References on the Administration of Selected Enzyme Inhibitors Using ALZET® Osmotic Pumps

Note: See also the reference lists on Antidepressents, Antihypertensives, Antivirals, Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitors, and NSAIDs

1. 1400W

14811 Ager, E.I., Kozin, S.V., Kirkpatrick, N.D., Seano, G., Kodack, D.P., Askoxylakis, V., Huang, Y.H., Goel, S., Snuderl, M., Muzikansky, A., Finkelstein, D.M., Dransfield, D.T., Devy, L., Boucher, Y., Fukumura, D., Jain, R.K., Jain, R.K. Blockade of MMP14 Activity in Murine Breast Carcinomas: Implications for Macrophages, Vessels, and Radiotherapy. JOURNAL OF THE NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE 2015; 107(--):U137-U148. >>> 1400W dihydrochloride; SC; Mice (nude); 1002; Animal info (female, nu/nu, 6-8 weeks old); cancer (breast); enzyme inhibitor (nitric oxide synthase); immunology;.

13398 Klug, F., Prakash, H., Huber, P.E., Seibel, T., Bender, N., Halama, N., Pfirschke, C., Voss, R.H., Timke, C., Urnansky, L., Klapproth, K., Schaekel, K., Garbi, N., Jaeger, D., Weitz, J., Schmitz-Winnenthal, H., Haemmerling, G.J., Beckhovel, P. Low-Dose Irradiation Programs Macrophage Differentiation to an iNOS(+)/M1 Phenotype that Orchestrates Effective T Cell Immunotherapy. CANCER CELL 2013; 24(-5-):589-602. >>> 1400W; PBS; SC; Mice; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (RT5); cancer (cancer immunotherapy); immunology; iNOS inhibitor.

11524 Nishida, M., Ogushi, M., Suda, R., Toyotaka, M., Saiki, S., Kitajima, N., Nakaya, M., Kim, K.M., Ide, T., Sato, Y., Inoue, K., Kurose, H. Heterologous down-regulation of angiotensin type 1 receptors by purinergic P2Y(2) receptor stimulation through S-nitrosylation of NF-kappaB. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 2011; 108(-16-):6662-6667. >>> 1400W; suramin; Saline; Mice; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (C57BL/6J, 6 wks old, male); enzyme inhibitor (NO synthase, iNOS).

9118 Hu, A.H., Jiao, X.Y., Gao, E.H., Li, Y.H., Sharifi-Azad, S., Grunwald, Z., Ma, X.L., Sun, J.Z. Tonic beta-adrenergic drive provokes proinflammatory and proapoptotic changes in aging mouse heart. REJUVENATION RESEARCH 2008; 11(-1-):215-226. >>> 1400W; Isoproterenol bitartrate; SC; Mice; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (iNOS); animal info (C57BL/6, 3, 20 months old); ischemia (myocardial).

9101 Chirino, Y.I., Trujillo, J., Sanchez-Gonzalez, D.J., Martinez-Martinez, C.M., Cruz, C., Bobadilla, N.A., Pedraza-Chaverri, J. Selective iNOS inhibition reduces renal damage induced by cisplatin. TOXICOLOGY LETTERS 2008; 176(-1-):48-57. >>> 1400W; cisplatin; Saline; SC; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (iNOS); animal info (male, Wistar, 230-275g.).

8754 Zhang, P., Xu, X., Hu, X.L., van Deel, E.D., Zhu, G.S., Chen, Y.J. Inducible nitric oxide synthase deficiency protects the heart from systolic overload-induced ventricular hypertrophy and congestive heart failure. Circulation Research 2007; 100(-7-):1089-1098. >>> 1400W; Saline; SC; Mice; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; cardiovascular; animal info (2-3 months old, CS7BL16).

7431 Perez-Asenio, F.J., Hurtado, O., Burguete, M.C., Moro, M.A., Salom, J.B., Lizasoain, I., Torregrosa, G., Leza, J.C., Alborch, E., Castillo, J., Knowles, R.G., Lorenzo, P. Inhibition of iNOS activity by 1400W decreases glutamate release and ameliorates stroke outcome after experimental ischemia. NEUROBIOLOGY OF DISEASE 2005; 18(-2-):375-384. >>> 1400W; IP; Rat; Controls received mp w/ saline or no treatment; MCAO.

6682 Hu, D.E., Dyke, S.O.M., Moore, A.M., Thomsen, L.L., Brindle, K.M. Tumor cell-derived nitric oxide is involved in the immune-rejection of an immunogenic murine lymphoma. Cancer Research 2004; 64(-1-):152-161. >>> 1400W; PBS; SC; Mice; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (iNOS); cancer (lymphoma).

5303 Sharp, B.R., Jones, S.P., Rimmer, D.M., Lefer, D.J. Differential response to myocardial reperfusion injury in eNOS-deficient mice. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology 2002; 282(--):H2422-H2426. >>> 1400W; IP; Mice (knockout); Cardiovascular; enzyme inhibitor; 1400W is an inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor.

5151 Koarai, A., Ichinose, M., Sugiura, H., Yamagata, S., Hattori, T., Shirato, K. Allergic airway hyperresponsiveness and eosinophil infiltration is reduced by a selective iNOS inhibitor, 1400W, in mice. Pulmonary Pharmacology&Therapeutics 2000; 13(--):267-275. >>> 1400W; Saline; SC; mice; 1003D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; immunology; 1400 W is a selective inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) inhibitor; asthma.

4379 Rudd, M.A., Trolliet, M., Hope, S., Scribner, A.W., Daumerie, G., Toolan, G., Cloutier, T., Loscalzo, J. Salt-induced hypertension in Dahl salt-resistant and salt-sensitive rats with NOS II inhibition. Am. J. Physiol. (Heart Circ. Physiol. 46) 1999; 277(--):H732-H739. >>> AMT; 1400W; Ethylisourea, S-; Rat; Cardiovascular; agents are NOS II inhibitors; AMT is 2-amino-5,6-dihydro-6-methyl-4H-1,3-thiazine; S-ethylisourea is also known as EIT; enzyme inhibitors; nitric oxide synthase inhibitor;.

3841 Thomsen, L.L., Scott, J.M.J., Topley, P., Knowles, R.G., Keerie, A.-J., Frend, A.J. Selective inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibits tumor growth in vivo: studies with 1400W, a novel inhibitor. Cancer Res 1997; 57(--):3300-3304. >>> 1400W; Water, sterile; SC; mice; 2002; controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by measurement of 1400W in plasma and tumor samples; stress/adverse reaction: unexpected symptoms in 2 mice in high dose group (12 mg/kg/h), not clear if compound toxicity or bacterial infection (see pg. 3303); cancer; 1400W is N-(3-(aminomethyl)benzyl)acetamidine, a NO synthase inhibitor.

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2. 9050

6914 Lee, B.J., Singh, A., Chiang, P., Kemp, S.J., Goldman, E.A., Weinhouse, M.I., Vlasuk, G.P., Rosenthal, P.J. Antimalarial activities of novel synthetic cysteine protease inhibitors. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 2003; 47(-12-):3810-3814. >>> 9050; Cremophor, RH40; SC; Mice; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; comparison of IP injections vs. SC mp; half-life (p. 3812), 87.1 min (injection) and 56.2 min (infusion); 12.5% cremophor used; agent is a novel synthetic cysteine protease enzyme inhibitor with antimalarial properties; pump model not listed.

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3. AA-861

10191 Okubo, M., Yamanaka, H., Kobayashi, K., Noguchi, K. Leukotriene Synthases and the Receptors Induced by Peripheral Nerve Injury in the Spinal Cord Contribute to the Generation of Neuropathic Pain. Glia 2010; 58(-5-):599-610. >>> AA-861; U-75302; SB203580; pranlukast; U0126; Ethanol; saline; DMSO; CSF/CNS (intrathecal, subarachnoid space); Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ saline; enzyme inhibitor (5-lipoxygenase); animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 200-250 g); 0.02-0.2% ethanol used; 50% DMSO used; spinal nerve injury; behavioral testing (mechanical allodynia).

4310 Shimoda, K., Nomura, M., Kato, M. Effect of antioxidants, anti-inflammatory drugs, and histamine antagonists on Sparfloxacin-induced phototoxicity in mice. Fundam. Appl. Toxicol 1996; 31(--):133-140. >>> Catalase; Dimethyl sulfoxide; Dexamethasone; Indomethacin; Pyrilamine maleate; AA-861; Cimetidine; Phenidone; Ethanol; Saline; SC; mice; 1007D; all agents infused concomitantly in the same pump; preliminary study conducted to test solubility and toxicity for 5 days; enzyme inhibitors; toxicology.

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4. AG-490

14509 Ying, H., Xu, M.C., Tan, J.H., Shen, J.H., Wang, H., Zhang, D.F., Wang, H. Pressure Overload-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy Response Requires Janus Kinase 2-Histone Deacetylase 2 Signaling. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 2014; 15(--):20240-20253. >>> AG-490; trichostatin-A; PBS; SC; Mice; 2002; Animal info (male, C57B6, 8-10 weeks old); cardiovascular; cardiac hypertrophy; AG-490 is a Jak2 inhibitor; Trichostatin-A aka TSA; TSA is a HDAC2 inhibitor;.

7113 Qiu, J., Cafferty, W.B.J., McMahon, S.B., Thompson, S.W.N. Conditioning injury-induced spinal axon regeneration requires signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 activation. Journal of Neuroscience 2005; 25(-7-):1645-1653. >>> AG-490; Saline; CSF/CNS (sciatic nerve); Rat; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (JAK2); silastic tubing and a gortex nerve cuff used.

3125 Meydan, N., Grunberger, T., Dadi, H., Shahar, M., Arpaia, E., Lapidot, Z., Leeder, J.S., Freedman, M., Cohen, A., Gazit, A., Levitzki, A., Roifman, C.M. Inhibition of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia by a Jak-2 inhibitor. Nature 1996; 1996(--):645-648. >>> AG-490; SC; mice (SCID); controls received no treatment or mp with DMSO; cancer; ALZET not specifically mentioned, but confirmed pump paper via author; AG-490 is a protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) tynorphin inhibitor.

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5. AG-1296

8033 Dell, S., Peters, S., Muether, P., Kociok, N., Joussen, A.M. The role of PDGF receptor inhibitors and PI3-kinase signaling in the pathogenesis of corneal neovascularization. INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY&VISUAL SCIENCE 2006; 47(-5-):1928-1937. >>> AG-1296; wortmannin; LY294002; PBS; IP; Mice; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; dose-response (fig. 6); enzyme inhibitor (PDGF receptor kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase); animal info (male, C57BL/6,7-10wk old 20g.).

6170 Liu, S.Q., Tieche, C., Tang, D.L., Alkema, P. Pattern formation of vascular smooth muscle cells subject to nonuniform fluid shear stress: role of PDGF-β receptor and Src. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology 2003; 285(-3-):H1081-H1090. >>> AG-1296; PP1; IV (vena cava); Rat; 2001D; AG-1296 and PP1 are selective PDGF-B receptor tyrosine kinase and SRC inhibitors; enzyme inhibitor (tyrosine kinase).

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6. AG-1478

16092 Appleton, C. T., Usmani, S. E., Pest, M. A., Pitelka, V., Mort, J. S., Beier, F. Reduction in disease progression by inhibition of transforming growth factor alpha-CCL2 signaling in experimental posttraumatic osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheumatol 2015; 67(-10-):2691-701. >>> AG1478; RS504393; DMSO; water, deionized; SC; rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by plasma levels and knee articular cartilage; pumps replaced every 4 weeks; %50 of DMSO; long-term study; enzyme inhibitor (EGFR and CCR2 inhibitors); EGFR inhibitor AG1478, CCR2 inhibitor RS504393; Dose: (AG1478) 21 nmoles/kg/hour; (RS504393) 200 nmoles/kg/hour.

12662 Qu, W.S., Tian, D.S., Guo, Z.B., Fang, J., Zhang, Q., Yu, Z.Y., Xie, M.J., Zhang, H.Q., Lue, J.G., Wang, W. Inhibition of EGFR/MAPK signaling reduces microglial inflammatory response and the associated secondary damage in rats after spinal cord injury. Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012; 9(-;-):U1-U14. >>> C225; AG1478; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 2002; animal info (Wistar, male, adult 240-260 g); spinal cord injury; PE10 tubing used; spinal cord injury.

11477 Li, Z.W., Tang, R.H., Zhang, J.P., Tang, Z.P., Qu, W.S., Zhu, W.H., Li, J.J., Xie, M.J., Tian, D.S., Wang, W. Inhibiting epidermal growth factor receptor attenuates reactive astrogliosis and improves functional outcome after spinal cord injury in rats. NEUROCHEMISTRY INTERNATIONAL 2011; 58(-7-):812-819. >>> AG1478; DMSO; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, Sprague-Dawley, adult, 220-240 g); AG1478 is a epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor; spinal cord injury.

11325 Esposito, G., Perrino, C., Cannavo, A., Schiattarella, G.G., Borgia, F., Sannino, A., Pironti, G., Gargiulo, G., Di Serafino, L., Franzone, A., Scudiero, L., Grieco, P., Indolfi, C., Chiariello, M. EGFR trans-activation by urotensin II receptor is mediated by beta-arrestin recruitment and confers cardioprotection in pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Basic Research In Cardiology 2011; 106(-4-):577-589. >>> Urantide; urotensin II; AG1478; Mice; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (wt, C57BL/6, male, 8 wks old); AG1478 is a EGFR inhibitor.

11159 Benter, I.F., Canatan, H., Benboubetra, M., Yousif, M.H.M., Akhtar, S. Global upregulation of gene expression associated with renal dysfunction in DOCA-salt-induced hypertensive rats occurs via signaling cascades involving epidermal growth factor receptor: A microarray analysis. VASCULAR PHARMACOLOGY 2009; 51(-2-3-):101-109. >>> AG1478; Rat; 2ML1; Animal info (Wistar); enzyme inhibitor (EGFR tyrosine kinase).

9432 Palen, D.I., Matrougui, K. Role of elevated EGFR phosphorylation in the induction of structural remodelling and altered mechanical properties of resistance artery from type 2 diabetic mice. DIABETES-METABOLISM RESEARCH AND REVIEWS 2008; 24(-8-):651-656. >>> AG-1478; Mice; Animal info (type 2 diabetic, non diabetic, male, 12-14 wks old); AG-1478 is an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor; diabetes.

7876 Ivanov, A., Gerzanich, V., Ivanova, S., DenHaese, R., Tsymbalyuk, O., Simard, J.M. Adenylate cyclase 5 and Kca1.1 channel are required for EGFR up-regulation of PCNA in native contractile rat basilar artery smooth muscle. JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-LONDON 2006; 570(-1-):73-84. >>> Epidermal growth factor; AG-1478; angiotensin II; iberiotoxin; CSF, artificial; saline; CSF/CNS (intrathecal, cisterna magna); SC; Rat; 2001; 2004; Controls received mp w/ aCSF; cardiovascular; peptides; animal info (female, wistar, 275-325 g); angiotensin II disolved in saline and was subcutaneously delivered for 4 weeks using the 2004 model pump; AG-1478 is an EGFR inhibitor.

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7. AG1478

Q2376 Qu,W.S., Tian,D.S., Guo,Z.B., Fang,J., Zhang,Q., Yu,Z.Y., Xie,M.J., Zhang,H.Q., Lue,J.G., Wang,W. Inhibition of EGFR/MAPK signaling reduces microglial inflammatory response and the associated secondary damage in rats after spinal cord injury. Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012; 9(-;-):U1-U14. >>> C225; AG1478; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 2002; 7 days; animal info (Wistar, male, adult 240-260 g); spinal cord injury; PE10 tubing used; spinal cord injury.

Q1206 Li,Z.W., Tang,R.H., Zhang,J.P., Tang,Z.P., Qu,W.S., Zhu,W.H., Li,J.J., Xie,M.J., Tian,D.S., Wang,W. Inhibiting epidermal growth factor receptor attenuates reactive astrogliosis and improves functional outcome after spinal cord injury in rats. NEUROCHEMISTRY INTERNATIONAL 2011; 58(-7-):812-819. >>> AG1478; DMSO; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 2002; 14 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, Sprague-Dawley, adult, 220-240 g); AG1478 is a epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor; spinal cord injury.

Q1057 Esposito,G., Perrino,C., Cannavo,A., Schiattarella,G.G., Borgia,F., Sannino,A., Pironti,G., Gargiulo,G., Di Serafino,L., Franzone,A., Scudiero,L., Grieco,P., Indolfi,C., Chiariello,M. EGFR trans-activation by urotensin II receptor is mediated by beta-arrestin recruitment and confers cardioprotection in pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Basic Research In Cardiology 2011; 106(-4-):577-589. >>> Urantide; urotensin II; AG1478; Mice; 2002; 7 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (wt, C57BL/6, male, 8 wks old); AG1478 is a EGFR inhibitor.

Q0908 Benter,I.F., Canatan,H., Benboubetra,M., Yousif,M.H.M., Akhtar,S. Global upregulation of gene expression associated with renal dysfunction in DOCA-salt-induced hypertensive rats occurs via signaling cascades involving epidermal growth factor receptor: A microarray analysis. VASCULAR PHARMACOLOGY 2009; 51(-2-3-):101-109. >>> AG1478; Rat; 2ML1; ; Animal info (Wistar); enzyme inhibitor (EGFR tyrosine kinase).

P9197 Palen,D.I., Matrougui,K. Role of elevated EGFR phosphorylation in the induction of structural remodelling and altered mechanical properties of resistance artery from type 2 diabetic mice. DIABETES-METABOLISM RESEARCH AND REVIEWS 2008; 24(-8-):651-656. >>> AG-1478; Mice; 2 weeks; Animal info (type 2 diabetic, non diabetic, male, 12-14 wks old); AG-1478 is an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor; diabetes.

P7677 Ivanov,A., Gerzanich,V., Ivanova,S., DenHaese,R., Tsymbalyuk,O., Simard,J.M. Adenylate cyclase 5 and Kca1.1 channel are required for EGFR up-regulation of PCNA in native contractile rat basilar artery smooth muscle. JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-LONDON 2006; 570(-1-):73-84. >>> Epidermal growth factor; AG-1478; angiotensin II; iberiotoxin; CSF, artificial; saline; CSF/CNS (intrathecal, cisterna magna); SC; Rat; 2001; 2004; 1,3 days; 4 weeks; Controls received mp w/ aCSF; cardiovascular; peptides; animal info (female, wistar, 275-325 g); angiotensin II disolved in saline and was subcutaneously delivered for 4 weeks using the 2004 model pump; AG-1478 is an EGFR inhibitor.

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8. AK275

2703 Bartus, R.T., Baker, K.L., Heiser, A.D., Sawyer, S.D., Dean, R.L., Elliott, P.J., Straub, J.A. Postischemic administration of AK275, a calpain inhibitor, provides substantial protection against focal ischemic brain damage. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab 1994; 14(-4-):537-544. >>> AK275; Dye, Evans-Blue fluorescent; CSF, artificial; DMSO; CSF/CNS (occipital cortex); rat; 2001D; controls received vehicles; functionality of mp verified by in vitro tests; dose-response (pg. 542); enzyme inhibitor; pumps coated w/ paraffin to decrease delivery volume;"supracortical perfusion method": PE-10 tubing inserted 3 mm along surface of occipital cortex (pg. 539); ischemia (cerebral).

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9. AMT

4379 Rudd, M.A., Trolliet, M., Hope, S., Scribner, A.W., Daumerie, G., Toolan, G., Cloutier, T., Loscalzo, J. Salt-induced hypertension in Dahl salt-resistant and salt-sensitive rats with NOS II inhibition. Am. J. Physiol. (Heart Circ. Physiol. 46) 1999; 277(--):H732-H739. >>> AMT; 1400W; Ethylisourea, S-; Rat; Cardiovascular; agents are NOS II inhibitors; AMT is 2-amino-5,6-dihydro-6-methyl-4H-1,3-thiazine; S-ethylisourea is also known as EIT; enzyme inhibitors; nitric oxide synthase inhibitor;.

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10. AY9944

12339 Xu, L.B., Sheflin, L.G., Porter, N.A., Fliesler, S.J. 7-Dehydrocholesterol-derived oxysterols and retinal degeneration in a rat model of Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome. BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA-MOLECULAR AND CELL BIOLOGY OF LIPIDS 2012; 1821(-6-):877-883. >>> AY9944; PBS; Rat (pregnant); 2ML4; Animal info (Sprague Dawley, SLOS); enzyme inhibitor (3 beta-hydroxysterol-d7-reductase).

8677 Fliesler, S.J., Vaughan, D.K., Jenewein, E.C., Richards, M.J., Nagel, B.A., Peachey, N.S. Partial rescue of retinal function and sterol steady-state in a rat model of Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome. PEDIATRIC RESEARCH 2007; 61(-3-):273-278. >>> AY9944; PBS; SC; Rat (pregnant); 2ML4; Controls received no treatment; enzyme inhibitor (3 beta-hydroxysterol-d7-reductase); teratology; animal info (female, Sprague-Dawley, GD7).

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11. AZD1152

8705 Wilkinson, R.W., Odedra, R., Heaton, S.P., Wedge, S.R., Keen, N.J., Crafter, C., Foster, J.R., Brady, M.C., Bigley, A., Brown, E., Byth, K.F., Barrass, N.C., Mundt, K.E., Foote, K.M., Heron, N.M., Jung, F.H., Mortlock, A.A., Boyle, F.T., Green, S. AZD1152, a selective inhibitor of Aurora B kinase, inhibits human tumor xenograft growth by inducing apoptosis. Clinical Cancer Research 2007; 13(-12-):3682-3688. >>> AZD1152; SC; Mice; 2001D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; dose-response (p. 3684); comparison of IV or IP injections; enzyme inhibitor (aurora B kinase); cancer; xenograft; animal info (male, 8-12 weeks old, Swiss athymic).

8184 Mortlock, A.A., Foote, K.M., Heron, N.M., Jung, F.H., Pasquet, G., Lohmann, J.J., Warin, N., Renaud, F., Savi, C.D., Roberts, N.J., Johnson, T., Dousson, C.B., Hill, G.B., Perkins, D., Hatter, G., Wilkinson, R.W., Wedge, S.R., Heaton, S.P., Odedra, R., Keen, N.J., Crafter, C., Brown, E., Thompson, K., Brightwell, S., Khatri, L., Brady, M.C., Kearney, S., McKillop, D., Rhead, S., Parry, T., Green, S. Discovery, synthesis, and in vivo activity of a new class of pyrazoloquinazolines as selective inhibitors of aurora B kinase. J. Med. Chem 2007; Online only(--):. >>> AZD1152; Tris buffer; SC; Mice (nude); 2001D; Enzyme inhibitor (aurora kinase); cancer; animal info (male, Swiss, nu/nu); PK data; xenograft; tumor cells on dorsal flank.

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12. Acetazolamide

11831 Pech, V., Pham, T.D., Hong, S., Weinstein, A.M., Spencer, K.B., Duke, B.J., Walp, E., Kim, Y.H., Sutliff, R.L., Bao, H.F., Eaton, D.C., Wall, S.M. Pendrin Modulates ENaC Function by Changing Luminal HCO(3)(-). Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 2010; 21(-11-):1928-1941. >>> Aldosterone; acetazolamide; Mice; Animal info (Pendrin-null, age, sex matched).

4884 Bagnis, C., Marshansky, V., Breton, S., Brown, D. Remodeling the cellular profile of collecting ducts by chronic carbonic anhydrase inhibition.. American Journal of Physiology-Renal Physiology 2001; 280(--):F437-F448. >>> Acetazolamide; SC;; rat;; Functionality of mp verified by aspiration of remaining contents after explant; enzyme inhibitor; Acetazolamide is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor;.

1762 Hott, M., Marie, P.J. Carbonic anhydrase activity in fetal rat bone resorbing cells: inhibition by acetazolamide infusion. J. Dev. Physiol 1989; 12(--):277-281. >>> Acetazolamide; Tris buffer; SC; rat (pregnant); teratology.

821 Lonnerholm, G., Wistrand, P.J., Barany, E. Carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes in the rat kidney. Effects of chronic acetazolamide treatment. Acta Physiol. Scand 1986; 126(-1-):51-60. >>> Acetazolamide; Water; SC; rat; 2ML2; mp replaced every other week; controls were sham operated; one control received mp w/ saline; stress/adverse reaction (4 animals died during replacement of mp); drug free interval between pumps; long-term study.

675 Kenny, A.D. Role of carbonic anhydrase in bone: partial inhibition of disuse atrophy of bone by parenteral acetazolamide. Calcif. Tissue Int 1985; 37(-2-):126-133. >>> Acetazolamide sodium; Sodium hydroxide; SC; rat; 1701; comparison of twice daily sc injec vs. mp infusion vs. admin. in diet; dose-response data; continuous infusion gave greatest protection against bone loss with smallest doses.

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13. Alaproclate

2740 Brodin, K., Ogren, S.-O., Brodin, E. Clomipramine and clonazepam increase cholecystokinin levels in rat ventral tegmental area and limbic regions. Eur. J. Pharmacol 1994; 263(--):175-180. >>> Nortriptyline; Amitriptyline; Clomipramine; Alaproclate; Clonazepam; Alcohol; Saline; SC; rat; 2ML2; antidepressant; controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by plasma levels; dose-response (Table 1; pg. 177); enzyme inhibitor; clonazepam is a benzodiazepene; the others are monoamine uptake inhibitors.

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14. Aliskiren

15882 Rai, P., Lederman, R., Haque, S., Rehman, S., Kumar, V., Sataranatrajan, K., Malhotra, A., Kasinath, B. S., Singhal, P. C. Renin angiotensin system modulates mTOR pathway through AT2R in HIVAN. Exp Mol Pathol 2014; 96(-3-):431-7. >>> Telmisartan; PD123319; Doxycycline; aliskiren; Saline; water; SC; mice; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info : Tg26 mice; FVBN mice, Tg26 mice; Vpr transgenic mice (4 week old); immunology; Dose: Telmisartan (AT1R blocker, 300Ǩg/day), PD123319 (AT2R blocker, 3Ǩg/day); Doxycycline + aliskiren (50 mg/kg).

15851 Yamada, C., Kuwahara, K., Yamazaki, M., Nakagawa, Y., Nishikimi, T., Kinoshita, H., Kuwabara, Y., Minami, T., Yamada, Y., Shibata, J., Nakao, K., Cho, K., Arai, Y., Honjo, H., Kamiya, K., Nakao, K., Kimura, T. The renin-angiotensin system promotes arrhythmogenic substrates and lethal arrhythmias in mice with non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy. Cardiovasc Res 2016; 109(-1-):162-73. >>> Aliskiren; SC; Mice; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, dnNRSF-Tg, 16 weeks old); long-term study; cardiovascular; Dose (23 mg/kg/day);.

15786 Kuei-Chuan Lee, Yun-Cheng Hsieh, Ying-Ying Yang, Che-Chang Chan, Yi-Hsiang Huang, Han-Chieh Lin. Aliskiren Reduces Hepatic steatosis and Epididymal Fat Mass and Increases Skeletal Muscle Insulin Sensitivity in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS 2016; 6(--):1-11. >>> Aliskiren; Water, double distilled; SC; Mice; 1004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, C57BL6, 6-8 weeks old); Dose (50 mg/kg/day);.

14875 Chang, T.T., Wu, T.C., Huang, P.H., Lin, C.P., Chen, J.S., Lin, L.Y., Lin, S.J., Chen, J.W., Chen, J.W. Direct Renin Inhibition with Aliskiren Improves Ischemia-Induced Neovasculogenesis in Diabetic Animals via the SDF-1 Related Mechanism. PLoS One 2015; 10(--):U1637-U1653. >>> Aliskiren; olmesartan; candesartan; PBS; Mice; 2006; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, FVB/NJNarl, 6 weeks old); ischemia (hind limb); diabetes; long-term study;.

14782 Zhou, G.Y., Liu, X., Cheung, A.K., Huang, Y.F., Zhou, G.Y. Efficacy of aliskiren, compared with angiotensin II blockade, in slowing the progression of diabetic nephropathy in db/db mice: should the combination therapy be a focus?. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH 2015; 7(--):825-840. >>> Aliskiren; SC; Mice; 2004; Animal info (male, db/db, 18 or 22 weeks); cardiovascular; diabetes; bp measured using tail cuff;.

14512 Yoshida, S., Ishizawa, K., Ayuzawa, N., Ueda, K., Takeuchi, M., Kawarazaki, W., Fujita, T., Nagase, M., Yoshida, S. Renin inhibition ameliorates renal damage through prominent suppression of both angiotensin I and II in human renin angiotensinogen transgenic mice with high salt loading. Clinical and Experimental Nephrology 2014; 18(--):593-599. >>> Aliskiren; SC; Mice (transgenic); Animal info (Tsukuba hypertensive mice, double transgenic); long-term study; cardiovascular; antihypertensive; bp measured using tail cuff;.

14438 Tenkumo, K., Hirooka, K., Sherajee, S.J., Nakamura, T., Itano, T., Nitta, E., Fujita, T., Nishiyama, A., Shiraga, F., Hirooka, K. Effect of the renin inhibitor aliskiren against retinal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Experimental Eye Research 2014; 122(--):110-118. >>> Aliskiren; SC; Rat; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 200-250g); ischemia (retinal); cardiovascular; aliskiren is a renin inhibitor.

14380 Sakuraya, K., Endo, A., Someya, T., Hirano, D., Murano, Y., Fujinaga, S., Ohtomo, Y., Shimizu, T., Someya, T. The Synergistic Effect of Mizoribine and a Direct Renin Inhibitor, Aliskiren, on Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction Induced Renal Fibrosis in Rats. Journal of Urology 2014; 191(--):1139-1146. >>> Aliskiren; Saline; SC; Rat; 2ML2; Animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 200-250g, unilateral ureter obstruction); immunology;.

14367 te Riet, L., van den Heuvel, M., Peutz-Kootstra, C.J., van Esch, J.H.M., van Veghel, R., Garrelds, I.M., Musterd-Bhaggoe, U., Bouhuizen, A.M., Leijten, F.P.J., Danser, A.H.J., Batenburg, W.W., Batenburg, W.W. Deterioration of kidney function by the (pro)renin receptor blocker handle region peptide in aliskiren-treated diabetic transgenic (mRen2)27 rats. American Journal of Physiology-Renal Physiology 2014; 306(--):F1179-F1189. >>> Aliskiren; handle region peptide, rat; Saline; SC; Rat (transgenic); 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Ren2 Sprague Dawley heterozygous, 400-500g); Multiple pumps per animal (2); cardiovascular; peptides; diabetes;.

