, T., Suzuki, H. Contribution of protein binding, lipid partitioning, and asymmetrical transport to drug transfer into milk in mouse versus human. Pharm Res 2013; 30(-9-):2410-22. >>> acetaminophen, cephalothin sodium salt, clindamycin hydrochloride, disopyramide phosphate salt, labetalol hydrochloride, nitrofurantoin +-propranolol hydrochloride, terbutaline hemisulfate salt, verapamil hydrochloride, Acyclovir, alprazolam, atenolol, anhydrous caffeine, cefotaxime sodium salt, cephapirin sodium salt, diltiazem hydrochloride, metronidazole, nitrazepam, prednisolone, 6-propyl-2-thiouracil, trazadone hydrochloride, chloramphenicol, cimetidine, theophylline, fluconazole, metoprolol, mirtazapine, praziquantel, quetiapine fumarate, triprolidine hydrochloride, metformin, moclobemide.; DMSO; water; IP; mice; 1003D; animal info: lactating mice, postnatal age of 14 days; functionality of mp verified by measurement of drug concentration in milk and plasma; mp were used to infuse study lactational drug transfer..

11150 Yamamura, S., Abe, M., Nakagawa, M., Ochi, S., Ueno, S., Okada, M. Different actions for acute and chronic administration of mirtazapine on serotonergic transmission associated with raphe nuclei and their innervation cortical regions. Neuropharmacology 2011; 60(-4-):550-560. >>> Mirtazapine; HCl; Ringer's solution; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Animal info (Sprague-Dawley, male, 5 wks old).

9815 West, C.H.K., Ritchie, J.C., Boss-Williams, K.A., Weiss, J.M. Antidepressant drugs with differing pharmacological actions decrease activity of locus coeruleus neurons. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY 2009; 12(-5-):627-641. >>> Desipramine; mirtazapine; chlorpheniramine; Paroxetine; scopolamine; amphetamine; escitalopram; chlordiazepoxide; SC; IP; Rat; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/vehicle; dose-response (Fig 2-5); pumps replaced on day 14; good methods pg 629; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 5-7 mo old, 550-700g);"Importantly, use of minipumps also eliminates the need for repeated handling and injection of animals to administer the drug chronically."pg. 628; IP catheter used.

4813 Besson, A, Haddjeri, N., Blier, P., de Montigny, C. Effects of the co-administration of mirtazapine and paroxetine on serotonergic neurotransmission in the rat brain.. European Neuropsychopharmacology 2000; 10(--):177-188. >>> Mirtazapine; Paroxetine;; Water; Ethanol;; SC;; rat;; No stress (see pg; 178); Antidepressant treatment; 80:20 water/ethanol vehicle used in 2 day study; 50:50 water/ethanol vehicle used in 21 day study; multiple pumps per animal (2) used for mirtazapine-paroxetine combination group;.

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23. Nomifensine

694 Lloyd, K.G., Thuret, F., Pilc, A. Upregulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B binding sites in rat frontal cortex: a common action of repeated administration of different classes of antidepressants and electroshock. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther 1985; 235(-1-):191-199. >>> Maprotiline; Nomifensine; Amitriptyline; Citalopram; Desipramine; Pargyline; Trazodone; Viloxazine; Zimeldine; SC; rat; 2002; comparison of agents effects; comparison of single dose ip injec vs. mp infusion and repeated ip injec of other psychotropic drugs vs. electroshock treatment; antihypertensive.

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24. Nortriptyline

2740 Brodin, K., Ogren, S.-O., Brodin, E. Clomipramine and clonazepam increase cholecystokinin levels in rat ventral tegmental area and limbic regions. Eur. J. Pharmacol 1994; 263(--):175-180. >>> Nortriptyline; Amitriptyline; Clomipramine; Alaproclate; Clonazepam; Alcohol; Saline; SC; rat; 2ML2; antidepressant; controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by plasma levels; dose-response (Table 1; pg. 177); enzyme inhibitor; clonazepam is a benzodiazepene; the others are monoamine uptake inhibitors.