14359 Rai, P., Lederman, R., Hague, S., Rehman, S., Kumar, V., Sataranatrajan, K., Malhotra, A., Kasinath, B.S., Singhal, P.C., Singhal, P.C. Renin angiotensin system modulates mTOR pathway through AT2R in HIVAN. Experimental and Molecular Pathology 2014; 96(--):431-437. >>> Aliskiren; telmisartan; PD123319; Saline; SC; Mice (transgenic); 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Tg26); anthypertensive; cardiovascular; long-term study;.

14625 Miyata, K., Satou, R., Inui, D., Katsurada, A., Seth, D., Davis, A., Urushihara, M., Kobori, H., Mitchell, K.D., Navar, L.G., Navar, L.G. Renoprotective Effects of Direct Renin Inhibition in Glomerulonephritis. American Journal of the Medical Sciences 2014; 348(--):306-314. >>> Aliskiren; Rat; Animal info (Sprague Dawley, Fischer, male, 230-430 g).

14573 Wang, W.D., Qiu, L.R., Howard, A., Solis, N., Li, C.L., Wang, X.X., Kopp, J.B., Levi, M., Wang, W.D. Protective effects of aliskiren and valsartan in mice with diabetic nephropathy. JOURNAL OF THE RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN-ALDOSTERONE SYSTEM 2014; 15(--):384-395. >>> Aliskiren; SC; Mice; Animal info (8 wks old, DBA2/J); long-term study;.

13911 Ramirez, T.A., Iyer, R.P., Ghasemi, O., Lopez, E.F., Levin, D.B., Zhang, J., Zamilpa, R., Chou, Y.M., Jin, Y.F., Lindsey, M.L., Lindsey, M.L. Aliskiren and valsartan mediate left ventricular remodeling post-myocardial infarction in mice through MMP-9 effects. Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 2014; 72(--):326-335. >>> Aliskiren; valsartan; Saline; SC; Mice; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (MMP-9 null or WT); cardiovascular; bp measured using MC4000 bp analysis system;.

13715 Batenburg, W.W., Verma, A., Wang, Y.Y., Zhu, P., van den Heuvel, M., van Veghel, R., Danser, A.H.J., Li, Q.H., Li, Q.H. Combined Renin Inhibition/(Pro)Renin Receptor Blockade in Diabetic Retinopathy- A Study in Transgenic (mREN2)27 Rats. PLoS One 2014; 9(--):U983-U993. >>> Aliskiren; handle region peptide; Saline; SC; Rat (transgenic); 2ML4; Animal info (heterozygous Ren2 Sprague Dawley, adult, 400-500g); Multiple pumps per animal (2); cardiovascular; peptides; diabetes; handle region peptide aka HRP;.

13581 Gordon, O., He, Z.H., Gilon, D., Gruener, S., Pietranico-Cole, S., Oppenheim, A., Keshet, E. A Transgenic Platform for Testing Drugs Intended for Reversal of Cardiac Remodeling Identifies a Novel 11betaHSD1 Inhibitor Rescuing Hypertrophy Independently of Re-Vascularization. PLoS One 2014; 9(-3-):U967-U977. >>> Aliskiren; Mice; 2004; Animal info (C57BL/6JOLaHsd, male, 5-6 wks old).

13282 Lee, K.C., Chan, C.C., Yang, Y.Y., Hsieh, Y.C., Huang, Y.H., Lin, H.C. Aliskiren Attenuates Steatohepatitis and Increases Turnover of Hepatic Fat in Mice Fed with a Methionine and Choline Deficient Diet. PLoS One 2013; 8(-10-):U487-U497. >>> Aliskiren; Water, distilled; SC; Mice; Animal info (adult, male, C57BL/6, 8-10 weeks); antihypertensive; peptides; functionality of mp verified by (measurement of blood angiotensin II and insulin, triglyceride content of liver); enzyme inhibitor (renin).

13245 Savoia, C., Arrabito, E., Parente, R., Sada, L., Madaro, L., Nicoletti, C., Zezza, L., Alonzo, A., Rubattu, S., Michelini, S., Muller, D.N., Volpe, M. The direct renin inhibitor aliskiren improves vascular remodelling in transgenic rats harbouring human renin and angiotensinogen genes. Clinical Science 2013; 125(-3-4-):183-189. >>> Aliskiren; SC; Rat; Cardiovascular; antihypertensive; animal info (male, dTGR); functionality of mp verified by measurement of systolic blood pressure; enzyme inhibitor (renin);.

13227 Feldman, D.L., Jin, L., Xuan, H., Persohn, E., Zhou, W., Schuetz, H., Park, J.K., Muller, D.N., Luft, F.C. The direct renin inhibitor aliskiren localizes and persists in rat kidneys. American Journal of Physiology-Renal Physiology 2013; 305(-11-):F1593-F1602. >>> Aliskiren; SC; Rat; 2004; 2ML1; Cardiovascular; Peptides; antihypertensive; animal info (double transgenic rats (dTGR)); functionality of mp verified by (measurement of blood pressure, albuminuria, plasma creatinine, systolic blood pressure); comparison of mp vs. injection (Fig. 6); enzyme inhibitor (renin).

13221 Thomas, C.M., Yong, Q.C., Seqqat, R., Chandel, N., Feldman, D.L., Baker, K.M., Kumar, R. Direct renin inhibition prevents cardiac dysfunction in a diabetic mouse model: comparison with an angiotensin receptor antagonist and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. Clinical Science 2013; 124(-7-8-):529-541. >>> Insulin; aliskiren (renin inhibitor); benazeprilat (ACEi); valsartan (ARB); streptozotocin; Saline; SC; Mice; 1004; Controls received mp w/vehicle, or (0.1M sodium citrate buffer (pH 4.5)); cardiovascular; animal info (male, C57b16/J, 12 weeks, blood glucose>250 mg/dl); pumps replaced every 4 weeks; enzyme inhibitor (renin); long-term study; diabetes;.

13169 Yong, Q.C., Thomas, C.M., Seqqat, R., Chandel, N., Baker, K.M., Kumar, R. Angiotensin type 1a receptor-deficient mice develop diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction, which is prevented by renin-angiotensin system inhibitors. Cardiovascular Diabetology 2013; 12(-;-):U1-U13. >>> Aliskiren; benazeprilat; valsartan; PD123319; Saline; SC; Mice; 1004; Cardiovascular; petides; animal info (12 wks old, male, AT-KO); functionality of mp verified by echocardiography; pumps replaced every 4 weeks; enzyme inhibitor (renin); long-term study;.

13023 Lee, K.C., Chan, C.C., Yang, Y.Y., Hsieh, Y.C., Huang, Y.H., Lin, H.C. Aliskiren attenuates chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in mice. European Journal of Clinical Investigation 2012; 42(-12-):1261-1271. >>> Aliskiren; SC; Mice; Animal info (C57BL/6, adulit, male, 8-10 wks old); enzyme inhibitor (renin);.

12968 Yang, N.I., Liao, C.C., Hung, M.J., Cherng, W.J. Direct Renin Inhibitor Attenuates Left Ventricular Remodeling in Post-Myocardial Infarction Heart Failure Mice. Acta Cardiologica Sinica 2013; 29(-2-):160-167. >>> Aliskiren; Mice; 1004; Control animals received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (C57BL/6, male, 10 wks old); enzyme inhibitor (renin);.

12905 Chuengsamarn, S., Garza, A.E., Krug, A.W., Romero, J.R., Adler, G.K., Williams, G.H., Pojoga, L.H. Direct renin inhibition modulates insulin resistance in caveolin-1-deficient mice. METABOLISM-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL 2013; 62(-2-):275-281. >>> Aliskiren; SC; Mice; 1007D; Animal info (11 wks old, cav-1 KO, wt, age-matched); enzyme inhibitor (renin);.

12902 Yen, T.H., Yang, H.Y., Yeh, Y.H., Chu, P.H., Wen, C.J., Fu, J.F., Wang, I.K., Liang, C.C., Chang, C.T., Chen, K.H., Tian, Y.C., Hung, C.C., Lin, J.L., Yang, C.W. Aliskiren attenuates proteinuria in mice with lupus nephritis by a blood pressure-independent mechanism. LUPUS 2013; 22(-2-):180-189. >>> Aliskiren; PBS; Mice; Control animals received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (MRL/lpr, 6 wks old, female); pumps replaced every 28 days; long-term study; enzyme inhibitor (renin);.

12896 Moniwa, N., Varagic, J., Ahmad, S., VonCannon, J.L., Simington, S.W., Wang, H., Groban, L., Brosnihan, K.B., Nagata, S., Kato, J., Kitamura, K., Gomez, R.A., Lopez, M.L.S., Ferrario, C.M. Hemodynamic and Hormonal Changes to Dual Renin-Angiotensin System Inhibition in Experimental Hypertension. Hypertension 2013; 61(-2-):417-U417. >>> Aliskiren; Saline; SC; Rat; 2ML2; Control animals received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, 10 wks old, mRen2.Lewis); incorrectly listed Model 2M2L; enzyme inhibitor (renin);.

12810 Kavvadas, P., Weis, L., Abed, A.B., Feldman, D.L., Dussaule, J.C., Chatziantoniou, C. Renin Inhibition Reverses Renal Disease in Transgenic Mice by Shifting the Balance Between Profibrotic and Antifibrotic Agents. Hypertension 2013; 61(-4-):901-U360. >>> Aliskiren; PBS; SC; Mice (transgenic); 2004; Animal info (RenTg, 9-10 mo old); enzyme inhibitor (renin);.

12744 Chou, C.L., Pang, C.Y., Lee, T.J.F., Fang, T.C. Direct renin inhibitor prevents and ameliorates insulin resistance, aortic endothelial dysfunction and vascular remodeling in fructose-fed hypertensive rats. HYPERTENSION RESEARCH 2013; 36(-2-):123-128. >>> Aliskiren; Saline, normal; SC; Rat; 2002; Animal info (Wistar-Kyoto, male, wks old, 150-200 g); post op. care (penicillin); long-term study; enzyme inhibitor (renin);.

12578 Fraune, C., Lange, S., Krebs, C., Hoelzel, A., Baucke, J., Divac, N., Schwedhelm, E., Streichert, T., Velden, J., Garrelds, I.M., Danser, A.H.J., Frenay, A.R., van Goor, H., Jankowski, V., Stahl, R., Nguyen, G., Wenzel, U.O. AT(1) antagonism and renin inhibition in mice: pivotal role of targeting angiotensin II in chronic kidney disease. American Journal of Physiology-Renal Physiology 2012; 303(-7-):F1037-F1048. >>> Aliskiren; Mice; 2002; Controls were untreated; animal info (FVB/N, 10 wks old, male); enzyme inhibitor (renin);.

12575 Kumar, D., Plagov, A., Yadav, I., Torri, D.D., Sayeneni, S., Sagar, A., Rai, P., Adabala, M., Lederman, R., Chandel, N., Ding, G.H., Malhotra, A., Singhal, P.C. Inhibition of renin activity slows down the progression of HIV-associated nephropathy. American Journal of Physiology-Renal Physiology 2012; 303(-5-):F711-F720. >>> Aliskiren; SC; Mice (transgenic); 2004; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (FVB/N, Tg26, 6 wks old); long-term study; enzyme inhibitor (renin);.

12262 Lei, B., Nakano, D., Fan, Y.Y., Kitada, K., Hitomi, H., Kobori, H., Mori, H., Masaki, T., Nishiyama, A. Add-On Aliskiren Elicits Stronger Renoprotection Than High-Dose Valsartan in Type 2 Diabetic KKAy Mice That Do Not Respond to Low-Dose Valsartan. JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGICAL SCIENCES 2012; 119(-2-):131-138. >>> Aliskiren; SC; Mice; 1002; 1004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (type 2 diabetic KKAy, C57BL/6J, 12 wks old, male); pumps replaced at weeks 4 and 8; long-term study; enzyme inhibitor (renin);.

12059 Fukuda, A., Wickman, L.T., Venkatareddy, M.P., Sato, Y., Chowdhury, M.A., Wang, S.Q., Shedden, K.A., Dysko, R.C., Wiggins, J.E., Wiggins, R.C. Angiotensin II-dependent persistent podocyte loss from destabilized glomeruli causes progression of end stage kidney disease. Kidney International 2012; 81(-1-):40-55. >>> Aliskiren; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (Fischer 344, Tg) long-term study; pumps replaced after 4 weeks; enzyme inhibitor (renin);.

12027 Choi, D.E., Jeong, J.Y., Lim, B.J., Chang, Y.K., Na, K.R., Shin, Y.T., Lee, K.W. Aliskiren Ameliorates Renal Inflammation and Fibrosis Induced by Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction in Mice. Journal of Urology 2011; 186(-2-):694-701. >>> Aliskiren; Saline, normal; SC; Mice; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, C57BL/6, 10 wks old, 30-33 g); enzyme inhibitor (renin);.

11779 Dong, Y.F., Kataoka, K., Toyama, K., Sueta, D., Koibuchi, N., Yamamoto, E., Yata, K., Tomimoto, H., Ogawa, H., Kim-Mitsuyama, S. Attenuation of Brain Damage and Cognitive Impairment by Direct Renin Inhibition in Mice With Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion. Hypertension 2011; 58(-4-):635-U247. >>> Aliskiren; Saline; SC; Mice; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (C57BL/6J, 11 wks old); enzyme inhibitor (renin);.

11756 Wilkinson-Berka, J.L., Tan, G., Binger, K.J., Sutton, L., McMaster, K., Deliyanti, D., Perera, G., Campbell, D.J., Miller, A.G. Aliskiren reduces vascular pathology in diabetic retinopathy and oxygen-induced retinopathy in the transgenic (mRen-2)27 rat. Diabetologia 2011; 54(-10-):2724-2735. >>> Aliskiren; lisonopril; SC; Rat; rat (neonate); 2ML4; 1007D; Controls received sham surgery; animal info (Sprague-Dawley, transgenic (mRen-2)27, postnatal days 12-18, female, 180-210 g, STZ-induced diabetes); pumps replaced every 4 weeks; long-term study; diabetes; enzyme inhibitor (renin);.

11725 Chou, C.L., Lai, Y.H., Lin, T.Y., Lee, T.J.F., Fang, T.C. Aliskiren prevents and ameliorates metabolic syndrome in fructose-fed rats. Archives of Medical Science 2011; 7(-5-):882-888. >>> Aliskiren; Saline, normal; SC; Rat; 2002; animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 200-230 g); pumps replaced after 2 weeks; functionality of mp verified by residual volume; post op. care (penicillin); enzyme inhibitor (renin);.

11307 Dong, Y.F., Liu, L., Lai, Z.F., Yamamoto, E., Kataoka, K., Nakamura, T., Fukuda, M., Tokutomi, Y., Nako, H., Ogawa, H., Kim-Mitsuyama, S. Aliskiren enhances protective effects of valsartan against type 2 diabetic nephropathy in mice. Journal of Hypertension 2010; 28(-7-):1554-1565. >>> Aliskiren; valsartan; SC; Mice; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (6 wks old, Balb/C, db/db); long-term study; enzyme inhibitor (renin);.

11095 Gross, O., Girgert, R., Rubel, D., Temme, J., Theissen, S., Mueller, G.A. Renal Protective Effects of Aliskiren Beyond Its Antihypertensive Property in a Mouse Model of Progressive Fibrosis. American Journal of Hypertension 2011; 24(-3-):355-361. >>> Aliskiren; SC; Mice; 2004; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (COL4A3-/-, 6 wks old); stress/adverse reaction: skin necrosis (see pg. 359); enzyme inhibitor (renin);.

11067 Stegbauer, J., Lee, D.H., Seubert, S., Ellrichmann, G., Manzel, A., Kvakan, H., Muller, D.N., Gaupp, S., Rump, L.C., Gold, R., Linker, R.A. Role of the renin-angiotensin system in autoimmune inflammation of the central nervous system. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 2009; 106(-35-):14942-14947. >>> Aliskiren; SC; Mice; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (C57BL/6, agtr -/-); enzyme inhibitor (renin);.

10924 van Esch, J.H.M., van Veghel, R., Garrelds, I.M., Leijten, F., Bouhuizen, A.M., Danser, A.H.J. Handle Region Peptide Counteracts the Beneficial Effects of the Renin Inhibitor Aliskiren in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats. Hypertension 2011; 57(-4-):852-858. >>> Handle region peptide; aliskiren; Saline; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, SHRs, 280-300g); peptides; multiple pumps per animal (2); enzyme inhibitor (renin);.

10599 Schmerbach, K., Pfab, T., Zhao, Y., Culman, J., Mueller, S., Villringer, A., Muller, D.N., Hocher, B., Unger, T., Thoene-Reineke, C. Effects of Aliskiren on Stroke in Rats Expressing Human Renin and Angiotensinogen Genes. PLoS One 2010; 5(-11-):U241-U247. >>> Aliskiren; candesartan; SC; Rat; Controls received sham operation; animal info (dTGR, 5-6 wks old, 125-135g); MRI; ischemia (MCAO, cerebral); enzyme inhibitor (renin);.

10572 Rakusan, D., Kujal, P., Kramer, H.J., Huskova, Z., Vanourkova, Z., Vernerova, Z., Mrazova, I., Thumova, M., Cervenka, L., Vaneckova, I. Persistent antihypertensive effect of aliskiren is accompanied by reduced proteinuria and normalization of glomerular area in Ren-2 transgenic rats. American Journal of Physiology-Renal Physiology 2010; 299(-4-):F758-F766. >>> Aliskiren; SC; Rat; 2004; 2006; Control Hannover Sprague-Dawleys received aliskiren; animal info (male, heterozygous mRen2-27, normotensive control, Hannover Sprague-Dawley); pumps replaced with Model 2006 pumps after 28 days; long-term study; enzyme inhibitor (renin);.

10541 Stucchi, P., Cano, V., Ruiz-Gayo, M., Fernandez-Alfonso, M.S. Aliskiren reduces body-weight gain, adiposity and plasma leptin during diet-induced obesity. British Journal of Pharmacology 2009; 158(-3-):771-778. >>> Aliskiren; SC; Mice; 2004; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (4 wks old, C57BL/6J); long-term study; enzyme inhibitor (renin);.

10504 Ino, J., Kojima, C., Osaka, M., Nitta, K., Yoshida, M. Dynamic Observation of Mechanically-Injured Mouse Femoral Artery Reveals an Antiinflammatory Effect of Renin Inhibitor. ARTERIOSCLEROSIS THROMBOSIS AND VASCULAR BIOLOGY 2009; 29(-11-):1858-U385. >>> Aliskiren; PBS; Mice; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (C57BL/6, 6-7 wks old; Oriental Yeast); dose-response (fig. 1); enzyme inhibitor (renin);.

10460 Yamamoto, E., Kataoka, K., Dong, Y.F., Nakamura, T., Fukuda, M., Tokutomi, Y., Matsuba, S., Nako, H., Nakagata, N., Kaneko, T., Ogawa, H., Kim-Mitsuyama, S. Aliskiren Enhances the Protective Effects of Valsartan Against Cardiovascular and Renal Injury in Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase-Deficient Mice. Hypertension 2009; 54(-3-):633-U360. >>> Valsartan; aliskiren; Mice; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (male, eNOS -/-, wt); enzyme inhibitor (renin);.

9004 Lu, H., Rateri, D.L., Feldman, D.L., Charnigo, RJ Jr, Fukamizu, A., Ishida, J.J., Oesterling, E.G., Cassis, L.A., Daugherty, A. Renin inhibition reduces hypercholesterolemia-induced atherosclerosis in mice. Journal of Clinical Investigation 2008; 118(-3-):984-993. >>> Aliskiren; PBS; SC; Mice; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by plasma Aliskiren levels; dose-response (fig. 1); long-term study; pumps replaced every 28 days; no stress (see pg. 985); enzyme inhibitor (Renin); cardiovascular; animal info (male, C57BL/6, Ldlr -/-, 6-8 wks old, 30g.).

7896 Shagdarsuren, E., Wellner, M., Braesen, J.H., Park, J.K., Fiebeler, A., Henke, N., Dechend, R., Gratze, P., Luft, F.C., Muller, D.N. Complement activation in angiotensin II - Induced organ damage. Circulation Research 2005; 97(-7-):716-724. >>> Aliskiren; SC; Rat (transgenic); Aliskiren plasma levels; animal info (Sprague-Dawley); enzyme inhibitor (renin);.

7895 Pilz, B., Shagdarsuren, E., Wellner, M., Fiebeler, A., Dechend, R., Gratze, P., Meiners, S., Feldman, D.L., Webb, R.L., Garrelds, I.M., Danser, A.H.J., Luft, F.C., Mueller, D.N. Aliskiren, a human renin inhibitor, ameliorates cardiac and renal damage in double-transgenic rats. Hypertension 2005; 46(-3-):569-576. >>> Aliskiren; SC; Rat (transgenic); Blood pressure taken; cardiovascular; animal info (male, DTGR, 5.5 weeks old); enzyme inhibitor (renin);.

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15. Allylglycine

15937 Paine, T. A., Cooke, E. K., Lowes, D. C. Effects of chronic inhibition of GABA synthesis on attention and impulse control. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2015; 135(--):97-104. >>> Allylglycine, L-; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS (prefrontal cortex); Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dalwey); bilateral cannula used; Multiple pumps per animal (2); behavioral testing (standard time reaction test; locomotor activity); tissue perfusion (prefrontal cortex); enzyme inhibitor (glutamic acid decarboxylase); Dose (3.5 ug/0.5ul/h);.

13810 Iijima, M., Yoshimizu, T., Shimazaki, T., Tokugawa, K., Fukumoto, K., Kurosu, S., Kuwada, T., Sekiguchi, Y., Chaki, S., Chaki, S. Antidepressant and anxiolytic profiles of newly synthesized arginine vasopressin V(1B) receptor antagonists: TASP0233278 and TASP0390325. British Journal of Pharmacology 2014; 171(--):3511-3525. >>> Allylglycine, 1-; CSF/CNS (hypothalamus); Rat; Animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 211-246g); behavioral testing (forced swimming test, elevated plus maze, locomotor activity); tissue perfusion (dorsomedial hypothalamus); I-AG is a GAD inhibitor;.

12828 Johnson, P.L., Fitz, S.D., Engleman, E.A., Svensson, K.A., Schkeryantz, J.M., Shekhar, A. Group II metabotropic glutamate receptor type 2 allosteric potentiators prevent sodium lactate-induced panic-like response in panic-vulnerable rats. JOURNAL OF PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY 2013; 27(-2-):152-161. >>> Allylglycine, 1-; CSF/CNS (dorsomedial/perifornical hypothalamus); Rat; 2002; Animal info (Sprague Dawley, male, 300-350 g); 1-allylglycine also known as 1-AG; PE-60 tubing used.

11510 Molosh, A.I., Johnson, P.L., Fitz, S.D., DiMicco, J.A., Herman, J.P., Shekhar, A. Changes in Central Sodium and not Osmolarity or Lactate Induce Panic-Like Responses in a Model of Panic Disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology 2010; 35(-6-):1333-1347. >>> Allylglycine, L-;; CSF/CNS (dorsomedial hypothalamus); Rat; Animal info (adult, male, Sprague Dawley, 300-350 g); cannula placement verified via microscope;"Some tissue damage at the site of implantation was noted, but this damage was minimal and was equal in the control and experimental groups,"pg 1338; Plastics One cannula used.

11216 Johnson, P.L., Truitt, W., Fitz, S.D., Minick, P.E., Dietrich, A., Sanghani, S., Traeskman-Bendz, L., Goddard, A.W., Brundin, L., Shekhar, A. A key role for orexin in panic anxiety. Nature Medicine 2010; 16(-1-):111-U149. >>> Allylglycine, L-; allylglycine, D-; sodium lactate; CSF/CNS (hypothalamus); IV; Rat; Controls received mp w/ isotonic saline; animal info (adult, male, Sprague-Dawley, 300-350 g); enzyme inhibitor (glutamic acid decarboxylase); Plastics One cannula used.

10055 Johnson, P.L., Lowry, C.A., Truitt, W., Shekhar, A. Disruption of GABAergic tone in the dorsomedial hypothalamus attenuates responses in a subset of serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus following lactate-induced panic. JOURNAL OF PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY 2008; 22(-6-):642-652. >>> Allylglycine, d-; allylglycine, l-; CSF/CNS (dorsal medial hypothalamus); Rat; 1002; Animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 300-350 g.); Plastics One cannula used; cannula placement verified by binocular microscope; brain tissue distribution.

9520 Johnson, P.L., Truitt, W.A., Fitz, S.D., Lowry, C.A., Shekhar, A. Neural pathways underlying lactate-induced panic. Neuropsychopharmacology 2008; 33(-9-):2093-2107. >>> Allylglycine, L-; allylglycine, D-; CSF/CNS (dorsomedial hypothalamus); Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ D-AG; stress/adverse reaction : (see pg. 2097)"some tissue damage at the site of implantation was noted to to the 26-gauge cannula."; enzyme inhibitor (glutamic acid decarboxylase); animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 300-350 g.); behavioral testing (social interaction test).

8610 Shekhar, A., Johnson, P.L., Sajdyk, T.J., Fitz, S.D., Keim, S.R., Kelley, P.E., Gehlert, D.R., DiMicco, J.A. Angiotensin-II is a putative neurotransmitter in lactate-induced panic-like responses in rats with disruption of GABAergic inhibition in the dorsomedial hypothalamus. Journal of Neuroscience 2006; 26(-36-):9205-9215. >>> Allylglycine, L-; CSF/CNS (Dorsomedial hypothalamus); Rat; 2002; Controls received no treatment to contralateral DMH or no treatment at all; funcionality of mp verified by examination of brain sections; enzyme inhibitor (glutamic acid decarboxylase); animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 300-350g); cannula tip placement at reactive site confirmed with bicuculline methiodide injection; animal model of panic disorder.

5097 Shekhar, A., Keim, S.R. LY354740, a potent group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist prevents lactate-induced panic-like response in panic-prone rats. Neuropharmacology 2000; 39(-7-):1139-1146. >>> Allylglycine, L-; CSF/CNS (dorsomedial hypothalamus); rat; 2002; functionality of mp verified by glutamic acid decarboxylase activity assay; peptides; GABA synthesis inhibitor; cannula patency verified by dye injection.

4321 Shekhar, A., Keim, S.R. The circumventricular organs form a potential neural pathway for lactate sensitivity: implications for panic disorder. J. Neurosci 1997; 17(-24-):9726-9735. >>> Allylglycine, L-; CSF/CNS (hypothalamus); rat; 2002; enzyme inhibitor.

3541 Shekhar, A., Keim, S.R., Simon, J.R., McBride, W.J. Dorsomedial hypothalamic GABA dysfunction produces physiological arousal following sodium lactate infusions. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav 1996; 55(-2-):249-256. >>> Allylglycine; CSF, artificial;; CSF/CNS (dorsomedial hypothalamus); CSF/CNS (paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus); rat; 2002; controls received mp w/ aCSF or d-allylglycine; dl-(racemic), l-(active), and d-(inactive) isomers of allylglycine used.

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16. Aminoguanidine

7772 Xia, W., Wang, Y., Appleyard, R., Smythe, G.A., Murrell, G.A.C. Spontaneous recovery of injured Achilles tendon in inducible nitric oxide synthase gene knockout mice. INFLAMMATION RESEARCH 2006; 55(-1-):40-45. >>> Aminoguanidine, HCl; IP; Mice; 2001; Enzyme inhibitor (no synthase); animal info (8-12 wk. old, male); achilles tendon transection.

7149 Jung, T.Y., Pashia, M.E., Nishimoto, S.Y., Faddis, B.T., Chole, R.A. A possible role for nitric oxide in osteoclastogenesis associated with cholesteatoma. OTOLOGY&NEUROTOLOGY 2004; 25(-5-):661-668. >>> Aminoguanidine; SC; Mice; Controls received mp w/ saline; enzyme inhibitor (NOS II).

5740 Sinz, E.H., Kochanek, P.M., Dixon, C.E., Clark, R.S.B., Carcillo, J.A., Schiding, J.K., Chen, M., Wisniewski, S.R., Carlos, T.M., Williams, D., DeKosky, S.T., Watkins, S.C., Marion, D., Billiar, T.R. Inducible nitric oxide synthase is an endogenous neuroprotectant after traumatic brain injury in rats and mice. J Clin. Invest 1999; 104(-5-):647-656. >>> Aminoguanidine; Lysine, L-N-iminoethyl-; saline; SC; rat; controls received mp with vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (nitric oxide synthase).

5613 Inuzuka, S., Koga, S., Nishikido, M., Miyata, Y., Kanda, S., Shimokawa, I., Tanaka, M., Saito, Y., Kanetake, H. Donor-specific blood transfusion prolongs cardiac allograft survival in rats by low nitric oxide production and elevated serum levels of prostaglandin E-2. Immunology Letters 2002; 83(-2-):119-124. >>> Aminoguanidine; Saline; IV (jugular); Rat; Aminoguanidine is an inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase.

4529 Worrall, N.K, Chang, K., Suau, G.M, Allison, W.S, Misko, T.P, Sullivan, P.M, Tilton, R.G, Williamson, J.R, Ferguson, Jr., T.B. Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase prevents myocardial and systemic vascular barrier dysfunction during early cardiac allograft rejection.. Circulation Research 1996; 78(--):769-779. >>> Aminoguanidine;; NaCl;; IV (jugular); rat;; 2ML1;; controls received mp w/vehicle; functionality of mp verified by plasma levels; cardiovascular; silicon catheter used;.

4523 Schaffer, M.R., Tantry, U., Thornton, F.J, Barbul, A. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis in wounds: pharmacology and effect on accumulation of collagen in wounds in mice.. Eur. J. Surg 1999; 165(--):262-267. >>> L-NMMA; Aminoguanidine hemisulphate; MITU;; PBS;; IP;; mice;; control received mp w/vehicle; comparison of IP injections vs. mp; wound healing study; MITU is S-methyl isothiouronium, a competitive NO synthase inhibitor..

4343 Ou, J., Carlos, T.M., Watkins, S.C., Saavedra, J.E., Keefer, L.K., Kim, Y.-M., Harbrecht, B.G., Billiar, T.R. Differential effects of nonselective nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and selective inducible NOS inhibition on hepatic necrosis, apoptosis, ICAM-1 expression, and neutrophil accumulation during endotoxemia. Nitric Oxide: Biology&Chemistry 1997; 1(-5-):404-416. >>> Aminoguanidine; Lysine, L-N6-(1-imino-ethyl)-; V-PYRRO/NO; L-NAME; L-NMA; Saline; IV (jugular); IV (gastric); rat; 2001D; controls received mp w/vehicle; good methods (p. 406); nitric oxide synthase inhibitors; PE10 catheter tubing inserted in gastric vein; some animals implanted with one pump for gastric vein and one for jugular vein; NMA is NG-monomethyl-L-arginine.