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25. Paroxetine

15090 Steiner, J.P., Bachani, M., Wolfson-Stofko, B., Lee, M.H., Wang, T.G., Li, G.H., Li, W.X., Strayer, D., Haughey, N.J., Nath, A., Steiner, J.P. Interaction of Paroxetine with Mitochondrial Proteins Mediates Neuroprotection. Neurotherapeutics 2015; 12(--):200-216. >>> Paroxetine; SC; Mice (transgenic); 2004; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (male, bp120 tg, adult, 8-9 weeks old); functionality of mp verified by residual volume; pumps primed overnight at 37C;.

15076 Schumacher, S.M., Gao, E.H., Zhu, W.Z., Chen, X.W., Chuprun, J.K., Feldman, A.M., Tesmer, J.J.G., Koch, W.J., Schumacher, S.M. Paroxetine-Mediated GRK2 Inhibition Reverses Cardiac Dysfunction and Remodeling After Myocardial Infarction. JOURNAL OF CARDIAC FAILURE 2015; 21(--):S109-S109. >>> Paroxetine; fluoxetine; DMSO; water; SC; Mice; 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, C57BL6, myocardial infarction); functionality of mp verified by serum levels; ischemia (cardiac);.

14727 El Mansari, M., Manta, S., Oosterhof, C., El Iskandrani, K.S., Chenu, F., Shim, S., Blier, P., El Mansari, M. Restoration of Serotonin Neuronal Firing Following Long-Term Administration of Bupropion but Not Paroxetine in Olfactory Bulbectomized Rats. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY 2015; 18(--):U87-U94. >>> Bupropion; paroxetine; Water; ethanol; SC; Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 300-500g, olfactory bulbectomized); 50% ethanol used; behavioral testing (open field);.

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26. Phenelzine

12082 Rovin, M.L., Boss-Williams, K.A., Alisch, R.S., Ritchie, J.C., Weinshenker, D., West, C.H.K., Weiss, J.M. Influence of chronic administration of antidepressant drugs on mRNA for galanin, galanin receptors, and tyrosine hydroxylase in catecholaminergic and serotonergic cell-body regions in rat brain. Neuropeptides 2012; 46(-2-):81-91. >>> Phenelzine; desipramine; paroxetine; DMSO; PEG; water, distilled; SC; IP; Rat; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Sprague Dawley, adult, 5-7 mo old); Osmotic minipumps were chosen for AD delivery because they slowly release drug over 14 days, thus eliminating the stress animals would experience by daily injections of the AD"pg 83; IP catheter used; wound clips used; enzyme inhibitor (monoamine oxidase); 50% DMSO used; 25% PEG used.

11702 West, C.H.K., Weiss, J.M. Effects of chronic antidepressant drug administration and electroconvulsive shock on activity of dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmentum. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY 2011; 14(-2-):201-210. >>> Desipramine hydrochloride; imipramine hydrochloride; fluoxetine hydrochloride; paroxetine hydrochloride; sertraline hydrochloride; venlafaxine hydrochloride; bupropion hydrochloride; phenelzine sulfate; Polyethylene glycol; DMSO; water; water, distilled; SC; IP; Rat; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, albino, Sprague-Dawley, 550-700 g); functionality of mp verified by drug levels in circulation; good methods, pg 4; 25% DMSO used; IP catheter used; silastic tubing used;"The distal end of the silastic tubing, including the bulb, was then introduced surgically into the peritoneal cavity and the peritoneal wall sutured closed so that the bulb prevented the tubing from being withdrawn back into the subcutaneous space, thereby enabling... delivery of drug from the pump into the peritoneal cavity."pg 4;.

9614 Chenu, F., El Mansari, M., Blier, P. Long-term administration of monoamine oxidase inhibitors alters the firing rate and pattern of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY 2009; 12(-4-):475-485. >>> Clorgyline; phenelzine; deprenyl; SC; Rat; Controls received mp w/ saline; enzyme inhibitor (MAO, monoamine oxidase); animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 250-300 g.).

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27. Reboxetine

13007 Fossa, A.A., Wisialowski, T.A., Cremers, T., Van der Hart, M., Tseng, E., Deng, S.B., Rollema, H., Wang, E.Q. Improved preclinical cardiovascular therapeutic indices with long-term inhibition of norepinephrine reuptake using reboxetine. TOXICOLOGY AND APPLIED PHARMACOLOGY 2012; 264(-3-):343-350. >>> Reboxetine; Water, sterile; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Control animals received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified via residual volume.