3545 Sorrells, D.L., Friend, C., Koltuksuz, C., Courcoulas, A., Boyle, P., Garrett, M., Watkins, S., Rowe, M.I., Ford, H.R. Inhibition of nitric oxide with aminoguanidine reduces bacterial translocation after endotoxin challenge in vivo. Arch Surg 1996; 131(--):1155-1163. >>> Aminoguanidine; SC; rat; 2ML1; controls received mp w/ saline.

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17. Amlexanox

1674 Sanjar, S., Aoki, S., Boubekeur, K., Burrows, L., Colditz, I., Chapman, I., Morley, J. Inhibition of PAF-induced eosinophil accumulation in pulmonary airways of guinea pigs by anti-asthma drugs. Jpn. J. Pharmacol 1989; 51(--):167-172. >>> Amlexanox; Azelastine; Cromoglycate; Ibudilast; Oxatomide; Tranilast; Aminophylline; Dexamethasone; Ketotifen; Saline, bacteriostatic; SC; guinea-pig; 2001; no comment posted.

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18. Amprenavir

7820 Gupta, A.K., Cerniglia, G.J., Mick, R., McKenna, W.G., Muschel, R.J. HIV protease inhibitors block Akt signaling and radiosensitize tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo. Cancer Research 2005; 65(-18-):8256-8265. >>> Amprenavir; SC; Mice (nude); Controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by serum drug levels by HPLC; no stress (see pg.826); enzyme inhibitor (HIV protease); cancer (SQ208, head and neck, T24 bladder); animal info (female, Ncr- nu/nu); irradiation.

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19. Apocynin

12311 Zhang, Y.R., Cuevas, S., Asico, L.D., Escano, C., Yang, Y., Pascua, A.M., Wang, X.Y., Jones, J.E., Grandy, D., Eisner, G., Jose, P.A., Armando, I. Deficient Dopamine D2 Receptor Function Causes Renal Inflammation Independently of High Blood Pressure. PLoS One 2012; 7(-6-):U180-U190. >>> Apocynin; RNA, small interfering, Drd2; SC; IA (intrarenal); Mice; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (adult, male, D2 receptor deficient, uniphrectomy); enzyme inhibitor (NADPH oxidase);"Surgical glue was applied at the puncture site to hold the tubing in place and prevent extra-renal leakage. The osmotic pump was sutured to the abdominal wall to prevent excessive movement of the pump for the duration of the study."pg e38745; incorrectly listed ALZET Catheter 0007701 as PE tubing (polyurethane).

9370 Wenzel, P., Mollnau, H., Oelze, M., Schulz, E., Wickramanayake, J.M.D., Mueller, J., Schuhmacher, S., Hortmann, M., Baldus, S., Gori, T., Brandes, R.P., Muenzel, T., Daiber, A. First evidence for a crosstalk between mitochondrial and NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species in nitroglycerin-triggered vascular dysfunction. ANTIOXIDANTS&REDOX SIGNALING 2008; 10(-8-):1435-1447. >>> Nitroglycerin; apocynin; glibenclamide; Ethanol; SC; Rat; 1003D; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; multiple pumps per animal (2); animal info (male, Wistar, 250 g.).

8730 Chan, E.C., Datla, S.R., Dilley, R., Hickey, H., Drummond, G.R., Dusting, G.J. Adventitial application of the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin in vivo reduces neointima formation and endothelial dysfunction in rabbits. Cardiovascular Research 2007; 75(-4-):710-718. >>> Apocynin; DMSO; IA (carotid); Rabbit; 2001; Controls received mp w/vehicle, or no treatment; enzyme inhibitor (NADPH oxidase); cardiovascular; animal info (male, New Zealand White, 3-4kg); 0.1% DMSO; mp attached to catheter to hollow, nonoclusive silastic collar around common cartoid artery.

8572 Armando, I., Wang, X.Y., Villar, V.A.M., Jones, J.E., Asico, L.D., Escano, C., Jose, P.A. Reactive oxygen species-dependent hypertension in dopamine D2 receptor-deficient mice. Hypertension 2007; 49(-3-):672-678. >>> Apocynin; spironolactone; Saline; DMSO; SC; Mice; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (NADPH Oxidase); antihypertensive; animal info (C57BL/6J, 6-8 months old); 12.5% DMSO.

7782 Zhan, G.X., Serrano, F., Fenik, P., Hsu, R., Kong, L.H., Pratico, D., Klann, E., Veasey, S.C. NADPH oxidase mediates hypersomnolence and brain oxidative injury in a murine model of sleep apnea. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE 2005; 172(-7-):921-929. >>> Apocynin; DMSO; SC; Mice; 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle or PBS; long-term study; pumps replaced; enzyme inhibitor (NADPH oxidase); animal info (male, C57BL/6J, 10 wk old).

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20. Aprotinin

10623 Azurmendi, P.J., Oddo, E.M., Obika, L.F., Corbera, N.L., Martin, R.S., Ibarra, F.R., Arrizurieta, E.E. Gonadectomy Influences Blood Pressure through the Kallikrein-Kinin System. KIDNEY&BLOOD PRESSURE RESEARCH 2009; 32(-5-):342-348. >>> Aprotinin; HOE-140; SC; Rat; Animal info (Wistar, male, female, 150 days old).

5832 Ito, H., Hayashi, I., Izumi, T., Majima, M. Bradykinin inhibits development of myocardial infarction through B-2 receptor signalling by increment of regional blood flow around the ischaemic lesions in rats. British Journal of Pharmacology 2003; 138(-1-):225-233. >>> FR-190997; aprotinin; SBTI; Saline; water; HCl; IV (vena cava, cervical vein); Rat; 2001D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; cardiovascular; FR-190997 (a nonpeptide mimic of bradykinin beta 2 agonist) was infused into the vena cava; aprotinin infused into the cervical vein; SBTI&aprotinin are plasma kallikrein inhibitors from soybeans.

4370 Frautschy, S.A., Horn, D.L., Sigel, J.J., Harris-White, M.E., Mendoza, J.J., Yang, F., Saido, T.C., Cole, G.M. Protease inhibitor coinfusion with amyloid beta-protein results in enhanced deposition and toxicity in rat brain. Journal of Neuroscience 1998; 18(-20-):8311-8321. >>> Amyloid protein, beta; Aprotinin; Leupeptin;; HEPES;; CSF/CNS;; rat; 2004;; controls received mp w/ vehicle; peptides; ALZET brain infusion kit used; beta-amyloid protein infused alone, or concomitantly with aprotinin or leupeptin; enzyme inhibitors.

3432 Yosipiv, I.V., El-Dahr, S.S. Developmental regulation of ACE gene expression by endogenous kinins and angiotensin II. Am. J. Physiol. (Renal Fluid Electrolyte Physiol. 38) 1995; 269(--):F172-F179. >>> Aprotinin; Hoe 140; Losartan; SC; rat; controls received mp w/saline.

3376 Majima, M., Yoshida, O., Mihara, H., Muto, T., Mizogami, S., Kuribayashi, Y., Katorim, M., Oh-ishi, S. High sensitivity to salt in kininogen-deficient brown Norway Katholiek rats. Hypertension 1993; 22(--):705-714. >>> Kininogen, bovine; Hoe 140; Aprotinin; Saline; SC; rat; 2001; controls received mp w/saline.

3143 Morin, N.J., Frau, A., Nonclercq, D., Toubeau, G., Zanen, J., Heuson-Stiennon, J.-A., Bergeron, M.G., Beauchamp, D., Laurent, G. Potentiation of gentamicin nephrotoxicity in the rat by infusion of aprotinin. Exp. Molecular Path 1994; 60(--):197-213. >>> Aprotinin; IV; rat; 2ML1; controls received mp with saline; immunology; toxicology.

1983 Ivy, G.O. Protease inhibitors as a model for NCL disease, with special emphasis on the infantile and adult forms. Am. J. Med. Genet 1992; 42(--):555-560. >>> E-64C; Aprotinin; Chloroquine; Leupeptin; CSF/CNS; rat; 2002; no comment posted.

1960 Majima, M., Katori, M., Hanazuka, M., Mizogami, S., Nakano, T., Nakao, Y., Mikami, R., Uryu, H., Okamura, R., Mohsin, S.S.J., Oh-ishi, S. Suppression of rat deoxycorticosterone-salt hypertension by kallikrein-kinin system. Hypertension 1991; 17(-6-):806-813. >>> Aprotinin; Saline; SC; rat; 2001; no comment posted.

1670 Pakzad, R. Influence of the trypsin inhibitors aprotinin (Trasylol) and TLCK, administered locally by osmotic minipumps, on the gelatinolytic activity of acrosin and the transport of spermatozoa in the female reproductive tract of rabbits. Z. Mikrosk. -Anat. Forsch 1989; 103(-6-):957-966. >>> Lysine chloromethyl ketone, N-a-tosyl-L-; Aprotinin; intrauterine; rabbit; German with English summary (p. 957); trypsin inhibitors; tissue perfusion (uterus).

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21. B-428

3643 Xing, R.H., Mazar, A., Henkin, J., Rabbani, S.A. Prevention of breast cancer growth, invasion, and metastasis by antiestrogen tamoxifen alone or in combination with urokinase inhibitor B-428. Cancer Res 1997; 57(--):3585-3593. >>> B-428; Saline; DMSO; BSA; IP; rat; 2ML4; 2ML2; controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (urokinase); cancer; B-428 is an anti-proteolytic agent; pump model listed as 2MN4 is 2ML4.

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22. B10715817

8116 Husen, B., Huhtinen, K., Poutanen, M., Kangas, L., Messinger, J., Thole, H. Evaluation of inhibitors for 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in vivo in immunodeficient mice inoculated with MCF-7 cells stably expressing the recombinant human enzyme. MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR ENDOCRINOLOGY 2006; 248(-1-2-):109-113. >>> Estrone; B10720512; B10721325; B10720440; B10720511; B10715817; DMSO; propanediol; SC; Mice (nude); 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; replacement therapy (ovariectomy); dose-response (fig. 5); pumps replaced after 2 weeks; enzyme inhibitor (17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase); cancer (breast carcinoma); animal info (female, Crl: NU/NU, 10-11 wk old); 50% DMSO.

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23. B10720440

8116 Husen, B., Huhtinen, K., Poutanen, M., Kangas, L., Messinger, J., Thole, H. Evaluation of inhibitors for 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in vivo in immunodeficient mice inoculated with MCF-7 cells stably expressing the recombinant human enzyme. MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR ENDOCRINOLOGY 2006; 248(-1-2-):109-113. >>> Estrone; B10720512; B10721325; B10720440; B10720511; B10715817; DMSO; propanediol; SC; Mice (nude); 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; replacement therapy (ovariectomy); dose-response (fig. 5); pumps replaced after 2 weeks; enzyme inhibitor (17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase); cancer (breast carcinoma); animal info (female, Crl: NU/NU, 10-11 wk old); 50% DMSO.

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24. B10720511

8116 Husen, B., Huhtinen, K., Poutanen, M., Kangas, L., Messinger, J., Thole, H. Evaluation of inhibitors for 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in vivo in immunodeficient mice inoculated with MCF-7 cells stably expressing the recombinant human enzyme. MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR ENDOCRINOLOGY 2006; 248(-1-2-):109-113. >>> Estrone; B10720512; B10721325; B10720440; B10720511; B10715817; DMSO; propanediol; SC; Mice (nude); 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; replacement therapy (ovariectomy); dose-response (fig. 5); pumps replaced after 2 weeks; enzyme inhibitor (17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase); cancer (breast carcinoma); animal info (female, Crl: NU/NU, 10-11 wk old); 50% DMSO.

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25. B10720512

8116 Husen, B., Huhtinen, K., Poutanen, M., Kangas, L., Messinger, J., Thole, H. Evaluation of inhibitors for 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in vivo in immunodeficient mice inoculated with MCF-7 cells stably expressing the recombinant human enzyme. MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR ENDOCRINOLOGY 2006; 248(-1-2-):109-113. >>> Estrone; B10720512; B10721325; B10720440; B10720511; B10715817; DMSO; propanediol; SC; Mice (nude); 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; replacement therapy (ovariectomy); dose-response (fig. 5); pumps replaced after 2 weeks; enzyme inhibitor (17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase); cancer (breast carcinoma); animal info (female, Crl: NU/NU, 10-11 wk old); 50% DMSO.

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26. B10721325

8364 Husen, B., Huhtinen, K., Saloniemi, T., Messinger, J., Thole, H.H., Poutanen, M. Human hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 1 expression enhances estrogen sensitivity of MCF-7 breast cancer cell xenografts. Endocrinology 2006; 147(-11-):5333-5339. >>> B10721325; estrone; DMSO; propanediol; SC; Mice (nude); 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; replacement therapy (ovariectomy); dose-response (p.5335); pumps replaced after 14 days; enzyme inhibitor (hydroxysteroid 17 beta dehydrogenase 1); cancer (breast); animal info (female, BALB/cA Bom-v, Crl: nu/nu, 10-11 wks old); 50%DMSO; endocrinology.

8116 Husen, B., Huhtinen, K., Poutanen, M., Kangas, L., Messinger, J., Thole, H. Evaluation of inhibitors for 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in vivo in immunodeficient mice inoculated with MCF-7 cells stably expressing the recombinant human enzyme. MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR ENDOCRINOLOGY 2006; 248(-1-2-):109-113. >>> Estrone; B10720512; B10721325; B10720440; B10720511; B10715817; DMSO; propanediol; SC; Mice (nude); 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; replacement therapy (ovariectomy); dose-response (fig. 5); pumps replaced after 2 weeks; enzyme inhibitor (17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase); cancer (breast carcinoma); animal info (female, Crl: NU/NU, 10-11 wk old); 50% DMSO.

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27. BAPN

14426 Takayanagi, T., Crawford, K.J., Kobayashi, T., Obama, T., Tsuji, T., Elliott, K.J., Hashimoto, T., Rizzo, V., Eguchi, S., Rizzo, V. Cavoelin 1 is critical for-abdominal aortic aneurysm formation induced by angiotensin II and inhibition of lysyl oxidase. Clinical Science 2014; 126(--):785-794. >>> Angiotensin II; aminopropionitrile, B-; Saline; SC; Mice; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Cav1 -/- or control, 8 weeks old); stress/adverse reaction: (see pg. 786); cardiovascular; peptides; B-aminopropionitrile aka BAPN; BAPN is a Lox inhibitor; bp measured using radiotelemetry (DSI); abdominal aortic aneurysm;.

14373 Rosin, N.L., Sopel, M.J., Falkenham, A., Lee, T.D.G., Legare, J.F., Legare, J.F. Disruption of Collagen Homeostasis Can Reverse Established Age-Related Myocardial Fibrosis. American Journal of Pathology 2015; 185(--):631-642. >>> Aminopropionitrile, B-; SC; Mice; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (male, C57BL6J, 38 weeks old); pumps replaced every 7 days; cardiovascular; B-aminopropionitrile aka BAPN; enzyme inhibitor (nonreversible LOX inhibitor);.

13336 Kurobe, H., Hirata, Y., Matsuoka, Y., Sugasawa, N., Higashida, M., Nakayama, T., Maxfield, M.W., Yoshida, Y., Shimabukuro, M., Kitagawa, T., Sata, M. Protective effects of selective mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist against aortic aneurysm progression in a novel murine model. Journal of Surgical Research 2013; 185(-1-):455-462. >>> Angiotensin II; aminopropionitrile, beta-; SC; Mice; Animal info (C57BL/6J, male); peptides; enzyme inhibitor (lysyl oxidase); aminopropionitrile, B aka BAPN; bp measured using tail-cuff;.

13079 Kurobe, H., Matsuoka, Y., Hirata, Y., Sugasawa, N., Maxfield, M.W., Sata, M., Kitagawa, T. Azelnidipine suppresses the progression of aortic aneurysm in wild mice model through anti-inflammatory effects. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 2013; 146(-6-):1501-1508. >>> Angiotensin II; aminopropionitrile, beta-; SC; Mice; Control animals received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (C57BL/6, male, 7 wks old); peptides; bp measured using tail-cuff;.

12570 Remus, E.W., Donnell, REO Jr, Rafferty, K., Weiss, D., Joseph, G., Csiszar, K., Fong, S.F.T., Taylor, W.R. The role of lysyl oxidase family members in the stabilization of abdominal aortic aneurysms. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology 2012; 303(-8-):H1067-H1075. >>> Angiotensin II; aminopropionitrile, beta-; SC; Mice; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, C57BL/6, ApoE -/-, Balb/C, 6-8 wks old); peptides.

10300 Kanematsu, Y., Kanematsu, M., Kurihara, C., Tsou, T.L., Nuki, Y., Liang, E.I., Makino, H., Hashimoto, T. Pharmacologically Induced Thoracic and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms in Mice. Hypertension 2010; 55(-5-):1267-1274. >>> Aminopropionitrile; angiotensin II; SC; Mice; Peptides; enzyme inhibitor (lysyl oxidase); animal info (C57BL/6J, 9 wks old).

501 Chvapil, M., Weinstein, P.R., Misiorowski, R.L., Telles, D., Rankin, L. Development of topical BAPN delivery system for acute spinal cord injury in dogs. J. Biomed. Mater. Res 1984; 18(--):757-769. >>> Aminopropionitrile fumarate, B-; CSF/CNS (spinal cord, intrathecal); dog; 2ML2; Author states use of 2ML2 pump w/ delivery rate of 10ul/h - this is an error; delivery rate verified - possibly a 2ML1 mp was used; advantages of mp p. 768; spinal cord injury.

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28. BE16627B

4921 Kiyama, T., Onda, M., Tokunaga, A., Efron, D.T., Barbul, A. Effect of matrix metalloproteinase inhibition on colonic anastomotic healing in rats.. JOURNAL OF GASTROINTESTINAL SURGERY 2001; 5(--):303-311. >>> BE16627B; DMSO; ethylene glycol; SC; Rat; 1003D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor; vehicle mix was 50:50 ratio; BE16627B is a matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor;.

2887 Naito, K., Kanbayashi, N., Nakajima, S., Murai, T., Arakawa, K., Nishimura, S., Okuyama, A. Inhibition of growth of human tumor cells in nude mice by a metalloproteinase inhibitor. Int. J. Cancer 1994; 58(--):730-735. >>> BE16627B; Doxorubicin HCl; DMSO; Ethylene glycol; SC; Mice (nude); 2001; 2002; controls received vehicle or no treatment; pumps replaced; stress/ adverse reaction: skin inflammation and necrosis around delivery site in mice treated with Adriamycin (pg. 733); BE166278B animals were fine; stability verified for 18 days by assay; cancer; enzyme inhibitor; BE16627B is a metalloproteinase inhibitor; 2002 replaced w/ 2001 after 20 days; adriamycin is doxorubicin HCl.

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29. BMS-191563

4870 Muthalif, M.M, Benter, I.F., Khandekar, Z, Gaber, L, Estes, A, Malik, S, Parmentier, J.-H, Manne, V, Malik, K.U. Contribution of Ras GPase/MAP kinase and cytochrome P450 metabolites to deoxycorticosterone-salt-induced hypertension.. Hypertension 2000; 35(-part 2-):457-463. >>> FPT III; BMS-191563; PD-98059; IP; Rat; 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; replacement therapy (uninephrectomy); cardiovascular; antihypertensive; enzyme inhibitor; FPT III and BMS-191563 are Ras farnesyl transferase enzyme inhibitors; PD-98059 is an MEK enzyme inhibitor; MEK is MAP (mean arterial pressure) kinase inhibitor.

4869 Muthalif, M.M, Karzoun, N.A, Gaber, L, Khandekar, Z, Benter, I.F., Saeed, A.E, Parmentier, J.-H, Estes, A, Malik, K.U. Contribution of Ras GTPase/Mitogen-activated protein kinase and cytochrome P450 metabolites.. Hypertension 2000; 36(--):604-609. >>> Angiotensin II; FPT III; BMS-191563;; Acetic acid; IP;; rat;; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; dose-response (graph p. 605); antihypertensive; enzyme inhibitor; FPT III and BMS - 191563 are Ras farnesyl transferase inhibitors infused along with Angiotensin II; Acetic acid vehicle was 0.001 N..

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30. BMS-561392

9772 Kim, M.L., Zhang, B. Effects of TACE inhibition on Amyloid-beta production and APP processing in vitro and in vivo. J Neurosci 2008; 28(-46-):12052-12061. >>> BMS-561392; Citric acid; CSF/CNS (hippocampus); Mice (transgenic); 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (TACE); animal info (6-8 months, wt);"direct infusion was necessary since BMS-561392 does not penetrate the blood brain barrier"; neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's Disease).

9626 Kim, M.L., Zhang, B., Mills, I.P., Milla, M.E., Brunden, K.R., Lee, V.M.Y. Effects of TNF alpha-Converting Enzyme Inhibition on Amyloid-beta Production and APP Processing In Vitro and In Vivo. Journal of Neuroscience 2008; 28(-46-):12052-12061. >>> BMS-561392; TAPI-I; Citric acid; CSF/CNS; Mice (transgenic); 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (TNF-alpha converting enzyme (TACE)); animal info (Tg2576, wt, C57BL6/SJ6, 6-8 months old); neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's Disease);"Direct infusion was necessary because BMS-561392 does not penetrate the blood-brain barrier"(p. 12056); TAPI-I also known as [(N-R-12- hydroxyaminocarbonyl)methyl]-methylpentanoyl-L-napthylanyl-L-alanine 2 aminoethyl amide-I.

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31. BVT.2733

5887 Alberts, P., Engblom, L., Edling, N., Forsgren, M., Klingstrom, G., Larsson, C., Ronquist-Nii, Y., Ohman, B., Abrahmsen, L. Selective inhibition of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 decreases blood glucose concentrations in hyperglycaemic mice. Diabetologia 2002; 45(-11-):1528-1532. >>> BVT.2733; Cyclodextrin, 2-beta-hydroxypropl- (molecusol); SC; Mice; 2001; Functionality of mp verified by BVT.2733 plasma levels, p.1530; BVT.2733 is an enzyme inhibitor (11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehdrogenase type I).

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32. Bafilomycin A1

12332 Klucken, J., Poehler, A.M., Ebrahimi-Fakhari, D., Schneider, J., Nuber, S., Rockenstein, E., Schloetzer-Schrehardt, U., Hyman, B.T., McLean, P.J., Masliah, E., Winkler, J. Alpha-synuclein aggregation involves a bafilomycin A1-sensitive autophagy pathway. Autophagy 2012; 8(-5-):754-766. >>> Bafilomycin, A1; rapamycin; CSF/CNS; Mice; 1007D; Animal info (wt, alpha synuclein, 9 mo old); neurodegenerative (Parkinson's disease).

3495 Sundquist, K., Larson, E.K., Marks Jr, S.C. Altering tooth eruption by blocking bone resorption - the local delivery of bafilomycin A1. Connective Tissue Res 1995; 32(-1-4-):159-163. >>> Bafilomycin A1; DMSO; Saline; bone; dog; 2002; contralateral controls received mp w/vehicle; tissue perfusion (bone crypts of mandibular fourth molar).

3467 Marks Jr, S.C., Sundquist, K.T. Bafilomycin A1 in bone resorption and tooth eruption in dogs. Eur. J. Oral Sci 1995; 103(--):231-235. >>> Bafilomycin A1; DMSO; Saline; bone; dog; tissue perfusion (bone crypts of mandibular fourth molar); pumps replaced at 2 weeks.

3084 Sundquist, K.T., Marks Jr, S.C. Bafilomycin A1 inhibits bone resorption and tooth eruption in vivo. J. Bone and Min. Res 1994; 9(-10-):1575-1582. >>> Bafilomycin A1; DMSO; Saline; bone; dog; controls received mp w/ vehicle or no treatment; tissue perfusion (bone crypts of mandibular fourth molar); stability verified in vitro for 2 weeks at 37 degrees C; enzyme inhibitor; dogs given prophylactic im penicillin for first postoperative week; local infusion used because systemic delivery may cause lethal side effects; bafilomycin A1 is a specific inhibitor of vacuolar H+-ATPases.

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33. Benzylguanine, 06-

7908 Guarnieri, M., Biser-Rohrbaugh, A., Tyler, B.M., Gabikian, P., Bunton, T.E., Wu, Q.Z., Weingart, J., Carson Sr, B.S. Toxicity of intracranial and intraperitoneal O6-benzyl guanine in combination with BCNU delivered locally in a mouse model. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol 2002; 50(-5-):392-396. >>> Benzylguanine, 06-; Propylene glycol; ethanol; IP; CSF/CNS (parietal lobe); Mice; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by residual volume; dose-response (table 2); comparison of IP injection vs. mp; stability verified by 14 days at 37 C, UV spectra analysis; good methods (p. 393); cancer (glioma brain); toxicology; animal info (female, BALB/C, 6-12 weeks old); 10% ethanol used.

4398 Kreklau, E.L., Kurpad, C., Williams, D.A., Erickson, L.C. Prolonged inhibition of O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase in human tumor cells by O6-benzylguanine in vitro and in vivo. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 1999; 291(-3-):1269-1275. >>> Benzylguanine, 06-;; PEG 400; PBS;; SC;; Mice (NOD/SCID);; 1003D;; controls received mp w/ vehicle; cancer;"The four groups were comprised of control animals and those implanted s.c. w/ one, two, three Alzet pumps... per mouse"(p. 1270); enzyme inhibitor;.

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34. Bromphenacyl Bromide, 4-

2861 Nakamura, S. Effects of phospholipase a2 inhibitors on the antidepressant-induced axonal regeneration of noradrengeric locus coeruleus neurons. Microscopy Res. and Tech 1994; 29(--):204-210. >>> Desipramine HCl; Mepacrine HCl; Bromphenacyl bromide, 4-; Saline; DMSO; CSF/CNS (cortex); rat; 2002; antidepressant; mepacrine and 4-bromphenacyl bromide are phospholipase a2 inhibitors; 2 pumps implanted: one delivered just desipramine to one hemisphere, while the other infused desipramine and pla2 inhibitors to the other hemisphere.

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35. Bromphenacyl Bromide, 4-

P2767 Nakamura,S. Effects of phospholipase a2 inhibitors on the antidepressant-induced axonal regeneration of noradrengeric locus coeruleus neurons. Microscopy Res.and Tech. 1994; 29(--):204-210. >>> Desipramine HCl; Mepacrine HCl; Bromphenacyl bromide, 4-; Saline; DMSO; CSF/CNS (cortex); rat; 2002; >2 weeks; antidepressant; mepacrine and 4-bromphenacyl bromide are phospholipase a2 inhibitors; 2 pumps implanted: one delivered just desipramine to one hemisphere, while the other infused desipramine and pla2 inhibitors to the other hemisphere.

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36. Buthionine Sulfoximine

13458 Sanganahalli, B.G., Herman, P., Behar, K.L., Blumenfeld, H., Rothman, D.L., Hyder, F. Functional MRI and neural responses in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease. NEUROIMAGE 2013; 79(-;-):404-411. >>> Amyloid protein, beta (1-42); ferrus sulfate heptahydrate; L-Buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine; CSF/CNS; Rat; Animal info (male, FAB/Samaritan Alzheimer's, 250-350g); neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's Disease); Pumps used to induce Alzheimer's disease symptoms in FAB rat models. Pump and cannula removed prior to MRI experiments.

11349 Garcia-Matas, S., de Vera, N., Aznar, A.O., Marimon, J.M., Adell, A., Planas, A.M., Cristofol, R., Sanfeliu, C. In Vitro and In Vivo Activation of Astrocytes by Amyloid-beta is Potentiated by Pro-Oxidant Agents. JOURNAL OF ALZHEIMERS DISEASE 2010; 20(-1-):229-245. >>> Protein, amyloid beta (40-1); protein, amyloid beta (42-1); buthionine sulfoximine; ferrous sulfate; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (3 mo old, male, Sprague Dawley, 300-350 g); functionality of mp verified; multiple pumps per animal (2); neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's disease).

10383 Lecanu, L., Rammouz, G., McCourty, A., Sidahmed, E.K., Greeson, J., Papadopoulos, V. CAPROSPINOL REDUCES AMYLOID DEPOSITS AND IMPROVES COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN A RAT MODEL OF ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE. Neuroscience 2010; 165(-2-):427-435. >>> Amyloid protein, beta (1-42); buthionine suloximine; iron (II) sulfate; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2ML4; Long-term study; pumps replaced after 4 weeks; animal info (Long Evans, 550 g); neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's Disease).

8459 Lecanu, L., Greeson, J., Papadopoulos, V. Beta-amyloid and oxidative stress jointly induce neuronal death, amyloid deposits, gliosis, and memory impairment in the rat brain. Pharmacology 2006; 76(-1-):19-33. >>> Amyloid protein, beta 42; ferrous sulfate; buthionine sulfoximine; CSF, artificial; water, distilled; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; stability verified by 14 days in mp at 37 C; animal info (male, Long-Evans, 3-4 month old, 300-325 grams); neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's disease).

4346 Hu, B.H., McFadden, S.L., Salvi, R.J., Henderson, D. Intracochlear infusion of buthionine sulfoximine potentiates carboplatin ototoxicity in the chinchilla. Hear. Res 1999; 128(--):125-134. >>> Sulfoximine, L,S-buthionine; Hank's solution; ear (cochlea); Chinchilla; 2ML4; good methods (p. 127);"BSO infusion itself caused no long-term functional or morphological changes."(p. 125); tissue perfusion (cochlea).

3857 Somfai-Relle, S., Suzukake, K., Vistica, B.P., Vistica, D.T. Reduction in cellular glutathione by buthionine sulfoximine and sensitization of murine tumor cells resistant to L-phenylalanine mustard. Biochem. Pharmacol 1984; 33(-3-):485-490. >>> Sulfoximine, DL-buthionine-S,R-; PBS; IP; mice; 2001; comparison of injections vs. mp; sulfoximine is an enzyme inhibitor; cancer; immunology.

3015 Malaker, K., Hurwitz, S.J., Bump, E.A., Griffith, O.W., Lai, L.L., Riese, N., Coleman, C.N. Pharmacodynamics of prolonged treatment with L,S-buthionine sulfoximine. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys 1994; 29(-2-):407-412. >>> Sulfoximine, L,S-buthionine; SC; Mice (nude); agent is a glutathione depletor; cancer.

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37. Buthionine Sulfoximine

Q3158 Sanganahalli,B.G., Herman,P., Behar,K.L., Blumenfeld,H., Rothman,D.L., Hyder,F. Functional MRI and neural responses in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease. NEUROIMAGE 2013; 79(-;-):404-411. >>> Amyloid protein, beta (1-42); ferrus sulfate heptahydrate; L-Buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine; CSF/CNS; Rat; 4 weeks; Animal info (male, FAB/Samaritan Alzheimer's, 250-350g); neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's Disease); Pumps used to induce Alzheimer's diseasesymptoms in FAB rat models. Pump and cannula removed prior to MRI experiments.