12289 Ku, Y.C., Tsai, Y.J., Tung, C.S., Fang, T.H., Lo, S.M., Liu, Y.P. Different involvement of ventral and dorsal norepinephrine pathways on norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor-induced locomotion and antidepressant-like effects in rats. Neuroscience Letters 2012; 514(-2-):179-184. >>> Reboxetine; Saline; SC; Rat; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Sprague Dawley, male, adult).

10059 Zhao, Z., Zhang, H.T., Bootzin, E., Millan, M.J., O'Donnell, J.M. Association of Changes in Norepinephrine and Serotonin Transporter Expression with the Long-Term Behavioral Effects of Antidepressant Drugs. Neuropsychopharmacology 2009; 34(-6-):1467-1481. >>> Protriptyline; reboxetine; sertraline; venlafaxine; DMSO; saline; ethanol; SC; Rat; 2ML2; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; long-term study; pumps replaced after 21 days; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 300-350 g.); 50% DMSO used; 10% ethanol used.

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28. Ritanserin

15423 El, Mansari M., Blier, P. In vivo electrophysiological characterization of 5-HT receptors in the guinea pig head of caudate nucleus and orbitofrontal cortex. Neuropharmacology 1997; 36(-4/5-):577-588. >>> Metergoline; Ritanserin; SC; guinea-pig; antidepressant; controls received mp w/ NaCl; comparison of IV injections vs. mp.

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29. Sertraline

15805 Oleg Otlivanchik, Nicole M. Sanders, Ambrose Dunn-Meynell,, Barry E. Levin. Orexin signaling is necessary for hypoglycemia-induced prevention of conditioned place preference. am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2016; 310(--):R66-R73. >>> Sertraline; Ethanol; SC; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 7-8 weeks old, 250-400g); 50% ethanol used; behavioral testing (open field); diabetes; Dose (7.5 mg/kg/day);.

12422 Furmaga, H., Carreno, F.R., Frazer, A. Vagal Nerve Stimulation Rapidly Activates Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Receptor TrkB in Rat Brain. PLoS One 2012; 7(-5-):U65-U74. >>> Sertraline; desipramine; Ethanol; saline; IP; Rat; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Sprague Dawley, adult, male, 250-350 g); nitrocellulose filters used; 10% ethanol used.

12050 Furmaga, H., Sadhu, M., Frazer, A. Comparison of Delta FosB Immunoreactivity Induced by Vagal Nerve Stimulation with That Caused by Pharmacologically Diverse Antidepressants. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 2012; 341(-2-):317-325. >>> Desipramine; sertraline; Rat; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Sprague Dawley, male, 250-350 g).

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30. Sulpiride

2109 Zhou, L.-W., Zhang, S.-P., Welsh, S., Connell, T.A., Weiss, B. Triazolam blocks the initial rotational effects of quinpirole but permits the later developing reduction of dopamine D2-mediated rotational behavior and dopamine D2 receptors. Eur. J. Pharmacol 1992; 218(--):219-227. >>> Quinpirole HCl; Sulpiride; Triazolam; Ascorbic acid; DMSO; SC; mice; 2001; Quinpirole is a dopamine agonist; antidepressant; stability verified in vitro for 7 days.

1443 Ueda, H. Time course study of changes in the activity of rats during intraventricular infusion of 6-hydroxydopamine, haloperidol and sulpiride: a study of the relationship between an origin of the negative symptoms in schizophrenia and catecholamines. J. Iwate Med. Assoc 1988; 40(-3-):385-398. >>> Dopamine, 6-hydroxy-; Haloperidol; Sulpiride; CSF/CNS; rat; Japanese, English abstract.

630 Costall, B., Domeney, A.M., Naylor, R.J. The continuity of dopamine receptor antagonism can dictate the long-term behavioural consequences of a mesolimibic infusion of dopamine. Neuropharmacology 1985; 2(-3-):193-197. >>> Dopamine HCl; Sulpiride; Nitrogen; Sodium metabisulfite; CSF/CNS (nucleus accumbens); IP; rat; mp model not stated; comparison of SULP ip injec vs. mp infusion; 2 mp/rat - bilateral infusion; mp primed overnight; vehicles listed used w/DOP; concomitant SULP admin. ip.