Q1080 Garcia-Matas,S., de Vera,N., Aznar,A.O., Marimon,J.M., Adell,A., Planas,A.M., Cristofol,R., Sanfeliu,C. In Vitro and In Vivo Activation of Astrocytes by Amyloid-beta is Potentiated by Pro-Oxidant Agents. JOURNAL OF ALZHEIMERS DISEASE 2010; 20(-1-):229-245. >>> Protein, amyloid beta (40-1); protein, amyloid beta (42-1); buthionine sulfoximine; ferrous sulfate; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2004; 4 weeks; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (3 mo old, male, Sprague Dawley, 300-350 g); functionality of mp verified; multiple pumps per animal (2); neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's disease).

Q0135 Lecanu,L., Rammouz,G., McCourty,A., Sidahmed,E.K., Greeson,J., Papadopoulos,V. CAPROSPINOL REDUCES AMYLOID DEPOSITS AND IMPROVES COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN A RAT MODEL OF ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE. Neuroscience 2010; 165(-2-):427-435. >>> Amyloid protein, beta (1-42); buthionine suloximine; iron (II) sulfate; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2ML4; 8 weeks; Long-term study; pumps replaced after 4 weeks; animal info (Long Evans, 550 g); neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's Disease).

P8236 Lecanu,L., Greeson,J., Papadopoulos,V. Beta-amyloid and oxidative stress jointly induce neuronal death, amyloid deposits, gliosis, and memory impairment in the rat brain. Pharmacology 2006; 76(-1-):19-33. >>> Amyloid protein, beta 42; ferrous sulfate; buthionine sulfoximine; CSF, artificial; water, distilled; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2ML4; 4 weeks; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; stability verified by 14 days in mp at 37 C; animal info (male, Long-Evans, 3-4 month old, 300-325 grams); neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's disease).

P4244 Hu,B.H., McFadden,S.L., Salvi,R.J., Henderson,D. Intracochlear infusion of buthionine sulfoximine potentiates carboplatin ototoxicity in the chinchilla. Hear.Res. 1999; 128(--):125-134. >>> Sulfoximine, L,S-buthionine; Hank's solution; ear (cochlea); Chinchilla; 2ML4; 14 days; good methods (p. 127); "BSO infusion itself caused no long-term functional or morphological changes." (p. 125); tissue perfusion (cochlea).

P3757 Somfai-Relle,S., Suzukake,K., Vistica,B.P., Vistica,D.T. Reduction in cellular glutathione by buthionine sulfoximine and sensitization of murine tumor cells resistant to L-phenylalanine mustard. Biochem.Pharmacol. 1984; 33(-3-):485-490. >>> Sulfoximine, DL-buthionine-S,R-; PBS; IP; mice; 2001; no duration posted; comparison of injections vs. mp; sulfoximine is an enzyme inhibitor; cancer; immunology.

P2913 Malaker,K., Hurwitz,S.J., Bump,E.A., Griffith,O.W., Lai,L.L., Riese,N., Coleman,C.N. Pharmacodynamics of prolonged treatment with L,S-buthionine sulfoximine. Int.J.Radiat.Oncol.Biol.Phys. 1994; 29(-2-):407-412. >>> Sulfoximine, L,S-buthionine; SC; Mice (nude); no duration posted; agent is a glutathione depletor; cancer.

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38. CGP-29287

1619 Wood, J.M., Jobber, R.A., Baum, H.-P., de Gasparo, M., Nussberger, J. Biochemical effects of prolonged renin inhibition in marmosets. J. Hypertens 1989; 7(-8-):615-618. >>> CGP-29287; Methylcellulose; Saline; IP; monkey (marmoset); 2002; dose-response; CGP-29287 is a renin inhibitor.

1292 Wood, J.M., Baum, H.-P., Jobber, R.A., Neisius, D. Sustained reduction in blood pressure during chronic administration of a renin inhibitor to normotensive marmosets. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol 1987; 10(-7-):S96-S98. >>> CGP-29287; IP; monkey (marmoset); 2002; dose-response; only high dose affected bp; mp removed after delivery.

15370 Wood, J.M., Jobber, R.A., Baum, H.-P., Hofbauer, K.G. Comparison of chronic inhibition of renin and converting enzyme in the marmoset. Clin. and Exper. -Theory and Practice 1987; A9(-2/3-):337-343. >>> CGS-14831; CGP-29287; Saline; IP; monkey; 2002; CGS-14831 is a convert. enzyme inhibitor; CGP-29287 is a renin inhibitor; controls received 3 mps w/saline; 2 experiments; limited solubility of CGP-29287 necessitated use of 3 mp's for infusion.

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39. CGP-40215A

3748 Bacchi, C.J., Brun, R., Croft, S.L., Alicea, K., Buhler, Y. In vivo trypanocidal activities of new S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase inhibitors. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother 1996; 40(-6-):1448-1453. >>> CGP-40215A; Water, distilled; SC; mice; 2001; 2002; comparison of daily IP injections vs. mp; CGP 40215A is an antiparasitic and a bicyclic analog of methylglyoxal bis (guanylhydrazone) (MGBG); agent inhibits polyamine synthesis enzyme.

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40. CGS-14831

1114 Wood, J.M., Jobber, R.A., Baum, H.-P., Hofbauer, K.G. Comparison of chronic inhibition of renin and converting enzyme in the marmoset. Clin. and Exper. -Theory and Practice 1987; A9(-2/3-):337-343. >>> CGS-14831; CGP-29287; Saline; IP; monkey; 2002; CGS-14831 is a convert. enzyme inhibitor; CGP-29287 is a renin inhibitor; controls received 3 mps w/saline; 2 experiments; limited solubility of CGP-29287 necessitated use of 3 mp's for infusion.

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41. CGS-15855A

1291 Altar, C.A., Berner, B., Beall, P., Carlsen, S.F., Boyar, W.C. Dopamine release and metabolism after chronic delivery of selective or nonselective dopamine autoreceptor agonists. Mol. Pharmacol 1988; 33(--):690-695. >>> CGS-15855A; Apomorphine; Dopamine, antagonists; Ascorbic acid; Saline; SC; rat; 2ML2; comparison of ip injections vs. mp infusion; functionality of mp verified by serum, brain levels; stability verified at 14 days by HPLC.

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42. CGS-22652

2764 Boussairi, E.H., Sacquet, J., Benzoni, D., Sassard, J. Blood pressure effects of thromboxane A2 blockade in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol 1993; 20(--):679-687. >>> CGS-22652; DMSO; Sodium hydroxide; SC; rat; 2002; controls received mp w/ vehicle; comparison of oral administration, sc injections and mp; stability verified by preliminary study; CGS 22652 is a thromboxane A2 synthase inhibitor and TxA2 prostaglandin H2 receptor.

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43. CGS-26303

7525 Emoto, N., Raharjo, S.B., Isaka, D., Masuda, S., Adiarto, S., Jeng, A.Y., Yokoyama, M. Dual ECE/NEP inhibition on cardiac and neurohumoral function during the transition from hypertrophy to heart failure in rats. Hypertension 2005; 45(-6-):1145-1152. >>> CGS-24592; CGS-26303; temocapril; NaHCO3; SC; Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (ACE, Neutral endopeptidase, ECE); antihypertensive.

5384 Tikkanen, I., Tikkanen, T., Cao, Z., Allen, T.J., Davis, B.J., Lassila, M., Casley, D., Johnston, C.I., Burrell, L.M., Cooper, M.E. Combined inhibition of neutral endopeptidase with angiotensin converting enzyme or endothelin converting enzyme in experimental diabetes. J Hypertens 2002; 20(-4-):707-714. >>> CGS-26303; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by CGS-26303 plasma levels; antihypertensive; enzyme inhibitor; CGS-26303 is a combined neutral endopeptidase inhibitor and endothelin-converting enzyme inhibitor.

5256 Pham, D., Jeng, A.Y., Plante, S., Escher, E., Battistini, B. Inhibition of endothelin-converting enzyme for protection against neointimal proliferation following balloon angioplasty of the rat carotid artery. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 2002; 80(--):450-457. >>> CGS-26303; CGS-24592; CGS-26393; Sodium hydroxide; Sodium carbonate; IP; IV (jugular); rat; 2ML2; controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by plasma drug levels; dose-response (p. 454); cardiovascular; enzyme inhibitors (neutral endopeptidase, endothelin-converting enzyme).

4808 Feldman, D.L, Mogelesky, T.C, Chou, M., Jeng, A.Y. Attenuation of puromycin aminonucleoside-induced glomerular lesions in rats by CGS 26303, a dual neutral endopeptidase/endothelin-converting enzyme inhibitor.. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 2000; 36(-Suppl. 1-):S342-S345. >>> CGS-26303; Sodium bicarbonate; SC; Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; CGS 26303 is an endothelin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ECE).

3543 Caner, H.H., Kwan, A.L., Arthur, A., Jeng, A.Y., Lappe, R.W., Kassell, N.F., Lee, K.S. Systemic administration of an inhibitor of endothelin-converting enzyme for attenuation of cerebral vasospasm following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage. J. Neurosurg 1996; 85(--):917-922. >>> CGS-26303; Sodium bicarbonate buffer; IP; Rabbit; 2ML1; controls received mp w/ vehicle; CGS 26303 is an endothelin-converting enzyme inhibitor; 4 pumps implanted in each animal.

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44. CGS 27023A

4385 Prescott, M.F., Sawyer, W.K., Von Linden-Reed, J., Jeune, M., Chou, M., Caplan, S.L., Jeng, A.Y. Effect of matrix metalloproteinase inhibition on progression of atherosclerosis and aneurysm in LDL receptor-deficient mice overexpressing MMP-3, MMP-12, and MMP-13 and on restenosis in rats after balloon injury. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1999; 878(--):179-190. >>> CGS 27023A; DMSO; SC; Rat; 2ML2; 2ML4; cardiovascular; enzyme Inhibitor; CGS 27023A is an orally active hydroxamic acid matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor.

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45. CP-690550

13721 Bouchekioua, A., Scourzic, L., de Wever, O., Zhang, Y., Cervera, P., ine-Fardin, A., Mercher, T., Gaulard, P., Nyga, R., Jeziorowska, D., Douay, L., Vainchenker, W., Louache, F., Gespach, C., Solary, E., Coppo, P. JAK3 deregulation by activating mutations confers invasive growth advantage in extranodal nasal-type natural killer cell lymphoma. LEUKEMIA 2014; 28(-2-):338-348. >>> CP-690550; PEG 300; saline; SC; Mice (NSG); 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, NSG, 6-8 weeks old); 50% PEG 300 used; cancer (extranodal, nasal-type natural killer lymphoma); CP-690550 is a JAK3 inhibitor.

11424 Ju, W., Zhang, M.L., Jiang, J.K., Thomas, C.J., Oh, U., Bryant, B.R., Chen, J., Sato, N., Tagaya, Y., Morris, J.C., Janik, J.E., Jacobson, S., Waldmann, T.A. CP-690,550, a therapeutic agent, inhibits cytokine-mediated Jak3 activation and proliferation of T cells from patients with ATL and HAM/TSP. Blood 2011; 117(-6-):1938-1946. >>> CP-690550; PEG 300; SC; Mice (transgenic); Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (IL-15 Tg); cancer (adult T-cell leukemia); enzyme inhibitor (JAK-3, janus kinase); CP-690550 aka tofacitinib.

10585 Park, H.B., Oh, K., Garmaa, N., Seo, M.W., Byoun, O.J., Lee, H.Y., Lee, D.S. CP-690550, a Janus Kinase Inhibitor, Suppresses CD4+ T-Cell-Mediated Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease by Inhibiting the Interferon-gamma Pathway. Transplantation 2010; 90(-8-):825-835. >>> CP-690550; Mice; Animal info ((B6xbm12)F1 (H-2bxbm12)); immunology; enzyme inhibitor (janus kinase, JAK3); CP-690550 aka tofacitinib.

9258 Milici, A.J., Kudlacz, E.M., Audoly, L., Zwillich, S., Changelian, P. Cartilage preservation by inhibition of Janus kinase 3 in two rodent models of rheumatoid arthritis. ARTHRITIS RESEARCH&THERAPY 2008; 10(-1-):U175-U183. >>> CP-690550; PEG 300; SC; Rat; mice; 2004; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle or no pump; dose-response (fig. 1); enzyme inhibitor (JAK3, janus kinase 3); animal info (male, DBA/J1, male, Lewis);"it was necessary to administer CP-690550 via osmotic pumps due to the poor (PK) properties of this compound in rodents.".

9050 Kudlacz, E., Conklyn, M., Andresen, C., Whitney-Pickett, C., Changelian, P. The JAK-3 inhibitor CP-690550 is a potent anti-inflammatory agent in a murine model of pulmonary eosinophilia. European Journal of Pharmacology 2008; 582(-1-3-):154-161. >>> CP-690550; Water, distilled; ethanol; SC; Mice; 2001; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by plasma agent levels; dose-response (Fig. 6); enzyme inhibitor (Janus Kinase 3 (JAK-3)); animal info (female, Balb/c wt, IL-4 -/-, 4-6 wks old); 5% EtOH used; CP-690550 aka tofacitinib.

6904 Kudlacz, E., Perry, B., Sawyer, P., Conklyn, M., McCurdy, S., Brissette, W., Flanagan, M., Changelian, P. The novel JAK-3 inhibitor CP-690550 is a potent immunosuppressive agent in various murine models. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION 2004; 4(-1-):51-57. >>> CP-690550; PEG 300; ethanol; water; SC; Mice; 2002; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; agent is a small molecule inhibitor of JAK-3; enzyme inhibitor (Jak3 tyrosine kinase inhibitor); Immunosuppressant; 5% ethanol; CP-690550 aka tofacitinib.

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46. Calphostin C

14657 Almela, P., Garcia-Carmona, J.A., Martinez-Laorden, E., Milanes, M.V., Laorden, M.L., Laorden, M.L. Crosstalk between G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and tyrosine kinase receptor (TXR) in the heart after morphine withdrawal. FRONTIERS IN PHARMACOLOGY 2013; 4(--):U1547-U1559HA-1004; calphostin c. >>> HA-1004; calphostin c; Water, sterile; DMSO; SC; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 220-240g); 0.06% DMSO used; dependence; cardiovascular; pumps primed for 5 hours in 37C saline;.

11992 Martin, F., Mora, L., Laorden, M.L., Milanes, M.V. Protein kinase C phosphorylates the cAMP response element binding protein in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus during morphine withdrawal. British Journal of Pharmacology 2011; 163(-4-):857-875. >>> Calphostin C; chelerythrine; SC; Rat; Animal info (Sprague Dawley, male, 220-240 g); enzyme inhibitor (PKC, protein kinase C).

10918 Martin, F., Laorden, M.L., Milanes, M.V. Morphine withdrawal regulates phosphorylation of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) through PKC in the nucleus tractus solitarius-A(2) catecholaminergic neurons. Journal of Neurochemistry 2009; 110(-5-):1422-1432. >>> Calphostin C; SC; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 220-240 g); enzyme inhibitor (PKC, protein kinase C).

10709 Almela, P., Atucha, N.M., Milanes, M.V., Laorden, M.L. Cross-Talk between Protein Kinase A and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases Signalling in the Adaptive Changes Observed during Morphine Withdrawal in the Heart. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 2009; 330(-3-):771-782. >>> HA-1004; calphostin C; Water; DMSO; SC; Rat; 2001; Animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 220-240 g); dependence; enzyme inhibitor (PKA, PKC); 0.6% DMSO used.

9320 Almela, P., Milanes, M.V., Laorden, M.L. The PKs PKA and ERK 1/2 are involved in phosphorylation of TH at Serine 40 and 31 during morphine withdrawal in rat hearts. British Journal of Pharmacology 2008; 155(-1-):73-83. >>> HA-1004; calphostin C; DMSO; water; SC; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 220-240 g.); enzyme inhibitor (protein kinase C, protein kinase A); pumps were primed for 5 hours prior to implantation.

8113 Almela, P., Cerezo, M., Milanes, M.V., Laorden, M.L. Role of PKC in regulation of Fos and TH expression after naloxone induced morphine withdrawal in the heart. NAUNYN-SCHMIEDEBERGS ARCHIVES OF PHARMACOLOGY 2006; 372(-5-):374-382. >>> Calphostin C; Water, Milli-Q; DMSO; SC; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; no stress (see pg. 378); enzyme inhibitor (protein kinase c); animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 220-240g.); mp primed 5 hours in 37 celsius saline; 0.06% DMSO;"Animals infused with calphostin c showed no untoward effects: their weights were equivalent to those of vehicle injected groups, and the rats showed no behavioural changes."(pg.378).

7830 Benavides, M., Laorden, M.L., Marin, M.T., Milanes, M.V. Role of PKC-alpha, gamma isoforms in regulation of c-Fos and TH expression after naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal in the hypothalamic PVN and medulla oblongata catecholaminergic cell groups. Journal of Neurochemistry 2005; 95(-5-):1249-1258. >>> Calphostin C; DMSO; water; SC; Rat; 2001; Animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 220-240 g); enzyme inhibitor (protein kinase C); 0.06% DMSO used.

5588 Cerezo, M., Laorden, A.L., Milanes, A.V. Inhibition of protein kinase C but not protein kinase A attenuates morphine withdrawal excitation of rat hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. European Journal of Pharmacology 2002; 452(-1-):57-66. >>> HA-1004; calphostin C; Water, sterile; DMSO; SC; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (protein kinase A, protein kinase C).

4675 Chen, C-L, Chen, H., Zhu, D-M, Uckun, F.M. Quantitative high-performance liquid chromatography-based detection method for calphostin C, a naturally occurring perylenequinone with potent antileukemic activity.. Journal of Chromatography B 1999; 724(--):157-162. >>> Calphostin C;; DMSO; Tween 80; PBS;; mice;; 1007D;; functionality of mp verified by in vitro incubation and HPLC analysis; cancer; enzyme inhibitor (protein kinase C);.

2544 Hermenegildo, C., Felipo, V., Minana, M.-D., Romero, F.J., Grisolia, S. Sustained recovery of Na+-K+-ATPase activity in sciatic nerve of diabetic mice by administration of H7 or calphostin C, inhibitors of PKC. Diabetes 1993; 42(--):257-262. >>> H7; Calphostin C; DMSO; Water; SC; mice; controls were nondiabetic mice and untreated diabetic mice; comparison of bolus ip injections vs. mp; no stress (see pg. 259,260); enzyme inhibitor; calphostin C and H7 are PKC inhibitors;"treatment [w/ mp] did not produce any untoward effect nor affect the blood glucose levels."(pg. 260); H7 is unstable after 4 hours; Calphostin C is stable for 2 weeks.

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47. Candoxatrilat

2607 Zhao, L., Hughes, J.M.B., Winter, R.J.D. Reversal of pulmonary vascular remodelling following hypoxic exposure: no effect of infusion of atrial natriuretic factor and neutral endopeptidase inhibitor. Cardiovasc. Res 1994; 28(--):519-523. >>> Atrial natriuretic factor; Candoxatrilat; Saline; IV (jugular); rat; enzyme inhibitor; candoxatrilat also called UK 73,967 and neutral endopeptidase 24.11 inhibitor; peptides.

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48. Captopril

15009 Li, W.C., Liu, J., Hammond, S.L., Tjalkens, R.B., Saifudeen, Z., Feng, Y.M., Feng, Y.M. Angiotensin II regulates brain (pro)renin receptor expression through activation of cAMP response element-binding protein. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-REGULATORY INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE PHYSIOLOGY 2015; 309(--):R138-R147. >>> Losartan; captopril; CAS92-78-4; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS; Mice; 1004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (C57BL6J); cardiovascular; CAS92-78-4 is a CREB-CBP interaction inhibitor;.

14958 Hardwick, J.C., Ryan, S.E., Powers, E.N., Southerland, E.M., Ardell, J.L., Hardwick, J.C. Angiotensin receptors alter myocardial infarction-induced remodeling of the guinea pig cardiac plexus. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-REGULATORY INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE PHYSIOLOGY 2015; 309(--):R179-R188. >>> Captopril; losartan; CGP42112A; SC; Guinea Pig; 2ML4; Animal info (male, Hartley, 9 weeks old, 500-650g); pumps replaced every 3 weeks; cardiovascular; long-term study;.

14254 Lankhorst, S., Kappers, M.H.W., van Esch, J.H.M., Smedts, F.M.M., Sleijfer, S., Mathijssen, R.H.J., Baelde, H.J., Danser, A.H.J., van den Meiracker, A.H., van den Meiracker, A.H. Treatment of Hypertension and Renal Injury Induced by the Angiogenesis Inhibitor Sunitinib Preclinical Study. Hypertension 2014; 64(--):1282-U260. >>> Captopril; SC; Rat; 2ML2; Animal info (male, Wistar Kyoto, 280-300g); cardiovascular; antihypertensive; bp measured using radiotelemetry (DSI);.

12450 Capelari, D.N., Sanchez, S.I., Ortega, H.H., Ciuffo, G.M., Fuentes, L.B. Effects of maternal captopril treatment during late pregnancy on neonatal lung development in rats. REGULATORY PEPTIDES 2012; 177(-1-3-):97-106. >>> Captopril; SC; Rat (pregnant); 2001; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (Wistar, female, 230-250 g); enzyme inhibitor (acetylcholinesterase, ACE).

12398 Hill, A., Geissler, S., Weigandt, M., Maeder, K. Controlled delivery of nanosuspensions from osmotic pumps: Zero order and non-zero order kinetics. JOURNAL OF CONTROLLED RELEASE 2012; 158(-3-):403-412. >>> Fenofibrate nanosuspension; captopril; methylene blue; Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose; dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium salt; hydroxyethylcellulose; In vitro; 1007D; Functionality of mp verified; effect of different osmolalities, viscosities, particle size, and pump orientation on release rate kinetics.

12077 Efrati, S., Berman, S., bu Hamad, R., Siman-Tov, Y., Ilgiyaev, E., Maslyakov, I., Weissgarten, J. Effect of captopril treatment on recuperation from ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute renal injury. NEPHROLOGY DIALYSIS TRANSPLANTATION 2012; 27(-1-):136-145. >>> Captopril; IP; Rat; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (Sprague Dawley, male, 2 mo old, 25-300 g, nephrectomized); enzyme inhibitor (ACE).

10818 de Kloet, A.D., Krause, E.G., Kim, D.H., Sakai, R.R., Seeley, R.J., Woods, S.C. The Effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibition Using Captopril on Energy Balance and Glucose Homeostasis. Endocrinology 2009; 150(-9-):4114-4123. >>> Captopril; Saline; SC; Rat; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Adult, male, Long Evans, 250-300 g); enzyme inhibitor (ACE); wound clips used; Research Diets.

10200 Cho, Y.K., Eom, G.H., Kee, H.J., Kim, H.S., Choi, W.Y., Nam, K.I., Ma, J.S., Kook, H. Sodium Valproate, a Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, but Not Captopril, Prevents Right Ventricular Hypertrophy in Rats. CIRCULATION JOURNAL 2010; 74(-4-):760-770. >>> Captopril; DMSO; SC; Rat; Cardiovascular; enzyme inhibitor (ACE); animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 3 weeks old); functionality of mp verified by plasma ang I and ang II levels; right ventricular hypertrophy by pulmonary artery banding.

8732 Shen, X.Z., Li, P., Weiss, D., Fuchs, S., Xiao, H.D., Adams, J.A., Williams, I.R., Capecchi, M.R., Taylor, W.R., Bernstein, K.E. Mice with enhanced macrophage angiotensin-converting enzyme are resistant to melanoma. American Journal of Pathology 2007; 170(-6-):2122-2134. >>> Captopril; losartan; SC; Mice; Functionality of mp verified by systolic blood pressure; enzyme inhibitor (ACE); cancer (melanoma); immunology; animal info (C56BL/6, wt, ACE 10/10, 8wks old).

8428 DiNicolantonio, R., Hutchinson, J.S., Mendelsohn, F.A.O. Exaggerated salt appetite of spontaneously hypertensive rats is decreased by central angiotensin-converting enzyme blockade. Nature 1982; 298(-5877-):846-848. >>> Captopril; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS; Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; dose-response (p. 847); no stress (see pg. 846); animal info (male, Wistar Kyoto, Okamoto SHR, 320-410 grams).

6838 Li, X., Simard, J.M. Increase in Cx45 gap junction channels in cerebral smooth muscle cells from SHR. Hypertension 2002; 40(-6-):940-946. >>> Angiotensin II; L-NAME; captopril; SC; Rat; Enzyme inhibitor (nitric oxide synthase); cardiovascular; antihypertensive.

6405 Martinez, L.A., Villalobos-Molina, R.V. Early and chronic captopril or losartan therapy reduces infarct size and avoids congestive heart failure after myocardial infarction in rats. Archives of Medical Research 2003; 34(-5-):357-361. >>> Captopril; losartan; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Cardiovascular; enzyme inhibitor (ACE); losartan is an AT1 receptor antagonist.

15566 Lai, F.M., Tanikella, T., Herzlinger, H., Thibault, L., Cervoni, P. Effects of continuous angiotensin I-converting enzyme blockade on blood pressure, sympathetic activity and renin-angiotensin system in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. Life Sci 1981; 28(--):1309-1316. >>> Captopril; Saline; IP; rat; controls received mp w/saline; pumps replaced after 8 days; ACE inhibitor; antihypertensive; cadiovascular.

3750 Laycock, S.K., Kane, K.A., McMurray, J., Parratt, J.R. Captopril and norepinephrine-induced hypertrophy and haemodynamics in rats. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol 1996; 27(--):667-672. >>> Norepinephrine; Captopril; Ascorbic acid; Saline; SC; rat; 2ML4; controls received vehicle infusion; antihypertensive; multiple pumps per animal (1 or 2).

3720 Kohzuki, M., Yasujima, M., Liu, P.F., Obara, K., Kanazawa, M., Yoshida, K., Saito, T., Sato, T., Abe, K. Cardiovascular and renal protective effects of losartan in spontaneously hypertensive rats with diabetes mellitus. Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol 1995; SUPPL(-1-):S366-S367. >>> Losartan; Captopril; IP; rat; 2ML4; controls received no treatment; antihypertensive; cardiovascular; agents given singly and together; long-term study.

3474 Fitts, D.A. Angiotensin and captopril increase alcohol intake. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav 1993; 45(--):35-43. >>> Angiotensin II; Captopril; Saline, sterile; SC; CSF/CNS; 2001; 2002; 2ML2; controls received mp w/saline; peptides; antihypertensive; captopril rats allowed 1 week recovery after ventricular cannula placement.

3407 Morrell, N.W., Morris, K.G., Stenmark, K.R. Role of angiotensin-converting enzyme and angiotensin II in development of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Am. J. Physiol. (Heart Circ. Physiol. 38) 1995; 269(--):H1186-H1194. >>> Captopril; PD123319; CP-0597; Losartan; PBS; IP; rat; 2ML2; controls received mp w/PBS; antihypertensive; CP-0597 is a B2-receptor antagonist.

3254 Tokita, Y., Oda, H., Franco-Saenz, R., Mulrow, P.J. Role of the tissue renin-angiotensin system in the action of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. P. S. E. B. M 1995; 208(--):391-396. >>> Captopril; Perindopril; Saline; IP; rat; controls received mp with saline; antihypertensive.

3033 Fitts, D.A. Forebrain circumventricular organs mediate captopril-enhanced ethanol intake in rats. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav 1993; 45(--):811-816. >>> Captopril; Saline, sterile; SC; rat; 2ML2; controls received sham surgery; enzyme inhibitor; betadine applied topically and .2 ml gentamicin given IM to control post-surgical infection; antihypertensive.

2890 Kohzuki, M., Yasujima, M., Kanazawa, M., Yoshida, K., Fu, L.P., Obara, K., Saito, T., Abe, K. Antihypertensive and renal-protective effects of losartan in streptozotocin diabetic rats. J. Hypertens 1995; 13(--):97-103. >>> Losartan; Captopril; IP; rat; 2ML4; controls received mp w/ vehicle; long-term study, pumps replaced; agents infused separately and concomitantly; antihypertensive.

2791 Crofton, J.T., Ota, M., Share, L. Role of vasopressin, the renin-angiotensin system and sex in Dahl salt-sensitive hypertension. J. Hypertens 1993; 11(-10-):1031-1038. >>> Captopril; Saline, sterile; SC; rat; 2ML1; controls received mp w/ vehicle (pH lowered to 2); pumps replaced after 6 days; antihypertensive.

2513 Janssen, B.J.A., Tyssen, C.M., Struyker-Boudier, H.A.J. Modification of circadian blood pressure and heart rate variability by five different antihypertensive agents in spontaneously hypertensive rats. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol 1991; 17(--):494-503. >>> Captopril; Metoprolol; Hydralazine; Clonidine; Prazosin; Water; DMSO; Ethanol; PEG 400; Saline; IV; rat; 2001; 2ML1; controls received mp w/ vehicle; antihypertensive.

2139 van Krimpen, C., Smits, J.F.M., Cleutjens, J.P.M., Debets, J.J.M., Schoemaker, R.G., Struyker Boudier, H.A.J., Bosman, F.T., Daemen, M.J.A.P. DNA synthesis in the non-infarcted cardiac interstitium after left coronary artery ligation in the rat: effects of captopril. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiology 1991; 23(--):1245-1253. >>> Captopril; Hydralazine; Uridine, bromodeoxy-; SC; rat; 2001; pumps replaced at 7 days; toxicology; enzyme inhibitor (ACE); pumps used for drug admin. and cell labeling (1D and 7D labeling); multiple pumps per animal (2); antihypertensive.

2060 Menasche, P., Grousset, C., Peynet, J., Mouas, C., Bloch, G., Piwnica, A. Pretreatment with captopril improves myocardial recovery after cardioplegic arrest. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol 1992; 19(--):402-407. >>> Captopril; Enalapril; SC; rat; 2ML1; enzyme inhibitor (ace); antihypertensive.

2041 Kitami, Y., Hiwada, K., Murakami, E., Muneta, S., Kokubu, T. The effect of the renin inhibitor ES-1005 on the expression of the kidney renin gene in sodium-depleted marmosets. J. Hypertens 1990; 8(--):1143-1146. >>> ES-1005; Captopril; Saline; IP; monkey; 2001; renin inhibitor; pump captopril infusion, but not acute administration, significantly increased kidney renin gene expression; antihypertensive.

2035 van Krimpen, C., Schoemaker, R.G., Cleutjens, J.P.M., Smits, J.F.M., Struyker-Boudier, H.A.J., Bosman, F.T., Daemen, M.J.A.P. Angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitors and cardiac remodeling. Basic Res. Cardiol 1991; 86(-51-):149-155. >>> Captopril; Uridine, bromodeoxy-; SC; rat; Multiple pumps per animal (2); antihypertensive.

1895 Kuo, Y.-J., Keeton, T.K. Captopril increases norepinephrine spillover rate in conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther 1991; 258(-1-):223-231. >>> Minoxidil HCl; Captopril; Enalaprilat; Acetic acid; Ethanol; Propylene glycol; Saline; Water; SC; rat; no comment posted; antihypertensive.

1864 Pauletto, P., Nascimben, L., Piccolo, D., Secchiero, S., Vescovo, G., Scannapieco, G., Libera, L.D., Carraro, U., Pessina, A.C., Palu, C.D. Ventricular myosin and creatine-kinase isoenzymes in hypertensive rats treated with captopril. Hypertension 1989; 14(--):556-562. >>> Captopril; SC; rat; antihypertensive.

1731 Mabie, W.C., Ahokas, R.A., Sibai, B.M. Maternal and uteroplacental hemodynamic effects of chronic captopril in the hypertensive, term-pregnant rat. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1990; 163(-6-):1861-1867. >>> Captopril; Ethanol; IP; rat (pregnant); 2001; dose-response (graph); vehicle was 50% ethanol; antihypertensive.

1547 Maisel, A.S., Philips, C., Michel, M.C., Ziegler, M.G., Carter, S.M. Regulation of cardiac B-adrenergic receptors by captopril. Circulation 1989; 80(--):669-675. >>> Captopril; Isoproterenol; SC; guinea-pig; antihypertensive.

1424 Nakagawa, M., Nasjletti, A. Plasma kinin concentration in deoxycorticosterone-salt hypertension. Hypertension 1988; 11(--):411-415. >>> Captopril; IP; rat; 2001; antihypertensive.

1329 Rebuffat, P., Belloni, A.S., Malendowicz, L.K., Mazzochi, G., Gottardo, G., Nussdorfer, G.G. Zona glomerulosa morphology and function in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Endocrinology 1988; 123(-2-):949-955. >>> ACTH; Angiotensin II; Captopril; Dexamethasone; Insulin; Saline; SC; rat; 2002; dose-response (text); functionality of mp verified by plasma levels; replacement t; antihypertensive therapy (streptozotocin-induced diabetes); peptides; antihypertensive.

1237 Ng, C.F., Gautieri, R.F., Lemke, P.M. The effect of chronic administration of indomethacin in captopril-treated renal hypertensive rats. Res. Commun. Chem. Pathol. Pharmacol 1988; 59(-3-):321-338. >>> Captopril; Water; SC; rat; 2002; controls received mp w/ water; normal and RH rats used in this study; antihypertensive.

1219 Berecek, K.H., Coshatt, G., Narkates, A.J., Oparil, S., Wilson, K.M., Robertson, J. Captopril and the response to stress in the spontaneously hypertensive rat. Hypertension 1988; 11(-I-):I144-I147. >>> Captopril; HCl; Saline; CSF/CNS; rat; 2002; controls received mp w/ vehicle; pump replaced after 2 weeks; antihypertensive.

15379 Atkinson, J., Sonnay, M., Sautel, M., Fouda, A.-K. Chronic treatment of the spontaneously hypertensive rat with captopril attenuates responses to noradrenaline in vivo but not in vitro. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Arch. Pharmacol 1987; 335(--):624-628. >>> Captopril; Ethanol; Water; IV (jugular); rat; 2001; 2002; controls received sham op or mp w. ethanol; mp connected to cannula in jugular vein; SHR rats; functionality of mp verified in separate group of rats w/ mp filled w/ [51Cr] EDTA; antihypertensive.

1062 Attallah, A.A. Captopril reduces renal excretion of prostaglandin E2 in the sodium-depleted rabbit. Eur. J. Pharmacol 1987; 134(--):361-363. >>> Captopril; SC; rabbit; 2ML1; no vehicle for Captopril specified; antihypertensive.

1036 Berecek, K.H., Kirk, K.A., Nagahama, S., Oparil, S. Sympathetic function in spontaneously hypertensive rats after chronic administration of captopril. Am. J. Physiol 1987; 252(--):H796-H806. >>> Captopril; HCl; Saline; CSF/CNS; rat; 2002; controls received mp w/vehicle; mp connected to catheter in lateral ventricle; pumps replaced after 2 weeks; stability of captopril stated; antihypertensive.

942 Piryova, B., Ikonomov, O., Stoynev, A., Natcheff, N. Renin-angiotensin system and renal excretory function under conditions of hypovolemia and limited sodium intake. Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Bulg 1987; 12(-2-):21-26. >>> Captopril; SC; rat; 2001; comparison of ip injections vs. mp infusion; antihypertensive.

910 Berecek, K.H., Shier, D.N. Alterations in renal vascular reactivity induced by chronic central administration of captopril in the spontaneously hypertensive rat. Clin. Exp. Hypertens 1986; A8(-7-):1081-1106. >>> Captopril; Saline; CSF/CNS; IV (jugular); rat; 2002; controls received mp w/saline; mp connected to cannula in ventricle or jugular; pumps replaced after 2 weeks; stability of captopril verified; antihypertensive.

882 Itaya, Y., Suzuki, H., Matsukawa, S., Kondo, K., Saruta, T. Central renin-angiotensin system and the pathogenesis of DOCA-salt hypertension in rats. Am. Physiol. Soc 1986; (--):261-268. >>> Captopril; Saline; CSF/CNS; rat; 2002; controls received mp w/vehicle; mp connected to cannula in lateral ventricle; hypertension; DOCA-salt hypertensive rats; antihypertensive.

658 Chan, J.Y.H., Hutchinson, J.S. Central angiotensin converting enzyme blockade and salt preference in renovascular hypertensive rats. Ann. Acad. Med. Singapore 1985; 14(-1-):137-142. >>> Captopril; Saline; CSF/CNS; IP; rat; 2001; comparison of icv vs. ip mp infusion; icv infusion into right lateral ventricle; antihypertensive.

527 Yasujima, M., Abe, K., Kasai, Y., Tanno, M., Tajima, J., Seino, M., Chiba, S., Sato, K., Goto, T., Omata, K., Yoshinaga, K. Renal kallikrein-kinin system and the depressor effect of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors MK 421, SA 446, and captopril in rats. Clin. Exp. Hypertens 1984; A6(-6-):1207-1225. >>> SA-446; Captopril; MK-421; Saline; IP; rat; comparison of agents effects; antihypertensive.

502 Villarreal, D., Freeman, R.H., Davis, J.O., Garoutte, G., Sweet, W.D. Pathogenesis of one-kidney, one-clip hypertension in rats after renal denervation. Am. J. Physiol 1984; 247(--):H61-H66. >>> Captopril; Saline, bacteriostatic; IP; rat; 2002; 2 mp/animal; antihypertensive.

488 Muller, J., Hofstetter, L., Schwendener-Canlas, P., Brunner, D.B., Lund, E.-G. Role of the renin-angiotensin system in the regulation of late steps in aldosterone biosynthesis by sodium intake of potassium-deficient rats. Endocrinology 1984; 115(-1-):350-356. >>> Angiotensin II; Captopril; SC; rat; comparison of agents effects; 1-2 pumps/animal; rats were fed sodium and potassium deficient diets; peptides; antihypertensive.

482 Schulz, R., Wuster, M., Herz, A. Receptor preference of dynorphin A fragments in the mouse vas deferens determined by different techniques. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther 1984; 230(-1-):200-204. >>> Dynorphin A(1-8); Bestatin; Captopril; Dynorphin A; Enkephalin agonist DADL; Fentanyl; Thiorphan; Saline; SC; vas deferens; Mice; 2001; 2ML1; Comparison of agents effects; 2ML1 pump used w/ captopril, thiorphan, and bestatin; DADL&FEN admin. sc; peptides; antihypertensive.

414 Okuno, T., Nagahama, S., Lindheimer, M.D., Oparil, S. Attenuation of the development of spontaneous hypertension in rats by chronic central administration of captopril. Hypertension 1983; 5(--):653-662. >>> Captopril; Radio-isotopes; 14C tracer; HCl; Saline; CSF/CNS; IV (jugular); rat; 2002; comparison of iv vs. icv mp infusion; pump replaced after 2 weeks; peptides; antihypertensive; antihypertensive.

396 Berecek, K.H., Okuno, T., Nagahama, S., Oparil, S. Altered vascular reactivity and baroflex sensitivity induced by chronic central administration of captopril in the spontaneously hypertensive rat. Hypertension 1983; 5(-5-):689-700. >>> Captopril; HCl; Saline; CSF/CNS; IV (jugular); rat; 2002; comparison of iv vs. icv mp infusion; pump replaced after 2 weeks; antihypertensive.

269 Muller, J., Lund, E.-G., Hofstetter, L., Brunner, D.B., Haldy, P. Stimulation of aldosterone biosynthesis by sodium sequestration: role of angiotensin II. Am. J. Physiol 1982; 243(--):E450-E457. >>> Angiotensin II; Captopril; SC; rat; 1 or 2 pumps/animal; separate&simultaneous infusion of agents; peptides; antihypertensive.

192 Schiffrin, E.L., Genest, J. Mechanism of captopril-induced drinking. Am. J. Physiol 1982; 242(--):R136-R140. >>> Angiotensin II; Captopril; Saline; CSF/CNS; IP; rat; 2001; captopril icv only, AII ip&icv; peptides; antihypertensive.

131 Seymour, A.A., Davis, J.O., Freeman, R.H., DeForrest, J.M., Rowe, B.P., Stephens, G.A., Williams, G.M. Sodium and angiotensin in the pathogenesis of experimental renovascular hypertension. Am. J. Physiol 1981; 240(--):H788-H792. >>> Captopril; IP; rat; pumps replaced after 6 days; antihypertensive.

15328 Douglas, J.G. Potassium ion as a regulator of adrenal angiotensin II receptors. Am. J. Physiol 1980; 239(-5-):E317-E321. >>> Angiotensin II; Captopril; Saline; IP; SC; rat; captopril in drinking water&by pump sc; angio II pump ip; peptides; antihypertensive.

15317 Schirar, A., Capponi, A., Catt, K.J. Elevation of uterine angiotensin II receptors during early pregnancy in the rat. Endocrinology 1980; 106(-5-):1521-1527. >>> Captopril; Ascorbic acid; Saline; IP; rat; antihypertensive.

78 Schirar, A., Capponi, A., Catt, K.J. Elevation of uterine angiotensin II receptors during early pregnancy in the rat. Endocrinology 1980; 106(-5-):1521-1527. >>> Captopril; Ascorbic acid; Saline; IP; rat; antihypertensive.

50 Seymour, A.A., Davis, J.O., Freeman, R.H., DeForrest, J.M., Rowe, B.P., Stephens, G.A., Williams, G.M. Hypertension produced by sodium depletion and unilateral nephrectomy: a new experimental model. Hypertension 1980; 2(-2-):125-129. >>> Captopril; IP; rat; antihypertensive.

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49. DMAG, 17-

12322 Oyama, J., Maeda, T., Sasaki, M., Higuchi, Y., Node, K., Makino, N. Repetitive hyperthermia attenuates progression of left ventricular hypertrophy and increases telomerase activity in hypertensive rats. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology 2012; 302(-10-):H2092-H2101. >>> DMAG, 17-; SC; Rat; Animal info (male, DS, 6 wks old).

8864 Milkiewicz, M., Doyle, J.L., Fudalewski, T., Ispanovic, E., Aghasi, M., Haas, T.L. HIF-1 alpha and HIF-2 alpha play a central role in stretch-induced but not shear-stress-induced angiogenesis in rat skeletal muscle. JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-LONDON 2007; 583(-2-):753-766. >>> DMAG, 17-; Dextrose, sterile; SC; IM (extensor digitorum longus); Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (Hsp 90); post op. care (butorphanol); ischemia (muscle); animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 200-250g); agent also known as NSC 707545, a geldanamycin derivative.

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50. DMPPO

4334 Eddahibi, S., Raffestin, B., Le Monnier de Gouville, A.-C., Adnot, S. Effect of DMPPO, a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, on hypoxic pulmonary hypertension in rats. Br. J. Pharmacol 1998; 125(--):681-688. >>> DMPPO; PEG; Saline; Dimethylacetamide; IV (jugular); rat; 2002; controls received mp w/vehicle; phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor.

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51. Donepezil

15970 Lataro, R. M., Silva, C. A., Tefe-Silva, C., Prado, C. M., Salgado, H. C. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition Attenuates the Development of Hypertension and Inflammation in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats. Am J Hypertens 2015; 28(-10-):1201-8. >>> Pyridostigmine bromide; donepezil; SC; Rat; 2004; animal info (male, Wistar-Kyoto or SHR); pumps replaced every 4 weeks; long-term study; cardiovascular; bp measured using tail cuff; Dose (Pyridostigmine bromide 1.5 mg/kg/day; donepezil 1.4 mg/kg/day);.

15041 Mohamed, L.A., Qosa, H., Kaddoumi, A., Kaddoumi, A. Age-Related Decline in Brain and Hepatic Clearance of Amyloid-Beta is Rectified by the Cholinesterase Inhibitors Donepezil and Rivastignnine in Rats. ACS Chemical Neuroscience 2015; 6(--):725-736. >>> Donepezil; rivastigmine; Water, sterile; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Sprague dawley,m 4 months or 24 months); neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's disease); pumps removed after 26 days;.

13661 Spilman, P., Descamps, O., Gorostiza, O., Peters-Libeu, C., Poksay, K.S., Matalis, A., Campagna, J., Patent, A., Rao, R., John, V., Bredesen, D.E. The multi-functional drug tropisetron binds APP and normalizes cognition in a murine Alzheimer's model. Brain Research 2014; 1551(-;-):25-44. >>> Tropisetron hydrochloride; donepezil; metamine; DMSO; saline; SC; Mice (transgenic); 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (J20, 16-19 weeks old); functionality of mp verified by serum plasma; pumps replaced every 28 days; 25% DMSO used; comparison of oral delivery vs mp (fig.16, fig.17); neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's); stress/adverse reaction: (see pg.40); behavioral testing (Morris water maze;);"Brain levels were similar after pump and oral delivery. However, it is noteworthy that pump delivery is continuous, whereas the oral delivery was daily..."pg36;.

11844 Bitner, R.S., Bunnelle, W.H., Decker, M.W., Drescher, K.U., Kohlhaas, K.L., Markosyan, S., Marsh, K.C., Nikkel, A.L., Browman, K., Radek, R., Anderson, D.J., Buccafusco, J., Gopalakrishnan, M. In Vivo Pharmacological Characterization of a Novel Selective alpha-7 Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Agonist ABT-107: Preclinical Considerations in Alzheimer's Disease. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 2010; 334(-3-):875-886. >>> ABT-107; donepezil; SC; Rat; mice; 1002; 2ML2; animal info (Sprague Dawley, male, 275-400 g; male CD1, female tau P301L, 20-30 g); post op. care (flunixin meglumine); wound clips used; neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's disease).

9027 Van Dam, D., Coen, K., De Deyn, P.P. Cognitive evaluation of disease-modifying efficacy of donepezil in the APP23 mouse model for Alzheimer's disease. Psychopharmacology 2008; 197(-1-):37-43. >>> Donepezil, HCL; Saline; IP; Mice (transgenic); 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; pumps replaced after 4 weeks; good methods (pg. 39); enzyme inhibitor (acetyl cholinesterase); animal info (transgenic APP23); neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's disease); long-term study.

8589 Potier, B., Jouvenceau, A., Epelbaum, J., Dutar, P. Age-related alterations of GABAergic input to CA1 pyramidal neurons and its control by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in rat hippocampus. Neuroscience 2006; 142(-1-):187-201. >>> Donepezil; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ saline; enzyme inhibitor (cholinesterase); animal info (Sprague-Dawley, 3-4 or 25-28 months old).

5489 Luine, V.N., Mohan, G., Tu, Z., Efange, S.M.N. Chromaproline and Chromaperidine, nicotine agonists, and Donepezil, cholinesterase inhibitor, enhance performance of memory tasks in ovariectomized rats. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 2002; 74(-1-):213-220. >>> Donepezil; chromaproline; chromaperidine; SC; Rat; 2002; Controls received empty gelatin capsules similar size and shape as pumps from Lilly; pumps replaced after 2 wks; enzyme inhibitor; chromaproline and chromaperidine are nicotinic agonists; donepezil is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor; behavioral testing.

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52. Doxorubicin

12553 Knoell, R., Linke, W.A., Zou, P.J., Miocic, S., Kostin, S., Buyandelger, B., Ku, C.H., Neef, S., Bug, M., Schaefer, K., Knoell, G., Felkin, L.E., Wessels, J., Toischer, K., Hagn, F., Kessler, H., Didie, M., Quentin, T., Maier, L.S., Teucher, N., Unsoeld, B., Schmidt, A., Birks, E.J., Gunkel, S., Lang, P., Granzier, H., Zimmermann, W.H., Field, L.J., Faulkner, G., Dobbelstein, M., Barton, P.J.R., Sattler, M., Wilmanns, M., Chien, K.R. Telethonin Deficiency Is Associated With Maladaptation to Biomechanical Stress in the Mammalian Heart. Circulation Research 2011; 109(-7-):758-U153. >>> Doxorubicin; Mice; Animal info (telethonin KO, 26-38 wks old); infusion rate of 0.5 ul/hr.

9825 Loch, T., Vakhrusheva, O., Piotrowska, I., Ziolkowski, W., Ebelt, H., Braun, T., Bober, E. Different extent of cardiac malfunction and resistance to oxidative stress in heterozygous and homozygous manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase-mutant mice. Cardiovascular Research 2009; 82(-3-):448-457. >>> Doxorubicin; PBS; SC; Mice; 2002; Controls received mp w/vehicle; animal info (4.5 mo. old).

9175 Wenzel, P., Mueller, J., Zurmeyer, S., Schuhmacher, S., Schulz, E., Oelze, M., Pautz, A., Kawamoto, T., Wojnowski, L., Kleinert, H., Muenzel, T., Daiber, A. ALDH-2 deficiency increases cardiovascular oxidative stress - Evidence for indirect antioxidative properties. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 2008; 367(-1-):137-143. >>> Nitroglycerin; acetaldehyde; doxorubicin; Ethanol; SC; IP; Mice; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; cardiovascular; animal info (10 wks old, male, ALDH-2 null); nitroglycerin also known as glycerol trinitrate, GTN;"chronic (in contrast to short term/acute) treatment with doxorubicin lead to a more pronounced increase in mitochondrial ROS formation and to a greater extent of endothelial as well as smooth muscle dysfunction"pg. 141.

7604 Guarnieri, M., Carson, B.S., Khan, A., Penno, M., Jallo, G.I. Flexible versus rigid catheters for chronic administration of exogenous agents into central nervous system tissues. Journal of Neuroscience Methods 2005; 144(-2-):147-152. >>> Doxorubicin; carboblatin; Dextrose solution; saline; CSF/CNS (parenchyma); Rat; 2001; Animal info (F, Fischer, 220 g); Functionality of mp verified by pump examination, post infusion; stability verified by previous studies, 14 days; good methods (p. 148); cancer (glioma); brain tissue distribution; Plastics One cannula used (stainless steel);"replacement of rigid infusion tubes [cannulae] with flexible tubing increases the reliability of local CNS drug infusions. Rigid catheters [cannulae] may allow backflow of the infused drug along the path of the catheters into the subdural space."(P. 147).

7330 Khan, A., Jallo, G.I, Liu, Y.J, Carson, B.S., Guarnieri, M. Infusion rates and drug distribution in brain tumor models in rats. Journal of Neurosurgery (Pediatrics 1) 2005; 102(--):53-58. >>> Carboplatin; doxorubicin; transferrin-doxorubicin; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2ML1; 2001; Cancer (glioma, gliosarcoma); brain tissue distribution; CNS infusion rate study;"...the use of intratumoral infusions significantly increase survival in comparison with bolus injections and conventional systemic treatments."P. 53; flexible tipped cannula components were from Plastics One; in some cases the tubing/cannula were left empty after implantation to allow the tissue to seal before fluid flow.

6199 Boengler, K., Pipp, F., Fernandez, B., Ziegelhoeffer, T., Schaper, W., Deindl, E. Arteriogenesis is associated with an induction of the cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (carp). Cardiovascular Research 2003; 59(-3-):573-581. >>> Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1; doxorubicin; transforming growth factor-B1; IA (femoral); Rabbit; 2ML1; Cardiovascular.

5880 Boengler, K., Pipp, F., Fernandez, B., Richter, A., Schaper, W., Deindl, E. The ankyrin repeat containing SOCS box protein 5: a novel protein associated with arteriogenesis. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 2003; 302(-1-):17-22. >>> Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1; Transforming Growth Factor-B; Doxorubicin; IA (femoral); Rabbit; 2ML1; Cardiovascular; peptides; MCP-1 is monocyte chemoattractant protein 1.

2887 Naito, K., Kanbayashi, N., Nakajima, S., Murai, T., Arakawa, K., Nishimura, S., Okuyama, A. Inhibition of growth of human tumor cells in nude mice by a metalloproteinase inhibitor. Int. J. Cancer 1994; 58(--):730-735. >>> BE16627B; Doxorubicin HCl; DMSO; Ethylene glycol; SC; Mice (nude); 2001; 2002; controls received vehicle or no treatment; pumps replaced; stress/ adverse reaction: skin inflammation and necrosis around delivery site in mice treated with Adriamycin (pg. 733); BE166278B animals were fine; stability verified for 18 days by assay; cancer; enzyme inhibitor; BE16627B is a metalloproteinase inhibitor; 2002 replaced w/ 2001 after 20 days; adriamycin is doxorubicin HCl.

2450 Slate, D.L., Fraser-Smith, E.B., Rosete, J.D., Freitas, V.R., Kim, Y.N., Casey, S.M. Modulation of doxorubicin efficacy in P388 leukemia following co-administration of verapamil in mini-osmotic pumps. Invivo 1993; 7(--):519-524. >>> Doxorubicin; Verapamil; PBS; IP; Mice; 2001; Functionality of mp verified by plasma levels; dose-response (table, p. 520); comparison of i.p. injections vs. mp; cancer; authors used ALZET pumps to"..mimic prolonged i.v. coadministration in the clinic and to compare the efficacy and toxicity of this delivery scheme with more traditional bolus i.p. regimens.".

2003 Rodgers, K.E., Girgis, W., diZerega, G.S. Effect of tolmetin sodium dihydrate on adhesion formation by intraperitoneal administration of antineoplastic agents. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol 1992; 29(--):248-251. >>> Doxorubicin HCl; Mitoxantrone; Tolmetin sodium; Bleomycin; Cisplatin; Methotrexate; PBS; IP; rat; 2ML1; Antibiotic; cancer; no stress (see p249).

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53. Dutasteride

8865 Shao, T.C., Li, H., Ittmann, M., Cunningham, G.R. Effects of dutasteride on prostate growth in the large probasin-large T antigen mouse model of prostate cancer. Journal of Urology 2007; 178(-4-):1521-1527. >>> Dutasteride; DMSO; PEG 400; SC; Mice (transgenic); 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; comparison of oral admin. vs. mp; long-term study; pumps replaced after 4 weeks; no stress (see pg. 1522); enzyme inhibitor (5a-reductase); cancer (prostate); animal info (male, LPB-Tag, tg, wt, 6-7 and 10-11 wks old); 40% DMSO;"Dutasteride greatly decreased prostate tumor growth... without significant negative effects."p. 1526.

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54. E-64

14858 Caetano, A.L., Dong-Creste, K.E., Amaral, F.A., Monteiro-Silva, K.C., Pesquero, J.B., Araujo, M.S., Montor, W.R., Vie, T.A., Buck, H.S., Buck, H.S. Kinin B2 receptor can play a neuroprotective role in Alzheimer's disease. NEUROPEPTIDES 2015; 53(--):51-62. >>> E-64; amyloid protein, beta (1-40); HEPES; CSF/CNS; Mice; 1004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (C57BL6 or KOB1 or KOB2, 28-31g, ); neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's disease); enzyme inhibitor (cystein protease);.

10754 Amaral, F.A., Lemos, M.T.R., Dong, K.E., Bittencourt, M.F.Q.P., Caetano, A.L., Pesquero, J.B., Viel, T.A., Buck, H.S. Participation of kinin receptors on memory impairment after chronic infusion of human amyloid-beta 1-40 peptide in mice. Neuropeptides 2010; 44(-2-):93-97. >>> Amyloid protein, beta (1-40); E-64; HEPES; CSF/CNS; Mice; 1004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (cystein protease); ALZET brain infusion kit 3 used; animal info (male, C57BL/6, wt, KOB1 KOB2, 28031 g, 12 wks old); behavioral testing (active avoidance); neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's Disease);"infusion (of beta-amyloid protein) could provide a tissue response closer to that observed in the pathogenesis of AD."pg 94.

10501 Shinohara, M., Sato, N., Kurinami, H., Takeuchi, D., Takeda, S., Shimamura, M., Yamashita, T., Uchiyama, Y., Rakugi, H., Morishita, R. Reduction of Brain beta-Amyloid (A-beta) by Fluvastatin, a Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitor, through Increase in Degradation of Amyloid Precursor Protein C-terminal Fragments (APP-CTFs) and A-beta Clearance. Journal of Biological Chemistry 2010; 285(-29-):22091-22102. >>> Leupeptin; E-64a; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS; Mice (transgenic); 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; peptides; ALZET brain infusion kit 3 used; no stress (see pg 22092); neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's Disease); animal info (male, C57BL/6, APP23 Tg, 8 wks old); lysosomal inhibitor; aCSF recipe.

10097 Viel, T.A., Caetano, A.L., Nasello, A.G., Lancelotti, C.L., Nunes, V.A., Araujo, M.S., Buck, H.S. Increases of kinin B1 and B2 receptors binding sites after brain infusion of amyloid-beta 1-40 peptide in rats. NEUROBIOLOGY OF AGING 2008; 29(-12-):1805-1814. >>> Amyloid protein, beta (1-40), human; E-64; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2004; Controls received mp w/ enzyme inhibitor (cystein protease); ALZET brain infusion kit 1 used; peptides; animal info (male, Wistar, 200-250 g.); neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's Disease).

9182 Hook, V., Kindy, M., Hook, G. Cysteine protease inhibitors effectively reduce in vivo levels of brain beta-amyloid related to Alzheimer's disease. BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY 2007; 388(-2-):247-252. >>> CAO74Me; E64d; Saline; DMSO; CSF/CNS; Guinea-pig; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; no stress (see pg. 250); enzyme inhibitor (cysteine protease, cathepsin B); animal info (Harley, 300-500g, 5-7 wks old); neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's disease); 1.5% DMSO used;"Animals treated with E64d and CAO74Me appeared healthy without any signs of toxicity, and normal behavior was observed."(p. 250).

9084 Hook, V.Y.H., Kindy, M., Hook, G. Inhibitors of cathepsin B improve memory and reduce beta-amyloid in transgenic Alzheimer disease mice expressing the wild-type, but not the Swedish mutant beta-secretase site of the amyloid precursor protein. Journal of Biological Chemistry 2008; 283(-12-):7745-7753. >>> CAO74Me; E64d; Saline; Me2SO; CSF/CNS; Mice (transgenic); 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; no stress (see pg. 7747); enzyme inhibitor (cysteine protease); ALZET brain infusion kit 3 used; peptides; animal info (male, London APP, Swedish/London APP; 6, 12 months old); neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's disease);"Animals remained healthy and were observed to have normal eating, body weight, grooming + general appearance during the inhibitor treatment period. Of the 96 animals used in this study, none showed postoperative complications, such as infections; also, none died."(p. 7747).

8403 Iores-Marcal, L.M., Viel, T.A., Buck, H.S., Nunes, V.A., Gozzo, A.J., Cruz-Silva, I., Miranda, A., Shimamoto, K., Ura, N., Araujo, M.S. Bradykinin release and inactivation in brain of rats submitted to an experimental model of Alzheimer's disease. Peptides 2006; 27(-12-):3363-3369. >>> Amyloid protein, beta (1-40), human; E-64; HEPES; E-64; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; brain tissue distribution; peptides; animal info (male, Wistar, 3 mo. old); neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's disease); cathepsin B inhibitor.

6776 Doh-ura, K., Ishikawa, K., Murakami-Kubo, I., Sasaki, K., Mohri, S., Race, R., Iwaki, T. Treatment of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy by intraventricular drug infusion in animal models. JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY 2004; 78(-10-):4999-5006. >>> Quinacrine; chloroquine; amphotericin B; E-64d; pentosan polysulfate; PBS; water, distilled; DMSO; SC; CSF/CNS; Rat; mice; dog (mongrel); Controls received mp w/ vehicle; dose-response (fig. 2); no stress (see pg. 5004); stress/adverse reaction: (see pg. 5002) PPS at highest dose (20mg/kg/day) showed hemorrhage in the SC area surrounding the mp; enzyme inhibitor (cysteine protease [E-64d]); long-term study.

5057 Layton, G.T., Harris, S.J., Bland, F.A., Lee, S.R., Fearn, S., Kaleta, J., Wood, M.L., Bond, A., Ward, G. Therapeutic effects of cysteine protease inhibition in allergic lung inflammation: Inhibition of allergen-specific T lymphocyte migration. INFLAMMATION RESEARCH 2001; 50(--):400-408. >>> E-64; DMSO; Water; SC; mice; 2001; functionality of mp verified by lung tissue protease levels; immunology; enzyme inhibitor; E64 is a cysteine protease inhibitor; vehicle was 50% DMSO, 50% water..

4484 Conway, J.G., Trexler, S.J., Wakefield, J.A., Marron, B.E., Emerson, D.L., Bickett, D.M., Deaton, D.N., Garrison, D., Elder, M., McElroy, A., Willmott, N., Dockerty, A.J.P., McGeehan, G.M. Effect of matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors on tumor growth and spontaneous metastasis. Clin. Exp. Metastasis 1996; 14(--):115-124. >>> E-64; GI168; GI173; GI179; GI184;; DMSO; Saline; EtOH; Buffer, sodium citrate; Tappsol HPB-20;; SC;; mice;; 2001; 2002;; controls received mp w/ vehicle; cancer; matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors; mice received 2 pumps each; enzyme inhibitors.

3371 Karran, E.H., Dodgson, K., Harris, S.J., Markwell, R.E., Harper, G.P. A simple in vivo model of collagen degradation using collagen-gelled cotton buds: the effects of collagenase inhibitors and other agents. Inflamm. Res 1995; 44(--):36-46. >>> Collagenase inhibitor A; Collagenase inhibitor B; Collagenase inhibitor C; tempol; Superoxide dismutase-PEG; Cytochalasin B; Pepstatin; APMSF; TLCK; SBTI; Leupeptin; E-64; Methylamine; SC; Rat; 2001; 2ML1; controls received mp w/vehicle; no stress (see pg. 39); immunology; pumps connected with catheter tubing to 14C-collagen-gelled cotton buds.