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31. Tandospirone

2974 Wieland, S., Fischette, C.T., Lucki, I. Effect of chronic treatments with tandospirone and imipramine on serotonin-mediated behavioral responses and monoamine receptors. Neuropharmacology 1993; 32(-6-):561-573. >>> Tandospirone; Imipramine; 1-PP; Water, deionized; SC; rat; 2ML2; antidepressant; controls received mp with saline; comparison of sc injections vs. mp; 1-PP is a tandospirone metabolite; tandospirone is an azapirone; multiple pumps per animal (2).

2269 Godbout, R.,, Chaput, Y., Blier, P., de Montigny, C. Tandospirone and its metabolite, 1-(2-pyrimidinyl)-piperazine-I. effects of acute and long-term administration of tandospirone on serotonin neurotransmission. Neuropharmacology 1991; 30(-7-):679-690. >>> Tandospirone; Saline; SC; rat; 2ML2; controls received mp w/saline; tandospirone is SM-3997, a 5-HT1A receptor ligand.

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32. Tianeptine

3433 Pineyro, G., Deveault, L., Blier, P., Dennis, T., de Montigny, C. Effect of acute and prolonged tianeptine administration on the 5-HT transporter: electrophysiological, biochemical and radioligand binding studies in the rat brain. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Arch. Pharmacol 1995; 351(--):111-118. >>> Tianeptine; SC; rat; antidepressant; controls received mp w/saline; comparison of IV injections vs. mp; half-life of tianeptine is 2.5 hrs, (p.117).

2884 Pineyro, G., Deveault, L., de Montigny, C., Blier, P. Effect of prolonged administration of tianeptine on 5-HT neurotransmission: an electrophysiological study in the rat hippocampus and dorsal raphe. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Arch. Pharmacol 1995; 351(--):119-125. >>> Tianeptine; SC; rat; controls received mp w/ saline; tianeptine is a tricyclic antidepressant.

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33. Tranylcypromine

10391 Argueelles, S., Herrera, A.J., Carreno-Mueller, E., de Pablos, R.M., Villaran, R.F., Espinosa-Oliva, A.M., Machado, A., Cano, J. Degeneration of dopaminergic neurons induced by thrombin injection in the substantia nigra of the rat is enhanced by dexamethasone: Role of monoamine oxidase enzyme. Neurotoxicology 2010; 31(-1-):55-66. >>> Tranylcypromine; Saline; SC; Rat; 2002; Animal info (female, albino, Wistar, 200-250 g.).

5321 Stout, S.C., Owens, M.J., Nemeroff, C.B. Regulation of corticotropin-releasing factor neuronal systems and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity by stress and chronic antidepressant treatment. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 2002; 300(-3-):1085-1092. >>> Reboxetine methanesulfonate; fluoxetine HCl; Venlafaxine HCl; Tranylcypromine HCl; Saline; DMSO; SC; Rat; 2ML2; 2ML4; antidepressant; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by drug serum levels; 2ML2 pumps replaced after 2 weeks; 2ML4 pumps used for all antidepressants except fluoxetine, which required serial 2ML2 implantation due to solubility problems; venlafaxine given for 27 days; all other drugs infused for 26 days; fluoxetine vehicle was 12% DMSO.

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34. Trazodone

12374 Ghanbari, R., El Mansari, M., Blier, P. Electrophysiological impact of trazodone on the dopamine and norepinephrine systems in the rat brain. European Neuropsychopharmacology 2012; 22(-7-):518-526. >>> Trazodone; Cyclodextrin, hydroxypropyl beta; SC; Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Wistar, male, 280-320 g); 20% cyclodextrin used; electrophysiology.

11840 Ghanbari, R., El Mansari, M., Blier, P. Sustained Administration of Trazodone Enhances Serotonergic Neurotransmission: In Vivo Electrophysiological Study in the Rat Brain. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 2010; 335(-1-):197-206. >>> Trazodone; Cyclodextrin, hydroxypropyl, beta-; SC; Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Sprague Dawley, male, 250-350 g); 20% cyclodextrin used; dose-response.

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35. Tryptophan

14252 Laeger, T., Reed, S.D., Henagan, T.M., Fernandez, D.H., Taghavi, M., Addington, A., Muenzberg, H., Martin, R.J., Hutson, S.M., Morrison, C.D., Morrison, C.D. Leucine acts in the brain to suppress food intake but does not function as a physiological signal of low dietary protein. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 2014; 307(--):R310-R320. >>> Arginine; cystine, histidine; isoleucine; leucine; lysine; methionine; phenylalanine; threonine; tryptophan; tyrosine; valine; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2002; Animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 5-7 weeks old);.

13725 Burger, D., Reudelhuber, T.L., Mahajan, A., Chibale, K., Sturrock, E.D., Touyz, R.M., Sturrock, E.D. Effects of a domain-selective ACE inhibitor in a mouse model of chronic angiotensin II-dependent hypertension. Clinical Science 2014; 127(--):57-63. >>> Lisinopril; lisinopril-tryptophan; Saline; Mice (transgenic); Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (TtRhRen, 2-3 months old); cardiovascular; antihypertensive; lisinopril-tryptophan aka lisW-S; bp measured using tail cuff and radiotelemetry;.

2599 Lee, E.H.Y. Effects of tryptophan administration on tetrahydrobiopterin level in rat caudate nucleus. Neurochem. Int 1991; 19(-3-):363-366. >>> Tryptophan, I-; SC; rat; 2001; antidepressant; controls received sc injections of saline; comparison of sc injections vs. mp; stress/adverse reaction: pg. 364; connective tissue grew over mp opening.

1254 Peters, R.I., Buhr, B.R. Tryptophan and serotonin metabolism after sustained tryptophan infusion. Neurochem. Int 1984; 6(-5-):685-691. >>> Tryptophan, I-; Ammonium hydroxide; SC; mice; 2001; controls received mp w/ vehicle; dose-response (graph); NH4OH was used as vehicle for TRP due to the limited solubility of TRP in water and saline; no stress.

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36. Tryptophan, I-

P2512 Lee,E.H.Y. Effects of tryptophan administration on tetrahydrobiopterin level in rat caudate nucleus. Neurochem.Int. 1991; 19(-3-):363-366. >>> Tryptophan, I-; SC; rat; 2001; 7 days; 24 hours; antidepressant; controls received sc injections of saline; comparison of sc injections vs. mp; stress/adverse reaction: pg. 364; connective tissue grew over mp opening.

P1254 Peters,R.I., Buhr,B.R. Tryptophan and serotonin metabolism after sustained tryptophan infusion. Neurochem.Int. 1984; 6(-5-):685-691. >>> Tryptophan, I-; Ammonium hydroxide; SC; mice; 2001; 24, 96 hours; controls received mp w/ vehicle; dose-response (graph); NH4OH was used as vehicle for TRP due to the limited solubility of TRP in water and saline; no stress.

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37. Tryptophan, L-5-hydroxy-

2582 Fregly, M.J., Lockley, O.E., Sumners, C. Chronic treatment with L-5-hydroxytryptophan prevents the development of DOCA-salt-induced hypertension in rats. J. Hypertens 1987; 5(--):621-628. >>> Tryptophan, L-5-hydroxy; SC; rat; 2001; stability verified by HPLC after 6.5 days in pumps.

1878 Baron, A., Riesselmann, A., Fregly, M.J. Reduction in the elevated blood pressure of Dahl salt-sensitive rats treated chronically with L-5-hydroxytryptophan. Pharmacology 1991; 42(--):15-22. >>> Tryptophan, L-5-hydroxy; SC; rat; 2001; pumps replaced four times during study; incorrectly states model 2001 pumps at 2ul/hr, early study showed compound stability for 1 week.

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38. Tryptophan L-5-hydroxy

P2495 Fregly,M.J., Lockley,O.E., Sumners,C. Chronic treatment with L-5-hydroxytryptophan prevents the development of DOCA-salt-induced hypertension in rats. J.Hypertens. 1987; 5(--):621-628. >>> Tryptophan, L-5-hydroxy; SC; rat; 2001; no duration posted; stability verified by HPLC after 6.5 days in pumps.