2092 Redwood, S.M., Liu, B.C.S., Weiss, R.E., Hodge, D.E., Droller, M.J. Abrogation of the invasion of human bladder tumor cells by using protease inhibitor(s). Cancer 1992; 69(-5-):1212-1219. >>> E-64; PBS; IV (jugular); Mice (nude); cancer; immunology; enzyme inhibitor (cysteine protease).

1983 Ivy, G.O. Protease inhibitors as a model for NCL disease, with special emphasis on the infantile and adult forms. Am. J. Med. Genet 1992; 42(--):555-560. >>> E-64C; Aprotinin; Chloroquine; Leupeptin; CSF/CNS; rat; 2002; no comment posted.

943 Tamai, M., Matsumoto, K., Omura, S., Koyama, I., Ozawa, Y., Hanada, K. In vitro and in vivo inhibition of cysteine proteinases by est, a new analog of E-64. J. Pharmacobiodyn 1986; 9(-8-):672-677. >>> E-64; EST; IP; rat; muscular dystrophy; refers to previous work done w/mp only; E-64 and EST are cysteine protease inhibitors.

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55. Elafin

14982 Jiang, X., Nguyen, T.T., Tian, W., Sung, Y.K., Yuan, K., Qian, J., Rajadas, J., Sallenave, J.M., Nickel, N.P., Perez, V.D., Rabinovitch, M., Nicolls, M.R., Nicolls, M.R. Cyclosporine Does Not Prevent Microvascular Loss in Transplantation but Can Synergize With a Neutrophil Elastase Inhibitor, Elafin, to Maintain Graft Perfusion During Acute Rejection. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION 2015; 15(--):1768-1781. >>> Elafin; PBS; SC; Mice; 2002; Animal info (C57BL6J or BALB/c); immunology;.

10231 Cowan, B, Baron, O, Crack, J, Coulber, C, Wilson, G.J., Rabinovich, M. Elafin, a Serine Elastase Inhibitor, Attenuates Post-Cardiac Transplant Coronary Arteriopathy and Reduces Myocardial Necrosis in Rabbits After Heterotopic Cardiac Transplantation. J. Clin. Invest 1996; 97(-11-):2452-2468. >>> Elafin, recomb human; Saline, physiological; IV (jugular); IV (superior vena cava); Rabbit; 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; peptides; cardiovascular; enzyme inhibitor (serine elastase).

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56. Ethylisourea, S-

4379 Rudd, M.A., Trolliet, M., Hope, S., Scribner, A.W., Daumerie, G., Toolan, G., Cloutier, T., Loscalzo, J. Salt-induced hypertension in Dahl salt-resistant and salt-sensitive rats with NOS II inhibition. Am. J. Physiol. (Heart Circ. Physiol. 46) 1999; 277(--):H732-H739. >>> AMT; 1400W; Ethylisourea, S-; Rat; Cardiovascular; agents are NOS II inhibitors; AMT is 2-amino-5,6-dihydro-6-methyl-4H-1,3-thiazine; S-ethylisourea is also known as EIT; enzyme inhibitors; nitric oxide synthase inhibitor;.

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57. Etodolac

5141 Kollman-Bauerly, K.A., Thomas, D.L., Adrian, T.E., Lien, E.L., Vanderhoof, J.A. The role of eicosanoids in the process of adaptation following massive bowel resection in the rat. JOURNAL OF PARENTERAL AND ENTERAL NUTRITION 2001; 25(--):275-281. >>> Etodolac; Guaiaretic acid, nordihydro-; DMSO; SC; rat; 2002; 2ML2; controls received mp w/ vehicle; etodolac is a cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX II) enzyme inhibitor administered by 2002 pump in 70% DMSO vehicle; Eicosanoids; Nordihydroguaiaretic acid is a lipoxygenase inhibitor administered in 2ML2 pump in 70% DMSO vehicle..

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58. Etoposide

10115 Giraud, S., Bessette, B., Boda, C., Lalloue, F., Petit, D., Mathonnet, M., Jauberteau, M.O. In vitro apoptotic induction of human glioblastoma cells by Fas ligand plus etoposide and in vivo antitumour activity of combined drugs in xenografted nude rats. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ONCOLOGY 2007; 30(--):273-281. >>> Fas ligand; etoposide; dexamethasone; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Rat (nude); 1002; Tissue perfusion (tumor); functionality of mp verified by residual volume; cancer (glioblastoma); animal info (female 2 months old, 159 g.).

5341 Peng, D., Qian, C., Sun, Y., Barajas, M.A., Prieto, J. Transduction of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using recombinant adeno- associated virus (rAAV): in vitro and in vivo effects of genotoxic agents. J Hepatol 2000; 32(-6-):975-985. >>> Etoposide; IP; Rat; Functionality of mp verified by measuring etoposide concentration in tumor tissue; cancer; etoposide (VP-16) is a chemotherapeutic agent.

2634 de Haan, G., Engel, C., Dontje, B., Loeffler, M., Nijhof, W. Hemotoxicity by prolonged etoposide administration to mice can be prevented by simultaneous growth factor therapy. Cancer Res 1995; 55(--):324-329. >>> Erythropoietin; Colony-stimulating factor, G; Etoposide; SC; mice; dose-response curves (pg. 326-328); cancer; peptides; etoposide is VP-16-213; EPO and VP-16-213 given in same pump initially, but this inactived the G-CSF; multiple pumps per animal (1-2) for G-CSF/VP-16 mice.

2534 Claessen, A.M.E., Bloemena, E., Bril, H., Meijer, C.J.L.M., Scheper, R.J. Locoregional administration of etoposide, but not of interleukin 2, facilitates active specific immunization in guinea pigs with advanced carcinoma. Cancer Res 1992; 52(--):2440-2446. >>> Interleukin-2; Etoposide; SC; guinea-pig; 2001; 2002; comparison of local injections vs. mp (table, p. 2442); cancer.

1470 Claessen, A.M., Valster, H., Bril, H., Meyer, S., Scheper, R.J. Cell-mediated immunity is enhanced by cytostatic drugs continuously released at the site of antigenic stimulation. Cancer Immunol. Immunother 1989; 28(--):131-135. >>> Etoposide; Fluorouracil, 5-; SC; guinea-pig; 2001; comparison of sc injections vs. mp infusion; cancer/immunology; VP-16-213 is etoposide.

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59. FPT III

11485 Ljuca, F., Drevensek, G., Zerem, E. Contribution of Ras farnesyl transferase, MAP kinase and cytochrome P-450 metabolites to endothelin-1 induced hypertension. Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences 2011; 11(-2-):84-86. >>> Endothelin 1; FPT III; PD-98059; baicalein; ODYA, 17-; IV (jugular); Rat; Controls received no pump; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley); peptides; enzyme inhibitor (Ras farnesyl transferase, MAP kinase, COX); 17-ODYA is a CYP450 inhibitor; PE-60 tubing used.

6585 Benter, I.F., Juggi, J.S., Khan, I., Akhtar, S. Inhibition of Ras-GTPase, but not tyrosine kinases or Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, improves recovery of cardiac function in the globally ischemic heart. MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR BIOCHEMISTRY 2004; 259(-1-2-):35-42. >>> FPT III; KN-93; Genistein; Saline; IP; Rat; 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (tyrosine kinase, CaMKII); cardiovascular; ischemia (cardiac).

4870 Muthalif, M.M, Benter, I.F., Khandekar, Z, Gaber, L, Estes, A, Malik, S, Parmentier, J.-H, Manne, V, Malik, K.U. Contribution of Ras GPase/MAP kinase and cytochrome P450 metabolites to deoxycorticosterone-salt-induced hypertension.. Hypertension 2000; 35(-part 2-):457-463. >>> FPT III; BMS-191563; PD-98059; IP; Rat; 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; replacement therapy (uninephrectomy); cardiovascular; antihypertensive; enzyme inhibitor; FPT III and BMS-191563 are Ras farnesyl transferase enzyme inhibitors; PD-98059 is an MEK enzyme inhibitor; MEK is MAP (mean arterial pressure) kinase inhibitor.

4869 Muthalif, M.M, Karzoun, N.A, Gaber, L, Khandekar, Z, Benter, I.F., Saeed, A.E, Parmentier, J.-H, Estes, A, Malik, K.U. Contribution of Ras GTPase/Mitogen-activated protein kinase and cytochrome P450 metabolites.. Hypertension 2000; 36(--):604-609. >>> Angiotensin II; FPT III; BMS-191563;; Acetic acid; IP;; rat;; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; dose-response (graph p. 605); antihypertensive; enzyme inhibitor; FPT III and BMS - 191563 are Ras farnesyl transferase inhibitors infused along with Angiotensin II; Acetic acid vehicle was 0.001 N..

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60. Fadrozole

16276 Yahr, P. Two aromatase inhibitors inhibit the ability of a third to promote mating in male rats. Horm Behav 2015; 75(--):41-4. >>> Fadrozole; saline; SC; rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle, sham operation; animal info (Long–Evans male, Sprague-Dawley-derived female rats); pumps replaced every 2 weeks; “They performed properly, exposing males to 0.25 mg/kg/day fadrozole” pg 42; enzyme inhibitor (aromatase); enzyme inhibitor (aromatase);.

16035 Laredo, S. A., Villalon Landeros, R., Dooley, J. C., Steinman, M. Q., Orr, V., Silva, A. L., Crean, K. K., Robles, C. F., Trainor, B. C. Nongenomic effects of estradiol on aggression under short day photoperiods. Horm Behav 2013; 64(-3-):557-65. >>> Fadrozole; saline; SC; mice; animal info: male, california mice; Fadrozole (aromatase inhibitor); paper examines the effects of estrogens on male aggressive behavior can be modulated by environmental cues; dose: 0.25 mg/kg.

14864 Carrier, N., Saland, S.K., Duclot, F., He, H., Mercer, R., Kabbaj, M., Kabbaj, M. The Anxiolytic and Antidepressant-like Effects of Testosterone and Estrogen in Gonadectomized Male Rats. BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY 2015; 78(--):259-269. >>> Fadrozole; Saline, sterile; CSF/CNS (dentate gyrus); Rat; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 250-270g, adult, orchidectomized); bilateral cannula used; behavioral testing (sucrose preference test, open field test); tissue perfusion (dentate gyrus); Cannula placement verified via a posteriori by sectioning on cryostat; bilateral infusion; coordinates; pumps primed for 48 hours in 37C sterile saline; used Plastics One cannula;.

12310 Hall, Z.J., Dougall-Shackleton, S.A. Influence of Testosterone Metabolites on Song-Control System Neuroplasticity during Photostimulation in Adult European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). PLoS One 2012; 7(-7-):U434-U446. >>> Fadrozole; IP; Bird (starling); 1004; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (European starling, male, female, adult, gonadectomy); enzyme inhibitor (aromatase).

12147 Heimovics, S.A., Prior, N.H., Maddison, C.J., Soma, K.K. Rapid and Widespread Effects of 17-beta-Estradiol on Intracellular Signaling in the Male Songbird Brain: A Seasonal Comparison. Endocrinology 2012; 153(-3-):1364-1376. >>> Fadrozole; Saline, avian; SC; Bird (song sparrow); 1002; animal info (Song Sparrow, male); enzyme inhibitor (aromatase).

10296 Trainor, B.C., Lin, S., Finy, M.S., Rowland, M.R., Nelson, R.J. Photoperiod reverses the effects of estrogens on male aggression via genomic and nongenomic pathways. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 2007; 104(-23-):9840-9845. >>> Fadrozole; PBS, dubelco's; saline; DMSO; Mice; 1007D; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, P. Polionotus); 50% DMSO used.

10101 Lyou, S., Kawano, S., Yamada, T., Okuyama, S., Terashima, T., Hayase, K., Yokogoshi, H. Role of estrogen receptors and aromatase on brain protein synthesis rates in ovariectomized female rats fed genistein. NUTRITIONAL NEUROSCIENCE 2008; 11(-4-):155-160. >>> ICI 182,780; fadrozole; DMSO; saline; SC; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2001; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, Wistar, 10 wks old, OVX).

9145 Huddleston, G.G., Paisley, J.C., Clancy, A.N. Effects of estrogen in the male rat medial amygdala: Infusion of an aromatase inhibitor lowers mating and bovine serum albumin-conjugated estradiol implants do not promote mating. Neuroendocrinology 2006; 83(-2-):106-116. >>> Fadrozole; Saline; CSF/CNS (medial amygdala); Rat; 2002; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by residual volume; pumps replaced after 13 days; enzyme inhibitor (aromatase); animal info (male, Sprague Dawley,>70 days old); behavioral testing (sexual/mating behavior); cannula placement confirmed; endocrinology.

9043 Minnaard-Huiban, M., Emmen, J.M.A., Roumen, L., Beugels, I.P.E., Cohuet, G.M.S., van Essen, H., Ruijters, E., Pieterse, K., Hilbers, P.A.J., Ottenheijm, H.C.J., Plate, R., de Gooyer, M.E., Smits, J.F.M., Hermans, J.J.R. Fadrozole reverses cardiac fibrosis in spontaneously hypertensive heart failure rats: Discordant enantioselectivity Versus reduction of plasma aldosterone. Endocrinology 2008; 149(-1-):28-31. >>> Fadrozole, R-; fadrozole, S-; Sodium phosphate buffer; PEG 400; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; dose-response (Fig. 1); long-term study; pumps replaced after 4 weeks; no stress (see pg. 29); cardiovascular; animal info (male, lean SHHF, 40 wks old, 450g.); aldosterone biosynthesis inhibitor.

7741 Veiga, S., Azcoitia, I., Garcia-Segura, L.M. Extragonadal synthesis of estradiol is protective against kainic acid excitotoxic damage to the hippocampus. NeuroReport 2005; 16(-14-):1599-1603. >>> Fadrozole; Saline; SC; Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; replacement therapy (gonadectomy); enzyme inhibitor (aromatase); neurodegenerative; animal info (male and female, Wistar albino, 4 weeks old); agent also known as CGS16949A.

6951 Hoyk, Z., Parducz, A., Garcia-Segura, L.M. Dehydroepiandrosterone regulates astroglia reaction to denervation of olfactory glomeruli. Glia 2004; 48(-3-):207-216. >>> Fadrozole; Sodium chloride; SC; Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (aromatase).

6889 Tamada, H., Mizuta, Y., Kawate, N., Inaba, T., Sawada, T. Delayed implantation induced by fadrozole hydrochloride in rats. Contraception 2003; 68(-1-):65-68. >>> Fadrozole HCL; Saline; SC; Rat (pregnant); 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (aromatase); teratology.

6887 Huddleston, G.G., Michael, R.P., Zumpe, D., Clancy, A.N. Estradiol in the male rat amygdala facilitates mounting but not ejaculation. PHYSIOLOGY&BEHAVIOR 2003; 79(-2-):239-246. >>> Fadrozole; Saline; SC; Rat; 2004; Functionality of mp verified by residual volume; long-term study; pumps replaced after 26 days; enzyme inhibitor (aromatase); post op. care (penicillin, banamine); fadrozole is also termed CGS-15949A.

6593 Soma, K.K., Tramontin, A.D., Featherstone, J., Brenowitz, E.A. Estrogen contributes to seasonal plasticity of the adult avian song control system. Journal of Neurobiology 2004; 58(-3-):413-422. >>> Fadrozole; Saline; SC; Bird (song sparrow); 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (aromatase); the pumps had a changed infusion rate of 0.31 ul/hr with the 41 degree Celsius temperature; ALZET pump was implanted using topical analgesics (4% lidocaine); skin sealed with adhesive and sutures.

6565 Tamada, H., Shimizu, Y., Inaba, T., Kawate, N., Sawada, T. The effects of the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole hydrochloride on fetuses and uteri in late pregnant rats. Journal of Endocrinology 2004; 180(-2-):337-345. >>> Fadrozole, hydrochloride; Saline; SC; Rat (pregnant); 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; FAD plasma levels taken; teratology.

6063 McCullough, L.D., Blizzard, K., Simpson, E.R., Oez, O.K., Hurn, P.D. Aromatase cytochrome P450 and extragonadal estrogen play a role in ischemic neuroprotection. Journal of Neuroscience 2003; 23(-25-):8701-8705. >>> Fadrozole; Saline; SC; Mice (transgenic); 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; fadrozole is a selective aromatose inhibitor; ischemia (cerebral).

5000 Fusani, L., Gahr, M., Hutchison, J.B. Aromatase inhibition reduces specifically one display of the ring dove courtship behavior. General and Comparative Endocrinology 2001; 122(--):23-30. >>> Fadrozole; Saline; SC; bird (pigeon); 1007D; controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by plasma androgen and estrogen levels, residual volume; enzyme inhibitor; fadrozole is a non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor; plasma androstenedione, 5a-dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, estrone, 17B -estradiol level:. Aromatase operates on these compounds, indicates aromatase activity..

4766 Cooper, T.T, Clancy, A.N., Karom, M, Moore, T.O, Albers, H.E. Conversion of testosterone to estradiol may not be necessary for the expression of mating behavior in male Syrian hamsters.. Hormones and Behavior 2000; 37(--):237-245. >>> Fadrozole; Saline; SC; Hamster; 2004; 2002; Controls received empty mp; functionality of mp verified by weighing residual fluid; long-term study, pumps replaced every 2 or 4 weeks; enzyme inhibitor (nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor).

3918 Vagell, V.E., McGinnis, M.Y. The role of aromatization in the restoration of male rat reproductive behavior. J. Neuroendocrinology 1997; 9(--):415-421. >>> Fadrozole HCl; Propylene glycol; ETOH; CSF/CNS; rat; 2002; controls received propylene glycol.

3492 Shetty, G., Bhatnagar, A.S., Moudgal, N.R. Blockade of estrogen synthesis with an aromatase inhibitor affects luteal function of the pseudopregnant rat. J. Steroid Biochem. Molec. Biol 1995; 55(-3/4-):347-353. >>> Fadrozole HCl; Estradiol-3-benzoate; SC; rat; 2002; no comment posted.

3189 Zumpe, D., Michael, R.P. Combined effects of Depo-Provera and fadrozole on the sexual behavior of intact male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Physiol. Behav 1994; 56(-4-):665-669. >>> Fadrozole; SC; monkey; 2ML4; controls received mp with water; pumps replaced with opposite treatment (control or fadrozole) pump after 4 weeks; mp implanted in flank; long-term study.

3080 Selvaraj, N., Bhatnagar, A.S., Moudgal, N.R. Is there a role for estrogen in follicular maturation in the primate?. Endocrine 1995; 3(--):245-249. >>> Fadrozole HCl; Saline; monkey; 2002; controls received mp with saline.

3079 Selvaraj, N., Shetty, G., Vijayalakshmi, K., Bhatnagar, A.S., Moudgal, N.R. Effect of blocking oestrogen synthesis with a new generation aromatase inhibitor CGS 16949A on follicular maturation induced by pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin in the immature rat. J. Endocrinol 1994; 142(--):563-570. >>> Fadrozole HCl; Saline; rat; 2002; controls received mp with saline.

2745 Clancy, A.N., Zumpe, D., Michael, R.P. Intracerebral infusion of an aromatase inhibitor, sexual behavior and brain estrogen receptor-like immunoreactivity in intact male rats. Neuroendocrinology 1995; 61(--):98-111. >>> Fadrozole; Saline; SC; CSF/CNS (cerebral cortex); CSF/CNS (lateral preoptic area); CSF/CNS (medial preoptic area); rat; 2002; controls received mp w/ saline or no operation; functionality of mp verified by residual volume; long-term study, pumps replaced every 10-14 days; bilateral delivery via Y-connector; 2 pumps implanted concomitantly--1 for sc delivery, and one for delivery to the brain; bilateral infusion;.

2744 Clancy, A.N., Michael, R.P. Effects of testosterone and aromatase inhibition on estrogen receptor-like immunoreactivity in male rat brain. Neuroendocrinology 1994; 59(--):552-560. >>> Fadrozole; Water; SC; rat; 2002; Fadrazole is a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor; rats received benzathine&procaine penicillin G im, prophylactically.

2200 Zumpe, D., Bonsall, R.W., Michael, R.P. Effects of the nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor, fadrozole, on the sexual behavior of male cynomolgus monkeys (macaca fascicularis). Horm. Behav 1993; 27(--):200-215. >>> Fadrozole; Water; SC; monkey; 2ML4; controls received mp/water; long-term study, pumps replaced every 3 weeks; stability verified by plasma levels; pumps implanted in flank.

2199 Bonsall, R.W., Clancy, A.N., Michael, R.P. Effects of the nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor, fadrozole, on sexual behavior in male rats. Horm. Behav 1992; 26(--):240-254. >>> Fadrozole; Water; SC; rat; 2002; controls received mp w/water; long-term study, pumps replaced every 14 days; stability verified by measuring residual solution in pumps; CGS 16949A is fadrozole.

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61. Fasudil

15762 Pei-cai FU, Rong-hua TANG, Yue WAN, Min-jie XIE, Wei WANG, Xiang LUO, Zhi-yuan YU. ROCK Inhibition with Fasudil Promotes Early Functional Recovery of Spinal Cord Injury in Rats by Enhancing Microglia Phagocytosis. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technol[Med Sci] 2016; 36(-1-):31-36. >>> Fasudil; Saline; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Dprague Dawley, adult, 260-300g); animal info (male, Dprague Dawley, adult, 260-300g); behavioral testing (BBB behaviorial testing); Dose (180 ug/day);.

15141 Wermke, M., Camgoz, A., Paszkowski-Rogacz, M., Thieme, S., von Bonin, M., Dahl, A., Platzbecker, U., Theis, M., Ehninger, G., Brenner, S., Bornhaeuser, M., Buchholz, F., Wermke, M. RNAi profiling of primary human AML cells identifies ROCK1 as a therapeutic target and nominates fasudil as an antileukemic drug. BLOOD 2015; 125(--):3760-3768. >>> Fasudil; SC; Mice (NSG); Animal info (female, NSG, 4-6 weeks old); cancer (acute myeloid leukemia); immunology;.

14822 leaume-Butaux, A., Nicot, S., Pietri, M., Baudry, A., Dakowski, C., Tixador, P., rdila-Osorio, H., Haeberle, A.M., Bailly, Y., Peyrin, J.M., Launay, J.M., Kellermann, O., Schneider, B., leaume-Butaux, A. Double-Edge Sword of Sustained ROCK Activation in Prion Diseases through Neuritogenesis Defects and Prion Accumulation. PLoS Pathogens 2015; 11(--):U248-U272. >>> Y-27632; dimethylfasudil; DMSO; saline; IP; Mice; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (C57BL6J, adult); pumps replaced every 4 weeks; behavioral testing (statiic rod test); enzyme inhibitor (Rho-associated protein kinase; ROCK);.

12799 Haack, K.K.V., Gao, L., Schiller, A.M., Curry, P.L., Pellegrino, P.R., Zucker, I.H. Central Rho Kinase Inhibition Restores Baroreflex Sensitivity and Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Protein Imbalance in Conscious Rabbits With Chronic Heart Failure. Hypertension 2013; 61(-3-):723-U313. >>> Fasudil; Saline, sterile; CSF/CNS; Rabbit; Control animals received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (New England, white, male, 3.0-4.5 kg); enzyme inhibitor (ROCK II, Rho associated protein kinase).

12373 Butruille, L., Mayeur, S., Duparc, T., Knauf, C., Moitrot, E., Fajardy, I., Valet, P., Storme, L., Deruelle, P., Lesage, J. Prenatal fasudil exposure alleviates fetal growth but programs hyperphagia and overweight in the adult male rat. European Journal of Pharmacology 2012; 689(-1-3-):278-284. >>> L-NAME; fasudil; SC; Rat (pregnant); Controls received mp w/ normal saline; animal info (Wistar Han, 200-250 g, E14, female); enzyme inhibitor (nitric oxide synthase, NOS, Rho-kinase, ROCK); one group contained mixture of fasudil and L-NAME; teratology.

12191 de Frutos, S., Diaz, J.M.R., Nitta, C.H., Sherpa, M.L., Bosc, L.V.G. Endothelin-1 contributes to increased NFATc3 activation by chronic hypoxia in pulmonary arteries. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-CELL PHYSIOLOGY 2011; 301(-2-):C441-C450. >>> HA 1152; diltiazem; fasudil; Saline; SC; Mice; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (NFAT-luc, NFATc3-KO, wt, 20-25 g); enzyme inhibitor (RhoA/Rho kinase).

12028 Pineda, A.A.M., Minohara, M., Kawamura, N., Matsushita, T., Yamasaki, R., Sun, X.J., Piao, H., Shimokawa, H., Kira, J.I. Preventive and therapeutic effects of the selective Rho-kinase inhibitor fasudil on experimental autoimmune neuritis. Journal of the Neurological Sciences 2011; 306(-1-2-):115-120. >>> Fasudil; SC; Rat; Controls received mp w/ PBS; animal info (male, Lewis, 7-8 wks old, 250-300 g); enzyme inhibitor (Rho kinase).

11285 Couch, B.A., DeMarco, G.J., Gourley, S.L., Koleske, A.J. Increased Dendrite Branching in A beta PP/PS1 Mice and Elongation of Dendrite Arbors by Fasudil Administration. JOURNAL OF ALZHEIMERS DISEASE 2010; 20(-4-):1003-1008. >>> Fasudil; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS; Mice; 1004; Animal info (naive, 3-mo old, wt, A-betaPP/PS1); ALZET brain infusion kit 3 used; artificial CSF recipe.

11249 Bond, J.E., Kokosis, G., Ren, L.C., Selim, M.A., Bergeron, A., Levinson, H. Wound Contraction Is Attenuated by Fasudil Inhibition of Rho-Associated Kinase. PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY 2011; 128(-5-):438E-450E. >>> Fasudil; Saline; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (8-10 wks old, Wistar Han, 200-225 g).

10881 Fujimura, M., Usuki, F., Kawamura, M., Izumo, S. Inhibition of the Rho/ROCK pathway prevents neuronal degeneration in vitro and in vivo following methylmercury exposure. TOXICOLOGY AND APPLIED PHARMACOLOGY 2011; 250(-1-):1-9. >>> Fasudil; Water, sterile; SC; Rat; 2004; Controls received mp w/ sterile saline; animal info (male, Wistar, 6 wks old, 260-310 g); enzyme inhibitor (Rho kinase, ROCK).

10575 de Frutos, S., Caldwell, E., Nitta, C.H., Kanagy, N.L., Wang, J.A., Wang, W., Walker, M.K., Bosc, L.V.G. NFATc3 contributes to intermittent hypoxia-induced arterial remodeling in mice. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology 2010; 299(-2-):U133-U140. >>> Fasudil; SC; Mice; Animal info (adult, male, 9x-NFAT-luciferase reporter, NFATc3 knockout, BalB/C wild-type, 25-30 g); enzyme inhibitor (Rho kinase).

10536 Furuya, T., Hashimoto, M., Koda, M., Okawa, A., Murata, A., Takahashi, K., Yamashita, T., Yamazaki, M. Treatment of rat spinal cord injury with a Rho-kinase inhibitor and bone marrow stromal cell transplantation. Brain Research 2009; 1295(-;-):192-202. >>> Fasudil; Saline; CSF/CNS (intrathecal, subarachnoid space); Rat; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, Sprague-Dawley, 8-10 wks old, 174-236 g); post op. care (Bacitramin); spinal cord injury.

8923 Ito, T., Ohtori, S., Hata, K., Inoue, G., Moriya, H., Takahashi, K., Yamashita, T. Rho kinase inhibitor improves motor dysfunction and hypoalgesia in a rat model of lumbar spinal canal stenosis. Spine 2007; 32(-19-):2070-2075. >>> Fasudil hydrochloride hydrate; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 2002; Enzyme inhibitor (Rho-kinase); animal info (6 week, male, Sprague-Dawley, 200-250g); pain; silastic tubing used; neuroprotection.

8512 Ying, H., Biroc, S.L., Li, W.W., Alicke, B., Xuan, J.A., Pagila, R., Ohashi, Y., Okada, T., Kamata, Y., Dinter, H. The Rho kinase inhibitor fasudil inhibits tumor progression in human and rat tumor models. MOLECULAR CANCER THERAPEUTICS 2006; 5(-9-):2158-2164. >>> Fasudil; Saline; SC; Mice (nude); Controls received mp w/ vehicle; cancer (lung); enzyme inhibitor (rho kinase).

7206 Wesselman, J.P.M., Kuijs, R., Hermans, J.J.R., Janssen, G.M.J., Fazzi, G.E., van Essen, H., Evelo, C.T.A., Struijker-Boudier, H.A.J., De Mey, J.G.R. Role of the Rhoa/Rho kinase system in flow-related remodeling of rat mesenteric small arteries in vivo. JOURNAL OF VASCULAR RESEARCH 2004; 41(-3-):277-290. >>> Fasudil; SC; Rat; 2004; Controls received mp w/ physiological saline; functionality of mp verified by fasudil and hydroxyfasudil plasma levels; enzyme inhibitor (rho kinase); cardiovascular.

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62. Finasteride

3247 Tutrone Jr, R.F., Ball, R.A., Ornitz, D.M., Leder, P., Richie, J.P. Benign prostatic hyperplasia in a transgenic mouse: a hormonally responsive investigatory model. Urol. Repro. Biol 1993; 149(-3-):697-700. >>> Testosterone; Finasteride; SC; mice; controls received sham castration; replacement therapy (castration); enzyme inhibitor; finasteride is Proscar, a 5-alpha reductase inhibitor.

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63. Fluoromethylhistidine, A-

P5589 Langlais,P.J., McRee,R.C., Nalwalk,J.A., Hough,L.B. Depletion of brain histamine produces regionally selective protection against thiamine deficiency-induced lesions in the rat. METABOLIC BRAIN DISEASE 2002; 17(-3-):199-210. >>> Fluoromethylhistidine, a-; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS; rat; 2001; 7 days; controls received mp with vehicle; ALZET brain infusion kit used; "... this is the first report of the effectiveness of chronic ICV administration of FMH in depleting histamine and histidine decarboxylase activity within the thalamus." (p.206).

P5304 Fujiwara,K., Karasuyama,M., Murata,I., Tanabe,T., Yabuuchi,M., Inoue,Y., Tsuru,D. Immunoelectron-microscopic demonstration of histamine depletion in the gastric enterochromaffin-like cells of rats treated with alpha- fluoromethylhistidine. Cell Tissue Res 2001/11; 306(-2-):295-300. >>> Fluoromethylhistidine, a-; Saline; SC; Rat; 2ML1; 12 or 24 hours; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; immunology.