P1882 Baron,A., Riesselmann,A., Fregly,M.J. Reduction in the elevated blood pressure of Dahl salt-sensitive rats treated chronically with L-5-hydroxytryptophan. Pharmacology 1991; 42(--):15-22. >>> Tryptophan, L-5-hydroxy; SC; rat; 2001; no duration posted; pumps replaced four times during study; incorrectly states model 2001 pumps at 2ul/hr, early study showed compound stability for 1 week.

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39. Venlafaxine

14427 Tamasi, V., Petschner, P., Adori, C., Kirilly, E., Ando, R.D., Tothfalusi, L., Juhasz, G., Bagdy, G., Tamasi, V. Transcriptional Evidence for the Role of Chronic Venlafaxine Treatment in Neurotrophic Signaling and Neuroplasticity Including also Glutatmatergic- and Insulin-Mediated Neuronal Processes. PLoS One 2014; 9(--):U773-U796. >>> Venlafaxine; NaCl; SC; Rat; 2001; Controls received sham surgery; animal info (male, Dark Agouti, 8 weeks old; 150g); diabetes;.

11702 West, C.H.K., Weiss, J.M. Effects of chronic antidepressant drug administration and electroconvulsive shock on activity of dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmentum. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY 2011; 14(-2-):201-210. >>> Desipramine hydrochloride; imipramine hydrochloride; fluoxetine hydrochloride; paroxetine hydrochloride; sertraline hydrochloride; venlafaxine hydrochloride; bupropion hydrochloride; phenelzine sulfate; Polyethylene glycol; DMSO; water; water, distilled; SC; IP; Rat; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, albino, Sprague-Dawley, 550-700 g); functionality of mp verified by drug levels in circulation; good methods, pg 4; 25% DMSO used; IP catheter used; silastic tubing used;"The distal end of the silastic tubing, including the bulb, was then introduced surgically into the peritoneal cavity and the peritoneal wall sutured closed so that the bulb prevented the tubing from being withdrawn back into the subcutaneous space, thereby enabling... delivery of drug from the pump into the peritoneal cavity."pg 4;.

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40. Viloxazine

694 Lloyd, K.G., Thuret, F., Pilc, A. Upregulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B binding sites in rat frontal cortex: a common action of repeated administration of different classes of antidepressants and electroshock. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther 1985; 235(-1-):191-199. >>> Maprotiline; Nomifensine; Amitriptyline; Citalopram; Desipramine; Pargyline; Trazodone; Viloxazine; Zimeldine; SC; rat; 2002; comparison of agents effects; comparison of single dose ip injec vs. mp infusion and repeated ip injec of other psychotropic drugs vs. electroshock treatment; antihypertensive.

552 Pilc, A., Lloyd, K.G. Chronic antidepressants and GABA'B'receptors: a GABA hypothesis of antidepressant drug action. Life Sci 1984; 35(-21-):2149-2154. >>> Amitriptyline; Citalopram; Desipramine; Pargyline; Viloxazine; Saline; SC; rat; 2002; comparison of acute ip injec vs. mp infusion; comparison of agents effects; antihypertensive.

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41. Zimeldine

694 Lloyd, K.G., Thuret, F., Pilc, A. Upregulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B binding sites in rat frontal cortex: a common action of repeated administration of different classes of antidepressants and electroshock. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther 1985; 235(-1-):191-199. >>> Maprotiline; Nomifensine; Amitriptyline; Citalopram; Desipramine; Pargyline; Trazodone; Viloxazine; Zimeldine; SC; rat; 2002; comparison of agents effects; comparison of single dose ip injec vs. mp infusion and repeated ip injec of other psychotropic drugs vs. electroshock treatment; antihypertensive.

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What researchers are saying ...

“One goal of the present studies was to find a safe way to continuously administer insulin to [rat] pups so that in the future we may examine the effects of this early exposure on adult animals. The present studies indicate that subcutaneous insulin pellets are not suitable for this purpose, since rat pups do not tolerate them well. On the other hand, it will be feasible to compare the long-term effects of receiving equivalent doses of insulin via daily injections or an osmotic minipumps.” Thompson et al., Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 2002;80:180-192.