P3696 Andersson,K., Zhao,C.-M., Chen,D., Sundler,F., Hakanson,R. Effect of a-fluoromethylhistidine-evoked histamine depletion on ultrastructure of endocrine cells in acid-producing mucosa of stomach in mouse, rat and hamster. Cell Tissue Res. 1996; 286(--):375-384. >>> Fluoromethylhistidine, a-; SC; rat; mice; hamster; 2ML1; 1003D; 24 hours; controls received mp w/ saline; agent is histidine decarboxylase inhibitor; smaller pumps used in mice and hamsters.

P3304 Hosoda,S., Hosoda,R., Konishi,T. Effect of (S)-a-fluoromethylhistidine and SMS 201-995 on growth of histamine-producing gastric carcinoid of Mastomys natalensis. Agents Actions 1993; 38(-SConf-):C158-C160. >>> Fluoromethylhistidine, 5-a-; Octreotide; SC; mastomys (African rodent); no duration posted; comparison of IP injections vs. mp.

P2403 Orthen-Gambill,N., Salomon,M. FMH-induced decrease in central histamine levels produces increased feeding and body weight in rats. Physiol.Behav. 1992; 51(--):891-893. >>> Fluoromethylhistidine, a-; Saline; SC; rat; 2ML2; 13 days; controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor; a-fluoromethylhistidine inhibits histamine synthesis.

P2168 Andersson,K., Chen,D., Hakanson,R., Mattsson,H., Sundler,F. Enterochromaffin-like cells in the rat stomach: effect of a-fluoromethylhistidine-evoked histamine depletion. Cell Tissue Res. 1992; 270(--):7-13. >>> Fluoromethylhistidine, a; Saline; SC; rat; 2ML1; 24 hours; enzyme inhibitor (histidine decarboxylase); pumps primed in saline at 37C for 4 hours.

P2067 Andersson,K., Hakanson,R., Mattsson,H., Ryberg,B., Sundler,F. Hyperplasia of histamine-depleted enterochromaffinlike cells in rat stomach using omeprazole and a-fluoromethylhistidine. Gastroenterology 1992; 103(--):897-904. >>> Fluoromethylhistidine, a-; Saline; SC; rat; 2ML1; 6 weeks; controls received mp w/ vehicle; pumps replaced every 6 days.

P0906 Bouclier,M., Jung,M.J., Gerhart,F. Effect of prolonged inhibition of histidine decarboxylase on tissue histamine concentrations. Experientia 1983; 39(-11-):1303-1305. >>> Fluoromethylhistidine, a-; Water; IP; rat; 2001; 21 days; controls were sham operated; pumps replaced every 7 days; comparison of ip injection vs. ip mp infusion.

P0789 Krishna,A., Terranova,P.F., Matteri,R.L., Papkoff,H. Histamine and increased ovarian blood flow mediate LH-induced superovulation in the cyclic hamster. J.Reprod.Fertil. 1986; 76(-1-):23-29. >>> Fluoromethylhistidine, a-; Luteinizing hormone; Albumin, bovine serum; PBS; SC; hamster; 2001; 5 days; Multiple pumps per animal (2) in some groups-one pump per agent; comparison of fluromethylhistidine or cimetidine injections vs. mp infusion; peptides; ovine LH used.

P0648 Lagunoff,D., Ray,A., Rickard,A. Effect on mast cell histamine of inhibiting histamine formation in vivo with a-fluoromethylhistidine. Biochem.Pharmacol. 1985; 34(-8-):1205-1209. >>> Fluoromethylhistidine, a-; Balanced salt solution; SC; rat; 2001; 2ML2; 6 or 14 days; comparison of single iv injec vs. mp infusion.

P0333 Bouclier,M., Jung,M.J., Gerhart,F. Histamine receptor blockade (H2) versus inhibition of histamine synthesis in stress ulceration in rats. Eur.J.Pharmacol. 1983; 90(--):129-132. >>> Fluoromethylhistidine, a-; IP; rat; 2001; 2 weeks; no comment posted.

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64. Fluoromethylhistidine, A-

5737 Langlais, P.J., McRee, R.C., Nalwalk, J.A., Hough, L.B. Depletion of brain histamine produces regionally selective protection against thiamine deficiency-induced lesions in the rat. METABOLIC BRAIN DISEASE 2002; 17(-3-):199-210. >>> Fluoromethylhistidine, a-; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS; rat; 2001; controls received mp with vehicle; ALZET brain infusion kit used;"... this is the first report of the effectiveness of chronic ICV administration of FMH in depleting histamine and histidine decarboxylase activity within the thalamus."(p.206).

5438 Fujiwara, K., Karasuyama, M., Murata, I., Tanabe, T., Yabuuchi, M., Inoue, Y., Tsuru, D. Immunoelectron-microscopic demonstration of histamine depletion in the gastric enterochromaffin-like cells of rats treated with alpha- fluoromethylhistidine. Cell Tissue Res 2001; 306(-2-):295-300. >>> Fluoromethylhistidine, a-; Saline; SC; Rat; 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; immunology.

3795 Andersson, K., Zhao, C.-M., Chen, D., Sundler, F., Hakanson, R. Effect of a-fluoromethylhistidine-evoked histamine depletion on ultrastructure of endocrine cells in acid-producing mucosa of stomach in mouse, rat and hamster. Cell Tissue Res 1996; 286(--):375-384. >>> Fluoromethylhistidine, a-; SC; rat; mice; hamster; 2ML1; 1003D; controls received mp w/ saline; agent is histidine decarboxylase inhibitor; smaller pumps used in mice and hamsters.

3412 Hosoda, S., Hosoda, R., Konishi, T. Effect of (S)-a-fluoromethylhistidine and SMS 201-995 on growth of histamine-producing gastric carcinoid of Mastomys natalensis. Agents Actions 1993; 38(-SConf-):C158-C160. >>> Fluoromethylhistidine, 5-a-; Octreotide; SC; mastomys (African rodent); comparison of IP injections vs. mp.

2464 Orthen-Gambill, N., Salomon, M. FMH-induced decrease in central histamine levels produces increased feeding and body weight in rats. Physiol. Behav 1992; 51(--):891-893. >>> Fluoromethylhistidine, a-; Saline; SC; rat; 2ML2; controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor; a-fluoromethylhistidine inhibits histamine synthesis.

2162 Andersson, K., Chen, D., Hakanson, R., Mattsson, H., Sundler, F. Enterochromaffin-like cells in the rat stomach: effect of a-fluoromethylhistidine-evoked histamine depletion. Cell Tissue Res 1992; 270(--):7-13. >>> Fluoromethylhistidine, a; Saline; SC; rat; 2ML1; enzyme inhibitor (histidine decarboxylase); pumps primed in saline at 37C for 4 hours.

2063 Andersson, K., Hakanson, R., Mattsson, H., Ryberg, B., Sundler, F. Hyperplasia of histamine-depleted enterochromaffinlike cells in rat stomach using omeprazole and a-fluoromethylhistidine. Gastroenterology 1992; 103(--):897-904. >>> Fluoromethylhistidine, a-; Saline; SC; rat; 2ML1; controls received mp w/ vehicle; pumps replaced every 6 days.

906 Bouclier, M., Jung, M.J., Gerhart, F. Effect of prolonged inhibition of histidine decarboxylase on tissue histamine concentrations. Experientia 1983; 39(-11-):1303-1305. >>> Fluoromethylhistidine, a-; Water; IP; rat; 2001; controls were sham operated; pumps replaced every 7 days; comparison of ip injection vs. ip mp infusion.

789 Krishna, A., Terranova, P.F., Matteri, R.L., Papkoff, H. Histamine and increased ovarian blood flow mediate LH-induced superovulation in the cyclic hamster. J. Reprod. Fertil 1986; 76(-1-):23-29. >>> Fluoromethylhistidine, a-; Luteinizing hormone; Albumin, bovine serum; PBS; SC; hamster; 2001; Multiple pumps per animal (2) in some groups-one pump per agent; comparison of fluromethylhistidine or cimetidine injections vs. mp infusion; peptides; ovine LH used.

648 Lagunoff, D., Ray, A., Rickard, A. Effect on mast cell histamine of inhibiting histamine formation in vivo with a-fluoromethylhistidine. Biochem. Pharmacol 1985; 34(-8-):1205-1209. >>> Fluoromethylhistidine, a-; Balanced salt solution; SC; rat; 2001; 2ML2; comparison of single iv injec vs. mp infusion.

333 Bouclier, M., Jung, M.J., Gerhart, F. Histamine receptor blockade (H2) versus inhibition of histamine synthesis in stress ulceration in rats. Eur. J. Pharmacol 1983; 90(--):129-132. >>> Fluoromethylhistidine, a-; IP; rat; 2001; no comment posted.

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65. Fluvastatin

3565 Soma, M.R., Parolini, C., Donetti, E., Fumagalli, R., Paoletti, R. Inhibition of isoprenoid biosynthesis and arterial smooth-muscle cell proliferation. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol 1995; 25(-S 4-):S20-S24. >>> Mevalonate; Fluvastatin; IP; perivascular (arterial collar); rabbit; controls received mp w/ saline; tissue perfusion (carotid artery collar); cardiovascular; enzyme inhibitor (HMG-CoA reductase).

3551 Corsini, A., Bernini, F., Quarato, P., Donetti, E., Bellosta, S., Fumagalli, R., Paoletti, R., Soma, V.M.R. Non-lipid-related effects of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors. Cardiology 1996; 87(--):458-468. >>> Mevalonate; Fluvastatin; Saline, physiological; IP; perivascular (arterial collar); tissue perfusion (lesion site-carotid collar); enzyme inhibitor (HMG-CoA reductase).

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66. GC7

10420 Maier, B., Ogihara, T., Trace, A.P., Tersey, S.A., Robbins, R.D., Chakrabarti, S.K., Nunemaker, C.S., Stull, N.D., Taylor, C.A., Thompson, J.E., Dondero, R.S., Lewis, E.C., Dinarello, C.A., Nadler, J.L., Mirmira, R.G. The unique hypusine modification of eIF5A promotes islet beta cell inflammation and dysfunction in mice. Journal of Clinical Investigation 2010; 120(-6-):2156-2170. >>> GC7; Saline; SC; Mice (NSG); Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (deoxyhypusine synthase); animal info (male, C57BL/6J, NOD/SCID/Il2rg-null, 10 weeks old); comparison of IP injections vs. mp; endocrinology; agent also known as N1-guanyl-1,7-diaminoheptane.

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67. GS4898

10431 Ren, B., Deng, Y., Mukhopadhyay, A., Lanahan, A.A., Zhuang, Z.W., Moodie, K.L., Mulligan-Kehoe, M.J., Byzova, T.V., Peterson, R.T., Simons, M. ERK1/2-Akt1 crosstalk regulates arteriogenesis in mice and zebrafish. Journal of Clinical Investigation 2010; 120(-4-):1217-1228. >>> GS4898; Saline; DMSO; IP; Mice; 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; cardiovascular; enzyme inhibitor (PI3 kinase); animal info (wt, Synectin -/-, 8-10 weeks old; Ldlr-/- ApoB48-modified, 24 weeks old); ischemia (hindlimb).

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68. H7

11506 Miyamoto, N., Tanaka, R., Shimura, H., Watanabe, T., Mori, H., Onodera, M., Mochizuki, H., Hattori, N., Urabe, T. Phosphodiesterase III inhibition promotes differentiation and survival of oligodendrocyte progenitors and enhances regeneration of ischemic white matter lesions in the adult mammalian brain. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 2010; 30(-2-):299-310. >>> H7; Saline; CSF/CNS; Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (adult, male, 250-275 g, 9 wks old).

9947 Miyamoto, N., Tanaka, R., Zhang, N., Shimura, H., Onodera, M., Mochizuki, H., Hattori, N., Urabe, T. CRUCIAL ROLE FOR Ser133-PHOSPHORYLATED FORM OF CYCLIC AMP-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT BINDING PROTEIN SIGNALING IN THE DIFFERENTIATION AND SURVIVAL OF NEURAL PROGENITORS UNDER CHRONIC CEREBRAL HYPOPERFUSION. Neuroscience 2009; 162(-2-):525-536. >>> H7; Saline; CSF/CNS; Rat; 1002; Controls received mp w/vehicle; animal info (adult, male, wistar, 9 wks, 250-270); H7 is a novel PKA/PKC inhibitor; ALZET brain infusion kit used.

5373 Tokuyama, S., Ho, I.K., Yamamoto, T. A protein kinase inhibitor, H-7, blocks naloxone-precipitated changes in dopamine and its metabolites in the brains of opioid-dependent rats. Brain Res Bull 2000; 52(-5-):363-369. >>> Morphine; Butorphanol; H7; Saline; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor; dependence; H7 is a protein kinase C inhibitor; tygon tubing used; one week recovery period; guide cannula with stylet used to ensure patency; concomitant infusion of H7 and opioids performed by mixing agents in the same pump.

15686 Tokuyama, S., Zhu, H., Wakabayashi, H., Feng, Y.Z., Ho, I.K. The role of glutamate in the locus coeruleus during opioid withdrawal and effects of H-7, a protein kinase inhibitor, on the action of glutamate in rats. J. Biomed. Sci 1998; 5(--):45-53. >>> Morphine; butorphanol; H7; Saline; CSF/CNS; rat; 2001; controls received mp w/vehicle; cannula placement verified by presence of CSF; stylets were placed in guide cannula to maintain patency; one week recovery period; agents infused singly or concomitantly; dependence.

4275 Tokuyama, S., Zhu, H., Wakabayashi, H., Feng, Y.Z., Ho, I.K. The role of glutamate in the locus coeruleus during opioid withdrawal and effects of H-7, a protein kinase inhibitor, on the action of glutamate in rats. J. Biomed. Sci 1998; 5(--):45-53. >>> Morphine; butorphanol; H7; Saline; CSF/CNS; rat; 2001; controls received mp w/vehicle; cannula placement verified by presence of CSF; stylets were placed in guide cannula to maintain patency; one week recovery period; agents infused singly or concomitantly; dependence.

3440 Tokuyama, S., Feng, Y., Wakabayashi, H., Ho, I.K. Possible involvement of protein kinases in physical dependence on opioids: studies using protein kinase inhibitors, H-7 and H-8. Eur. J. Pharmacol 1995; 284(--):101-107. >>> Morphine HCl; Butorphanol tartrate; H7; H8; CSF/CNS; rat; 2001; controls received mp w/saline; dependence; stylet maintained cannula patency during 1 week recovery period; opioid&H7 or H8 given concomitantly.

3089 Felipo, V., Minana, M.-D., Cabedo, H., Perez-Minguez, F., Llombart-Bosch, A., Grisolia, S. H7, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, inhibits tumour cell division in mice bearing ascitic Ehrlich's carcinoma. Eur. J. Cancer 1994; 30A(-4-):525-527. >>> H7; DMSO; Water; SC; mice; 2002; comparison of ip injections vs. mp; stability verified earlier up to 24 hours in vivo at 37 degrees C; enzyme inhibitor; half-life of H7 in sciatic nerve of diabetic mice is about 1 hour; cancer.

2863 Narita, M., Feng, Y., Makimura, M., Hoskins, B., Ho, I.K. A protein kinase inhibitor, h-7, inhibits the development of tolerance to opioid antinociception. Eur. J. Pharmacol 1994; 271(--):543-545. >>> Morphine; Butorphanol; H7; Saline; CSF/CNS; rat; 2001; controls received mp w/saline; tolerance; enzyme inhibitor; H7 administered alone or concomitantly w/morphine and butorphanol in the same pump; one week recovery allowed after icv surgery.

2544 Hermenegildo, C., Felipo, V., Minana, M.-D., Romero, F.J., Grisolia, S. Sustained recovery of Na+-K+-ATPase activity in sciatic nerve of diabetic mice by administration of H7 or calphostin C, inhibitors of PKC. Diabetes 1993; 42(--):257-262. >>> H7; Calphostin C; DMSO; Water; SC; mice; controls were nondiabetic mice and untreated diabetic mice; comparison of bolus ip injections vs. mp; no stress (see pg. 259,260); enzyme inhibitor; calphostin C and H7 are PKC inhibitors;"treatment [w/ mp] did not produce any untoward effect nor affect the blood glucose levels."(pg. 260); H7 is unstable after 4 hours; Calphostin C is stable for 2 weeks.

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69. H89

14805 Rioult-Pedotti, M.S., Pekanovic, A., Atiemo, C.O., Marshall, J., Luft, A.R., Rioult-Pedotti, M.S. Dopamine Promotes Motor Cortex Plasticity and Motor Skill Learning via PLC Activation. PLoS One 2015; 10(--):U529-U542. >>> H89; U73122; U73343; Saline; DMSO; CSF/CNS (motor cortex); Rat; 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Long-Evans 8-10 weeks old, 250-350g); post op. care (buprenorphin 0.01 mg/kg IP); behavioral testing (motor skill); Cannula placement verified via Nissl staining;"double-loaded"vehicle and agent solution for vehicle only during recovery; enzyme inhibitor (protein kinase A); enzyme inhibitor (phospholipase A);.

10876 Miyamoto, N., Tanaka, R., Shimosawa, T., Yatomi, Y., Fujita, T., Hattori, N., Urabe, T. Protein kinase A-dependent suppression of reactive oxygen species in transient focal ischemia in adrenomedullin-deficient mice. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 2009; 29(-11-):1769-1779. >>> H89; CSF/CNS; Mice; 1002; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (8 wks old, male, AM+/-, C57BL/6 Wt); enzyme inhibitor (PKA, protein kinase A); middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO).

9516 Nasr, R., Guillemin, M.C., Ferhi, O., Soilihi, H., Peres, L., Berthier, C., Rousselot, P., Robledo-Sarmiento, M., Lallemand-Breitenbach, V., Gourmel, B., Vitoux, D., Pandolfi, P.P., Rochette-Egly, C., Zhu, J., The, H. Eradication of acute promyelocytic leukemia-initiating cells through PML-RARA degradation. Nature Medicine 2008; 14(-12-):1333-1342. >>> Bortezomib; cyclic AMP; H89; SC; Mice (nude); mice (transgenic); Controls received no treatment; enzyme inhibitor (PKA); cancer (acute promyelocytic leukemia); animal info (nude, PLZF-RARA-RARA-PLZF; PML-RARA5873A Tg); Bortezomib is a proteasom inhibitor; chemotherapeutic;.

5400 Qiu, J., Cai, D., Dai, H., McAtee, M., Hoffman, P.N., Bregman, B.S., Filbin, M.T. Spinal axon regeneration induced by elevation of cyclic AMP. Neuron 2002; 34(-6-):895-903. >>> H89; Saline; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; 1 week stability verified (results not shown); enzyme inhibitor; H89 is a protein kinase A inhibitor.

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70. HA-1004

14657 Almela, P., Garcia-Carmona, J.A., Martinez-Laorden, E., Milanes, M.V., Laorden, M.L., Laorden, M.L. Crosstalk between G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and tyrosine kinase receptor (TXR) in the heart after morphine withdrawal. FRONTIERS IN PHARMACOLOGY 2013; 4(--):U1547-U1559HA-1004; calphostin c. >>> HA-1004; calphostin c; Water, sterile; DMSO; SC; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 220-240g); 0.06% DMSO used; dependence; cardiovascular; pumps primed for 5 hours in 37C saline;.

10709 Almela, P., Atucha, N.M., Milanes, M.V., Laorden, M.L. Cross-Talk between Protein Kinase A and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases Signalling in the Adaptive Changes Observed during Morphine Withdrawal in the Heart. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 2009; 330(-3-):771-782. >>> HA-1004; calphostin C; Water; DMSO; SC; Rat; 2001; Animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 220-240 g); dependence; enzyme inhibitor (PKA, PKC); 0.6% DMSO used.

9574 Almela, P., Milanes, M.V., Laorden, M.L. Tyrosine hydroxylase phosphorylation after naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal in the left ventricle. Basic Research In Cardiology 2009; 104(-4-):366-376. >>> HA-1004; Water, sterile; SC; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (protein kinase); dependence; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 220-240 g.); HA-1004 is a protein kinase selective inhibitor; pumps primed for 5 hours.

9320 Almela, P., Milanes, M.V., Laorden, M.L. The PKs PKA and ERK 1/2 are involved in phosphorylation of TH at Serine 40 and 31 during morphine withdrawal in rat hearts. British Journal of Pharmacology 2008; 155(-1-):73-83. >>> HA-1004; calphostin C; DMSO; water; SC; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 220-240 g.); enzyme inhibitor (protein kinase C, protein kinase A); pumps were primed for 5 hours prior to implantation.

8473 Almela, P., Cerezo, M., Gonzalez-Cuello, A., Milanes, M.V., Laorden, M.L. Differential involvement of 3', 5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase in regulation of Fos and tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the heart after naloxone induced morphine withdrawal. NAUNYN-SCHMIEDEBERGS ARCHIVES OF PHARMACOLOGY 2007; 374(-4-):293-303. >>> HA-1004; Water, sterile; SC; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (protein kinase A); cardiovascular; tolerance; dependence; animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 220-240g).

7084 Benavides, M., Laorden, M.L., Milanes, M.V. Involvement of 3',5';-cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase in regulation of Fos expression and tyrosine hydroxylase levels during morphine withdrawal in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and medulla oblongata catecholaminergic cell groups. Journal of Neurochemistry 2005; 92(-2-):246-254. >>> HA-1004; Water, sterile; SC; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; no stress (see pg. 249); enzyme inhibitor (cAMP-dependent protein kinase A); dependence.

5588 Cerezo, M., Laorden, A.L., Milanes, A.V. Inhibition of protein kinase C but not protein kinase A attenuates morphine withdrawal excitation of rat hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. European Journal of Pharmacology 2002; 452(-1-):57-66. >>> HA-1004; calphostin C; Water, sterile; DMSO; SC; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (protein kinase A, protein kinase C).

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71. HOE 140

16102 Cardenas, A., Campos, J., Ehrenfeld, P., Mezzano, S., Ruiz-Ortega, M., Figueroa, C. D., Ardiles, L. Up-regulation of the kinin B2 receptor pathway modulates the TGF-beta/Smad signaling cascade to reduce renal fibrosis induced by albumin. Peptides 2015; 73(--):7-19. >>> HOE-140; BSA; SC; rat; animal info: Sprague-Dawley normotensive female healthy rats (aged6–12 weeks, weighing 180 g; functionality of mp verified by 24 h of urine collection at end of experiment; HOE-140 – kinin B2 receptor antagonist; Doesn’t mention ALZET much; Dose: 500 ug/Kg/day.

12428 Wei, C.C., Chen, Y.W., Powell, L.C., Zheng, J.Y., Shi, K., Bradley, W.E., Powell, P.C., Ahmad, S., Ferrario, C.M., Dell'Italia, L.J. Cardiac Kallikrein-Kinin System Is Upregulated in Chronic Volume Overload and Mediates an Inflammatory Induced Collagen Loss. PLoS One 2012; 7(-6-):U2111-U2124. >>> HOE-140; SC; Rat; 2001; Animal info (Sprague Dawley, male, 200-250 g, 10 wks old).

10623 Azurmendi, P.J., Oddo, E.M., Obika, L.F., Corbera, N.L., Martin, R.S., Ibarra, F.R., Arrizurieta, E.E. Gonadectomy Influences Blood Pressure through the Kallikrein-Kinin System. KIDNEY&BLOOD PRESSURE RESEARCH 2009; 32(-5-):342-348. >>> Aprotinin; HOE-140; SC; Rat; Animal info (Wistar, male, female, 150 days old).

10098 Phipps, J.A., Clermont, A.C., Sinha, S., Chilcote, T.J., Bursell, S.E., Feener, E.P. Plasma Kallikrein Mediates Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor-Stimulated Retinal Vascular Permeability. Hypertension 2009; 53(-2-):175-U127. >>> Angiotensin II; Hoe 140; PBS; polyethylene glycol; saline; SC; Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; peptides; animal info (8 wks old, male, Sprague Dawley, diabetes mellitus); long-term study.

7914 Gohlke, P., Linz, W., Scholkens, B.A., Kuwer, I., Bartenbach, S., Schnell, A., Unger, T. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition improves cardiac function. Role of bradykinin. Hypertension 1994; 23(-4-):411-418. >>> Hoe 140; Saline, physiological; SC; Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; long-term study; pumps replaced every 2 weeks; cardiovascular; animal info (SHR, stroke prone, 6 weeks old, male).

6770 Aartsen, W.M., Hilgers, R.H.P., Schiffers, P.M.H., Daemen, M.J.A.P., De Mey, J.G.R., Smits, J.F.M. Changes in vascular distensibility during angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition involve bradykinin type 2 receptors. JOURNAL OF VASCULAR RESEARCH 2004; 41(-1-):18-27. >>> Hoe 140; Saline; SC; Mice; 2002; No stress (see pg.20); cardiovascular.

6727 Buffin-Meyer, B., Younes-Ibrahim, M., El Mernissi, G., Cheval, L., Marsy, S., Grima, M., Girolami, J.P., Doucet, A. Differential regulation of collecting duct Na+,K+-ATPase and K+ excretion by furosemide and piretanide: Role of bradykinin. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 2004; 15(-4-):876-884. >>> Furosemide; dexmethasone; diretanide; aldosterone; Hoe 140; Saline; SC; IP; Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; replacement therapy (adrenalectomy); solution was a pH 9.0; a third group was adrenalectomized and given dexamethasone and aldosterone by a SC ALZET pump; in a fifth set of experiments Hoe140 was infused SC.

6621 Duguay, D., Der Sarkissian, S., Kouz, R., Ongali, B., Couture, R., deBlois, D. Kinin B2 receptor is not involved in enalapril-induced apoptosis and regression of hypertrophy in spontaneously hypertensive rat aorta: possible role of B1 receptor. British Journal of Pharmacology 2004; 141(-4-):728-736. >>> Hoe 140; enalpril; Saline; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; blood pressure taken.

6600 Jover, B., Stuit, L., Mimran, A. Systemic and renal effect of chronic omapatrilat in sodium-restricted, one-kidney, one-clip hypertensive rats. Journal of Hypertension 2004; 22(-2-):383-388. >>> Hoe 140; SC; Rat; 2001; Cardiovascular; antihypertensive; Hoe140 is a bradykinin B2-receptor antagonist.

6059 Kurisu, S., Ozono, R., Oshima, T., Kambe, M., Ishida, T., Sugino, H., Matsuura, H., Chayama, K., Teranishi, Y., Iba, O., Amano, K., Matsubara, H. Cardiac angiotensin II type 2 receptor activates the kinin/NO system and inhibits fibrosis. Hypertension 2003; 41(-1-):99-107. >>> Angiotensin II; HOE 140; L-NAME; Saline; SC; Mice (transgenic); 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (no); cardiovascular; HOE140 is a bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist; L-NAME is a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor; table on p. 101 for weights, blood pressure, heart rate, etc..

6035 Shiuchi, T., Cui, T.X., Wu, L., Nakagami, H., Takeda-Matsubara, Y., Iwai, M., Horiuchi, M. ACE inhibitor improves insulin resistance in diabetic mouse via bradykinin and NO. Hypertension 2002; 40(-3-):329-334. >>> Hoe 140; IP; Mice; 1002; Hoe140 is a bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist.

5872 Yamaguchi-Sase, S., Hayashi, I., Okamoto, H., Nara, Y., Matsuzaki, S., Hoka, S., Majima, M. Amelioration of hyperalgesia by kinin receptor antagonists or kininogen deficiency in chronic constriction nerve injury in rats. INFLAMMATION RESEARCH 2003; 52(-4-):164-169. >>> Hoe 140; bradykinin, des-Arg9-Leu8-; Saline; SC; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; Kinin B, and B2 receptor antagonists.

5827 Tschope, C., Seidl, U., Reinecke, A., Riester, U., Graf, K., Schultheiss, H.P., Hilgenfeldt, U., Unger, T. Kinins are involved in the antiproteinuric effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition in experimental diabetic nephropathy. INTERNATIONAL IMMUNOPHARMACOLOGY 2003; 3(-3-):335-344. >>> Hoe 140; Ramipril; SC; Rat; 2002; Antihypertensive; Hoe 140 is a B2-receptor antagonist also called icatibant; agents infused together in same pump in some animals..

5231 Murakami, H, Yayama, K, Miao, R.Q., Wang, C, Chao, L, Chao, J. Kallikrein gene delivery inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell growth and neointima formation in the rat artery after balloon angioplasty. Hypertension 1999; 34(--):164-170. >>> Hoe 140; IP; rat; 2002; 2ML2; cardiovascular; Hoe 140 is icatibant, a specific bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist; first experiment used 2ML2 pumps, second used 2002 pumps.

5128 Rouleau, J.L., Kapuku, G., Pelletier, S., Gosselin, H., Adam, A., Gagnon, C., Lambert, C., Meloche, S. Cardioprotective effects of ramipril and losartan in right ventricular pressure overload in the rabbit - Importance of kinins and influence on angiotensin II type 1 receptor signaling pathway. Circulation 2001; 104(--):939-944. >>> Bradykinin, Lys-Leu8-des-Arg9; HOE 140;; SC; rabbit; cardiovascular; Lys-(leu8)desArg bradykinin is a bradykinin B1 receptor blocker, HOE 140 is a bradykinin B2 receptor blocker.

5089 Nakamura, Y., Ono, H., Zhou, X.Y., Frohlich, E.D. Angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonism and ACE inhibition produce similar renoprotection in N-omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester/spontaneously hypertensive rats. Hypertension 2001; 37(--):1262-1267. >>> Hoe 140; SC; rat; 2ML4; antihypertensive; Hoe 140 is an Icatibant agent (bradykinin receptor antagonist); 9 groups, mp used only in 1 group; bradykinin antagonist;.

5039 Gorlach, C., Hortobagyi, T., Hortobagyi, S., Benyo, Z., Relton, J., Whalley, E.T., Wahl, M. Bradykinin B-2, but not B-1, receptor antagonism has a neuroprotective effect after brain injury. Journal of Neurotrauma 2001; 18(-8-):833-838. >>> Hoe 140; B9858; Saline; SC; rat; mice; 2001D; controls received mp w/ vehicle; peptides; agents given in separate pumps to prevent interaction of the drugs; 2 pmps per animal;.

4730 Kim, S., Zhan, Y., Izumi, Y, Yasumoto, H, Yano, M., Iwao, H. In vivo activation of rat aortic platelet-derived growth factor and epidermal growth factor receptors by angiontensin II and hypertension.. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol 2000; 20(--):2539-2545. >>> Hoe 140;; Saline;; SC;; rat;; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; antihypertensive; cardiovascular;.

4609 Mukai, H, Fitzgibbon, W.R, Ploth, D.W, Margolius, H.S. Effect of chronic bradykinin B2 receptor blockade on blood pressure of conscious Dahl salt-resistant rats.. British Journal of Pharmacology 1998; 124(--):197-205. >>> Hoe 140;; NaCl;; SC;; rat;; 2001; 2002;; controls received mp w/vehicle; pump replaced after one week; cardiovascular;.

4577 Hirawa, N., Uehara, Y., Suzuki, T, Kawabata, Y., Numabe, A., Gomi, T., Ikeda, T., Kizuki, K., Omata, M. Regression of glomerular injury by kallikrein infusion in Dahl salt-sensitive rats is a bradykinin B2-receptor-mediated event.. Nephron 1999; 81(--):183-193. >>> Hoe 140; Kallikrein;; Saline;; IV (jugular);; rat;; 2002;; controls received mp w/vehicle; functionality of mp verified by plasma levels; pumps replaced every 2 weeks; rat urinary kallikrein used; kallikrein infused IV and Hoe 140 infused SC;.

4562 MacLaughlin, M, Monserrat, A.J, Muller, A, Matoso, M, Amorena, C. Role of kinins in the renoprotective effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in experimental chronic renal failure. Kidney Blood Press Res 1998; 21(--):329-334. >>> Hoe 140; Saline, physiological;; SC;; rat;; 2002;; controls received mp w/vehicle; functionality of mp verified by plasma levels; long-term study, pumps replaced every other week;.

15523 Demeilliers, B., Jover, B., Mimran, A. Contrasting renal effects of chronic administrations of enalapril and losartan on one-kidney, one clip hypertensive rats. J. Hypertens 1998; 16(--):1023-1029. >>> Hoe 140; SC; rat; 2001; no comment posted.

4112 Demeilliers, B., Jover, B., Mimran, A. Contrasting renal effects of chronic administrations of enalapril and losartan on one-kidney, one clip hypertensive rats. J. Hypertens 1998; 16(--):1023-1029. >>> Hoe 140; SC; rat; 2001; no comment posted.

15518 Rumble, J.R., Komers, R., Cooper, M.E. Kinins or nitric oxide, or both, are involved in the antitrophic effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors on diabetes-associated mesenteric vascular hypertrophy in the rat. J. Hypertens 1996; 14(--):601-607. >>> Hoe 140; SC; rat; 2002; comparison of sc injections vs. mp; bradykinin receptor antagonist.

4107 Rumble, J.R., Komers, R., Cooper, M.E. Kinins or nitric oxide, or both, are involved in the antitrophic effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors on diabetes-associated mesenteric vascular hypertrophy in the rat. J. Hypertens 1996; 14(--):601-607. >>> Hoe 140; SC; rat; 2002; comparison of sc injections vs. mp; bradykinin receptor antagonist.

3923 Kohzuki, M., Kanazawa, M., Liu, P.F., Kamimoto, M., Yoshida, K., Saito, T., Yasujima, M., Sato, T., Abe, K. Kinin and angiontensin II receptor antagonists in rats with chronic renal failure: chronic effects on cardio- and renoprotection of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. J. Hypertens 1995; 13(--):1785-1790. >>> Hoe 140; IP; rat; 2002; controls received cilazapril; comparison of ip injections vs mp; antihypertensive; cardiovascular.

3823 Blais, C.Jr, Couture, R., Drapeau, G., Colman, R.W., Adam, A. Involvement of endogenous kinins in the pathogenesis of peptidoglycan-induced arthritis in the lewis rat. Arthritis Rheum 1997; 40(-7-):1327-1333. >>> Hoe 140; Bradykinin, Lys-Leu8-des-Arg9; Saline, sterile; SC; rat; 1007D; controls received mp w/ vehicle; peptides; agents administered singly and in combination.

3787 Tomiyama, H., Kushiro, T., Abeta, H., Ishii, T., Takahashi, A., Furukawa, L., Asagami, T., Hino, T., Saito, F., Otsuka, Y., Kurumatani, H., Kobayashi, F., Kanmatsuse, K., Kajiwara, N. Kinins contribute to the improvement of insulin sensitivity during treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor. Hypertension 1994; 23(--):450-455. >>> Hoe 140; Bradykinin; Saline, normal; SC; IV (inferior vena cava); rat; 2002; controls received mp w/ normal saline; first agent is a kinin antagonist; several pump experiments conducted; PE-10 tubing used for IV infusion.

3644 Gohlke, P., Kuwer, I., Schnell, A., Mall, G., Unger, T. Blockade of bradykinin b2 receptors prevents the increase in capillary density induced by chronic angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor treatment in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. Hypertension 1997; 29(-2-):478-482. >>> Hoe 140; Saline; SC; rat; controls received mp w/ saline; long-term study, pumps replaced every 2 weeks; cardiovascular; Hoe 140 is icatibant.

3482 Madeddu, P., Anania, V., Parpaglia, P.P., Demontis, M.P., Varoni, M.V., Fattaccio, M.C., Glorioso, N. Chronic kinin receptor blockade induces hypertension in deoxycorticosterone-treated rats. Br. J. Pharmacol 1993; 108(--):651-657. >>> Hoe 140; Saline, physiological; SC; rat; 2ML4; controls received mp w/saline; long-term study, pumps replaced after 28 days; agent bradykinin antagonist; author states,"...osmotic pump implantation might have amplified the functional importance of B1 receptors&stimulated the generation of T-kinin"(p. 655) but concludes that this is unlikely.

3463 Jover, B., Herizi, A., Mimran, A. Chronic kinin blockade and effect of ramipril in renal adaptation to sodium restriction. Hypertension 1996; 27(--):79-84. >>> Hoe 140; Dextrose solution; SC; rat; controls received mp w/vehicle.

3432 Yosipiv, I.V., El-Dahr, S.S. Developmental regulation of ACE gene expression by endogenous kinins and angiotensin II. Am. J. Physiol. (Renal Fluid Electrolyte Physiol. 38) 1995; 269(--):F172-F179. >>> Aprotinin; Hoe 140; Losartan; SC; rat; controls received mp w/saline.

3380 Madeddu, P., Parpaglia, P.P., Demontis, M.P., Varoni, M.V., Fattaccio, M.C., Glorioso, N. Chronic inhibition of bradykinin b2-receptors enhances the slow vasopressor response to angiotensin II. Hypertension 1994; 23(--):646-652. >>> Angiotensin II; Hoe 140; IP; rat; controls received mp w/saline; stability verified by injection of AII-pump infusate; peptides; agents given singly or together.

3377 Majima, M., Mizogami, S., Kuribayashi, Y., Katori, M., Oh-ishi, S. Hypertension induced by a nonpressor dose of angiotensin II in kininogen-deficient rats. Hypertension 1994; 24(--):111-119. >>> Angiotensin II; Kininogen, bovine; Hoe 140; Saline; SC; rat; 2001; 2002; controls received mp w/saline; peptides; low molecular weight kininogen used.

3376 Majima, M., Yoshida, O., Mihara, H., Muto, T., Mizogami, S., Kuribayashi, Y., Katorim, M., Oh-ishi, S. High sensitivity to salt in kininogen-deficient brown Norway Katholiek rats. Hypertension 1993; 22(--):705-714. >>> Kininogen, bovine; Hoe 140; Aprotinin; Saline; SC; rat; 2001; controls received mp w/saline.

3031 Rudichenko, V.M., Carretero, O.A., Beierwaltes, W.H. Neither endogenous nor exogenous bradykinin stimulates aldosterone in vivo. Endocrinology 1993; 133(-6-):2469-2473. >>> Hoe 140; SC; rat; 1007D; controls received mp with saline.

2991 Madeddu, P., Parpaglia, P.P., Demontis, M.P., Varoni, M.V., Fattaccio, M.C., Anania, V., Glorioso, N. Early blockade of bradykinin B2-receptors alters the adult cardiovascular phenotype in rats. Hypertension 1995; 25(--):453-459. >>> Hoe 140; Saline, physiological; IP; rat; rat (pregnant); controls received mp with vehicle; long-term study, pumps replaced.

2990 Madeddu, P., Parpaglia, P.P., Demontis, M.P., Varoni, M.V., Fattaccio, M.C., Anania, V., Glorioso, N. Effects of kinin blockade on the blood pressure of salt-loaded pregnant rats. Hypertension 1995; 25(-part2-):823-827. >>> Hoe 140; IP; rat (pregnant); rat; controls received mp with vehicle; teratology.

2856 Madeddu, P., Glorioso, N., Varoni, M.V., Demontis, M.P., Fattaccio, M.C., Anania, V. Cardiovascular effects of brain kinin receptor blockade in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Hypertension 1994; 23(-1-):I189-I192. >>> Hoe 140; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS; rat; 2002; infusion started 5 days after cannula placement.

2855 Madeddu, P., Parpaglia, P.P., Demontis, M.P., Varoni, M.V., Fattaccio, M.C., Tonolo, G., Troffa, G., Glorioso, N. Bradykinin B2-receptor blockade facilitates deoxycorticosterone-salt hypertension. Hypertension 1993; 21(--):980-984. >>> Hoe 140; Saline; SC; rat; 2ML4; no comment posted.

2854 Cachofeiro, V., Maeso, R., Rodrigo, E., Navarro, J., Ruilope, L.M., Lahera, V. Nitric oxide and prostaglandins in the prolonged effects of losartan and ramipril in hypertension. Hypertension 1995; 26(--):236-243. >>> Hoe 140; SC; rat; enzyme inhibitor.

2837 da Silva, V.J.D., da Silva, S.V., Salgado, M.C.O., Salgado, H.C. Chronic converting enzyme inhibition facilitates baroreceptor resetting to hypertensive levels. Hypertension 1994; 23(-1 Supp-):I68-I72. >>> Enalapril; Hoe 140; SC; rat; 2001; comparison of oral dosing vs. mp; enzyme inhibitor; enalapril is an antihypertensive.

2821 Gohlke, P., Lamberty, V., Kuwer, I., Bartenbach, S., Schnell, A., Linz, W., Scholkens, B.A., Wiemer, G., Unger, T. Long-term low-dose angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor treatment increases vascular cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate. Hypertension 1993; 22(-5-):682-687. >>> Hoe 140; Sodium chloride; SC; rat; controls received mp w/ vehicle; long-term study, pumps replaced every 2 weeks.

2169 Bao, G., Gohlke, P., Unger, T. Role of bradykinin in chronic antihypertensive actions of ramipril in different hypertension models. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol 1992; 20(-9-):S96-S99. >>> Hoe 140; Saline; SC; rat; 2002; long-term study, pumps replaced every 2 weeks; hoe 140 is a bradykinin antagonist; concomitant oral administration of ramipril.

2168 Bao, G., Gohlke, P., Qadri, F., Unger, T. Chronic kinin receptor blockade attenuates the antihypertensive effect of ramipril. Hypertension 1992; 20(--):74-79. >>> Hoe 140; Saline; SC; rat; 2002; controls received mp w/saline; long-term study, pumps replaced every 2 weeks; oral ace-inhibitor ramipril administered concomitantly.

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72. Hirudin

13347 An, J.Z., Waitara, M.S., Bordas, M., Arumugam, V., Hoffmann, R.G., Petrich, B.G., Sinha, U., North, P.E., Sood, R. Heparin rescues factor V Leiden-associated placental failure independent of anticoagulation in a murine high-risk pregnancy model. Blood 2013; 121(-11-):2127-2134. >>> Hirudin; heparin, low molecular weight; C921-78; fondaparinux; SC; Rat; 1002; Animal info (Female, adult, Sprague Dawley); functionality of mp verified by anticoagulant and plasma levels; peptides hirudin; LMWH aka low molecular weight heparin;.

7459 Lay, A.J., Liang, Z., Rosen, E.D., Castellino, F.J. Mice with a severe deficiency in protein C display prothrombotic and proinflammatory phenotypes and compromised maternal reproductive capabilities. Journal of Clinical Investigation 2005; 115(-6-):1552-1561. >>> Hirudin; IP; Mice (transgenic); Controls received mp w/ saline; no stress (see pg. 1555); enzyme inhibitor (thrombin); cardiovascular; immunology.

7430 Iwaki, T., Cruz, D.T., Martin, J.A., Castellino, F.J. A cardioprotective role for the endothelial protein C receptor in lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia in the mouse. Blood 2005; 105(-6-):2364-2371. >>> Endotoxin, LPS; hirudin; Saline, isotonic; IP; Mice; 1003D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; cardiovascular;"In order to mimic the conditions of endotoxin shock more closely than the usual bolus LPS injection methods, we used a continual intraperitoneal exposure model in mice with t.

7023 Wang, J., Zheng, H., Ou, X., Albertson, C.M., Fink, L.M., Herbert, J.M., Hauer-Jensen, M. Hirudin ameliorates intestinal radiation toxicity in the rat: support for thrombin inhibition as strategy to minimize side-effects after radiation therapy and as countermeasure against radiation exposure. JOURNAL OF THROMBOSIS AND HAEMOSTASIS 2004; 2(-11-):2027-2035. >>> Hirudin; Saline; IP; Rat; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor thrombin; cancer (abdominal, pelvic); toxicology; scrotal hernia created via orchiectomy w/ a loop of ileum sutured to inside of scrotum.

6997 Mhatre, M., Nguyen, A., Kashani, S., Pham, T., Adesina, A., Grammas, P. Thrombin, a mediator of neurotoxicity and memory impairment. NEUROBIOLOGY OF AGING 2004; 25(-6-):783-793. >>> Thrombin; hirudin; Saline; BSA; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; dose-response (fig 1); no stress (see pg. 784);"Administration of thrombin and hirudin alone or simultaneously was well tolerated by the rats."(p. 784); neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's disease);"hirudin has a relatively short half-life (60-90) minutes, therefore it was administered by continuous ICV infusion."(p. 784.).

4524 Gerdes, C, Faber-Steinfeld, V, Yalkinoglu,Ö, Wohlfeil, S. Comparison of the effects of the thrombin inhibitor r-hirudin in four animal models of neointima formation after arterial injury. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol 1996; 16(--):1306-1311. >>> Hirudin, r-;; Saline, sterile;; IV (jugular);; rat;; 2ML2; controls received mp w/vehicle; comparision of SC injetions vs. mp; cardiovascular; arterial injury; thrombin inhibitor.

3765 Hadoke, P.W.F., Wadsworth, R.M., Wainwright, C.L., Butler, K.D., Giddings, M.J. Subcutaneous infusion of r-hirudin does not inhibit neointimal proliferation after angioplasty of the subclavian artery in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Coronary Artery Disease 1996; 7(--):599-608. >>> Hirudin, r-; Mannitol; SC; rabbit; 2ML4; 2001D; controls received no drug; cardiovascular; animals received 1-2 pumps each.

3754 Rodgers, K.E., Girgis, W., Campeau, J.D., diZerega, G.S. Reduction of adhesion formation by intraperitoneal administration of a recombinant hirudin analog. J. Invest. Surgery 1996; 9(--):385-391. >>> Hirudin, recomb. analog; injury site; rabbit; 2ML1; controls received mp w/ PBS; tissue perfusion (injury site); immunology; peptides; rabbits were given IM morphine for postoperative pain; wound healing.

3308 Hampl, V., Archer, S.L., Bach, R., Nelson, D.P., Weir, E.K. Chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension: is thrombin involved?. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis 1993; 148(--):1043-1048. >>> Hirudin, recomb.; Saline; IV (jugular); rat; 2ML4; controls received mp with saline; no stress (see pg. 1044) no inflammation; immunology; hirudin is CGP-39393, and it is a thrombin inhibitor.

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73. Huperzine

16051 Urra, J., Blohberger, J., Tiszavari, M., Mayerhofer, A., Lara, H. E. In vivo blockade of acetylcholinesterase increases intraovarian acetylcholine and enhances follicular development and fertility in the rat. Sci Rep 2016; 6(--):30129. >>> Huperzine A; Intraovarian (ovarian bursa); Rat; 2004; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (female, Sprague Dawley, 250-300g, hemi-OVX); tissue perfusion (ovarian bursa); enzyme inhibitor (acetylcholine esterase);.

12957 Yu, D., Thakor, D.K., Han, I.B., Ropper, A.E., Haragopal, H., Sidman, R.L., Zafonte, R., Schachter, S.C., Teng, Y.D. Alleviation of chronic pain following rat spinal cord compression injury with multimodal actions of huperzine A. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 2013; 110(-8-):E746-E755. >>> Huperzine A; Cyclodextrin, beta; saline; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; Animal info (Sprague Dawley, female, adult, 200-235 g); 10% cyclodextrin used; 0.5 ul/hr rate of infusion; PE20 catheter used; wound clips used; catheter filled with 12 ul saline for delayed delivery of 24 hours; pumps replaced.

5676 Lallement, G., Demoncheaux, J.P., Foquin, A., Baubichon, D., Galonnier, M., Clarencon, D., Dorandeu, F. Subchronic administration of pyridostigmine or huperzine to primates: Compared efficacy against soman toxicity. Drug and Chemical Toxicology 2002; 25(-3-):309-320. >>> Pyridostigmine; huperzine; SC; Monkey; 2ML1; Enzyme inhibitor (acetylcholinesterase); toxicology.

5315 Filliat, P., Foquin, A., Lallement, G. Effects of chronic administration of huperzine A on memory in guinea pigs. Drug and Chemical Toxicology 2002; 25(-1-):9-24. >>> Huperzine A; Saline; HCl; SC; Guinea-pig; 2001; Toxicology; enzyme inhibitor; huperzine is an alkaloid, reversible Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor; neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's disease).

4917 Lallement, G., Foquin, A., Dorandeu, F., Baubichon, D., Carpentier, P. Subchronic administration of various pretreatments of nerve agent poisoning. II. Compared efficacy against soman toxicity. Drug and Chemical Toxicology 2001; 24(-2-):165-180. >>> Pyridostigmine; Huperzine; Physostigmine; Scopolamine;; SC;; guinea-pig;; Controls received sham operation; enzyme inhibitor; these are poisons known to be acetylcholinesterase inhibitors; doses inhibited 30% of AChE activity; Physostigmine was infused alone or together with Scopolamine; toxicology.

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74. IDN 1965

7016 Engel, D., Peshock, R., Armstong, R.C., Sivasubramanian, N., Mann, D.L. Cardiac myocyte apoptosis provokes adverse cardiac remodeling in transgenic mice with targeted TNF overexpression. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology 2004; 287(-3-):H1303-H1311. >>> IDN 1965; DMSO; IP; Mice; 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; pumps replaced at day 14; enzyme inhibitor (caspase); cardiovascular; MRI; 50% DMSO; MRI performed at day 2 and day 28.

6630 Hayakawa, Y., Chandra, M., Miao, W.F., Shirani, J., Brown, J.H., Dorn, GW II, Armstrong, R.C., Kitsis, R.N. Inhibition of cardiac myocyte apoptosis improves cardiac function and abolishes mortality in the peripartum cardiomyopathy of G alpha q transgenic mice. Circulation 2003; 108(-24-):3036-3041. >>> IDN-1965; DMSO; SC; Mice (pregnant); mice (transgenic); 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; pumps replaced after 14 days; enzyme inhibitor (polycaspase); cardiovascular; teratology; 50% DMSO;"Continuous subcutaneous delivery of this potent polycaspase inhibitor is sufficient to suppress effector caspase activity"(p.3037).

5766 Wencker, D., Chandra, M., Nguyen, K., Miao, W.F., Garantziotis, S., Factor, S.M., Shirani, J., Armstrong, R.C., Kitsis, R.N. A mechanistic role for cardiac myocyte apoptosis in heart failure. Journal of Clinical Investigation 2003; 111(-10-):1497-1504. >>> IDN-1965; SC; Mice; 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (caspase inhibitor); peptides..

5019 Hoglen, N.C., Hirakawa, B.P., Fisher, C.D., Weeks, S., Srinivasan, A., Wong, A.M., Valentino, K.L., Tomaselli, K.J., Bai, X., Karanewsky, D.S., Contreras, P.C. Characterization of the caspase inhibitor IDN-1965 in a model of apoptosis-associated liver injury. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 2001; 297(-2-):811-818. >>> IDN-1965; DMSO; Water; IP; mice; controls received mp w/ vehicle; comparison of ip injections vs. mp; vehicle combination was 50% DMSO, 50% water; IDN-1965 is a caspase inhibitor; liver injury; 24 hour recovery period after surgery;"continuous administration of IDN-1965 via an osmotic minipump (a delivery equaling .36 mg/kg/h), however, was extremely effective in reducing liver injury..."p. 817;.

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75. Imatinib

15110 Napier, R.J., Norris, B.A., Swimm, A., Giver, C.R., Harris, W.A.C., Laval, J., Napier, B.A., Patel, G., Crump, R., Peng, Z.H., Bornmann, W., Pulendran, B., Buller, R.M., Weiss, D.S., Tirouvanziam, R., Waller, E.K., Kalman, D., Napier, R.J. Low Doses of Imatinib Induce Myelopoiesis and Enhance Host Anti-microbial Immunity. PLoS Pathogens 2015; 11(--):U1651-U1677. >>> Imatinib mesylate; Water; SC; Mice; 1007D; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, C57BL6, 6 weeks old); functionality of mp verified by serum levels; dose-response (pg.9); immunology;.

13743 Chu, J., Lauretti, E., Craige, C.P., Pratico, D., Pratico, D. Pharmacological Modulation of GSAP Reduces Amyloid-beta Levels and Tau Phosphorylation in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease with Plaques and Tangles. JOURNAL OF ALZHEIMERS DISEASE 2014; 41(--):729-737. >>> Imatinib; Cerebrospinal fluid, artificial; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Mice (transgenic); 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (triple transgenic ABBP, PS1, P301L); neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's);"Since it is known that the drug does not penetrate the blood-brain barrier efficiently, it is possible that the contradictory results reflect this property of the drug. For this reason in the current study, we delivered Imatinib by means of implanted osmotic minipumps directly in the brains of the triple transgenic mice"pg 730; Imatinib aka STI571 akd Gleevec; used dental cement;.

12507 Napier, R.J., Rafi, W., Cheruvu, M., Powell, K.R., Zaunbrecher, M.A., Bornmann, W., Salgame, P., Shinnick, T.M., Kalman, D. Imatinib-Sensitive Tyrosine Kinases Regulate Mycobacterial Pathogenesis and Represent Therapeutic Targets against Tuberculosis. Cell Host&Microbe 2011; 10(-5-):475-485. >>> Imatinib; Water; SC; Mice; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, C57BL/6, 6 wks old).

12205 Launay, J.M., Herve, P., Callebert, J., Mallat, Z., Collet, C., Doly, S., Belmer, A., Diaz, S.L., Hatia, S., Cote, F., Humbert, M., Maroteaux, L. Serotonin 5-HT(2B) receptors are required for bone-marrow contribution to pulmonary arterial hypertension. Blood 2012; 119(-7-):1772-1780. >>> Imatinib mesylate; Mice; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (5HT-2b -/-, adult, 7-9 wks old); imatinib mesylate also known as Gleevec or STI-571; hypoxia.

11715 Reeves, P.M., Smith, S.K., Olson, V.A., Thorne, S.H., Bornmann, W., Damon, I.K., Kalman, D. Variola and Monkeypox Viruses Utilize Conserved Mechanisms of Virion Motility and Release That Depend on Abl and Src Family Tyrosine Kinases. JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY 2011; 85(-1-):21-31. >>> Dasatinib; imatinib mesylate; DMSO; water; PBS; SC; Mice; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (6 wks old, female, C57/BL6); 50% DMSO used; dasatinib also known as BMS-354825; one group contained a mixture of dasatinib and imatinib mesylate in a single pump; imatinib mesylate also known as STI-571; enzyme inhibitor (Src Abl).

10359 Demestre, M., Herzberg, J., Holtkamp, N., Hagel, C., Reuss, D., Friedrich, R.E., Kluwe, L., Von Deimling, A., Mautner, V.F., Kurtz, A. Imatinib mesylate (Glivec) inhibits Schwann cell viability and reduces the size of human plexiform neurofibroma in a xenograft model. Journal of Neuro-oncology 2010; 98(-1-):11-19. >>> Imatinib mesylate; PBS; SC; Mice (nude); 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; cancer (Plexiform neurofibromas); enzyme inhibitor (receptor tyrosine kinase); stress/adverse reaction: (see pg 13)"because of inflammation at the ALZET pump site, four mice of the treatment group had to be discontinued"; animal info (female, athymic nu/nu Balb/c); agent also known as Glivec or Gleevec;.

8531 Raafat, A., Zoltan-Jones, A., Strizzi, L., Bargo, S., Kimura, K., Salomon, D., Callahan, R. Kit and PDGFR-alpha activities are necessary for Notch4/Int3-induced tumorigenesis. ONCOGENE 2007; 26(-5-):662-672. >>> Imatinib mesylate; SC; Mice (transgenic); 2001; Controls received mp w/ water; dose-response (fig 2); no stress (see pg. 663); cancer (mammary); animal info (female, FVB/N, 10 wks old); antiangiogenic;"Continuous release of Gleevec for a week resulted in 33% inhibition of tumor growth by day 2 and 66% by day 4."(p. 668);.

8370 Bihorel, S., Camenisch, G., Gross, G., Lemaire, M., Scherrmann, J.M. Influence of hydroxyurea on imatinib mesylate (gleevec) transport at the mouse blood-brain barrier. Drug Metabolism and Disposition 2006; 34(-12-):1945-1949. >>> Imatinib mesylate; hydroxyurea; Saline; SC; Rat; 2ML2; Half-life (p. 1948) hydroxyurea<1 hour in rats; enzyme inhibitor (ribonucleotide reductase); cancer (glioblastoma); animal info (Hanover Wistar, 270-310 grams); ATP competitive inhibitor; A.K.A, Gleevec or STI571; chemotherapeutic.

7759 Reeves, P.M., Bommarius, B., Lebeis, S., McNulty, S., Christensen, J., Swimm, A., Chahroudi, A., Chavan, R., Feinberg, M.B., Veach, D., Bornmann, W., Sherman, M., Kalman, D. Disabling poxvirus pathogenesis by inhibition of Abl-family tyrosine kinases. Nature Medicine 2005; 11(-7-):731-739. >>> Imatinib mesylate; PBS; SC; Mice; 1007D; 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; no stress (see pg. 738); enzyme inhibitor (Abl-family kinase); animal info (female, C57/BL, 6 wk. old); agent formerly known as STI571; virology; Gleevec.

6277 Netzer, W.J., Dou, F., Cai, D.M., Veach, D., Jean, S., Li, Y.M., Bornamann, W.G., Clarkson, B., Xu, H.X., Greengard, P. Gleevec inhibits beta-amyloid production but not Notch cleavage. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 2003; 100(-21-):12444-12449. >>> Imatinib mesylate; Inhibitor 2; Saline; DMSO; CSF/CNS (Intrathecal); Guinea-pig (albino); 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (abl kinase); agent formerly known as STI571 (gleevec) is an abl kinase inhibitor (dissolved in saline); inhibitor 2 was dissolved in DMSO;"it has been shown that STI571 does not penetrate the blood-brain barrier efficiently, we therefore delivered (p. 12447) each inhibitor intrathecally over 7 days by means of implanted osmotic minipumps."; neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's disease).

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76. Irinotecan

15941 Monterrubio, C., Paco, S., Vila-Ubach, M., Rodriguez, E., Glisoni, R., Lavarino, C., Schaiquevich, P., Sosnik, A., Mora, J., Carcaboso, A. M. Combined Microdialysis-Tumor Homogenate Method for the Study of the Steady State Compartmental Distribution of a Hydrophobic Anticancer Drug in Patient-Derived Xenografts. Pharm Res 2015; 32(-9-):2889-900. >>> Irinotecan; SC; Mice (nude); 2001D; animal info (athymic, nude)); functionality of mp verified by plasma levels; cancer (neuroblastoma; HSJD-NB-003 or HSJD-NB-004); xenograft model; Dose (130 ug/h);.

12056 Albertsson, P., Lennernaes, B., Norrby, K. Low-dosage metronomic chemotherapy and angiogenesis: topoisomerase inhibitors irinotecan and mitoxantrone stimulate VEGF-A-mediated angiogenesis. APMIS 2012; 120(-2-):147-156. >>> Irinotecan; mitoxantrone; Saline; SC; Rat; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Sprague Dawley, adult); chemotherapeutic;.

5265 Morales, C., Zurita, M., Vaquero, J. Antitumoral effect of irinotecan (CPT-11) on an experimental model of malignant neuroectodermal tumor. Journal of Neuro-oncology 2002; 56(--):219-226. >>> Irinotecan (CPT-11); Saline; IP; rat; 2004; functionality of mp verified by residual content; comparison of IP and intratumoral injections vs. mp; no stress (see p. 222): animals tolerated the pumps: no infections or peritoneal fibrosis were observed; cancer; enzyme inhibitor (topoisomerase I); animals with pumps showed less toxicity:"schedules of continuous administration of CPT-11 were more efficacious and less toxic..."(p. 223); chemotherapeutic;.

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77. K252a

16332 Sophie Dutheil,, Isabelle Watabe,, Karina Sadlaoud,, Alain Tonetto,, Brahim Tighilet2. BDNF Signaling Promotes Vestibular Compensation by Increasing Neurogenesis and Remodeling the Expression of Potassium-Chloride Cotransporter KCC2 and GABAAReceptor in the Vestibular Nuclei. Journal of Neuroscience 2016; 36(-23-):6199-6212. >>> Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, K252a; Saline; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS (ventricles); Cat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (adult, male cat, 4-5 kg); dose-response (pg 6205, 6206); behavioral testing (rotating beam experimental device test); peptides;.

14647 Van Kummer, B.H., Cohen, R.W., Cohen, R.W. Exercise-Induced Neuroprotection in the Spastic Han Wistar Rat: The Possible Role of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor. BIOMED RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL 2015; ;(--):U1-U11. >>> K252a; DMSO; saline; CSF/CNS (third ventricle); Rat; 2004; Control animals received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (spastic, Han Wistar, 28 days old); 1% DMSO used.

13543 Miki, T., Hirai, H., Takahashi, T. Activity-Dependent Neurotrophin Signaling Underlies Developmental Switch of Ca(2+) Channel Subtypes Mediating Neurotransmitter Release. Journal of Neuroscience 2013; 33(-48-):18755-18763. >>> Tetrodotoxin; K252a; Saline; CSF/CNS (cerebellum); Rat (neonate); 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Wistar/ST, Postnatal day 6); ALZET brain infusion kit 1 used; tissue perfusion (cerebellum); teratology; good methods(pg. 18757); Pump implantation shown figure 6A pg.P18761. K252a is a CaM kinase and phosphorylase inhibitor;.

11131 Zhu, X.H., Yan, H.C., Zhang, J., Qu, H.D., Qiu, X.S., Chen, L.A., Li, S.J., Cao, X.O., Bean, J.C., Chen, L.H., Qin, X.H., Liu, J.H., Bai, X.C., Mei, L., Gao, T.M. Intermittent Hypoxia Promotes Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Produces Antidepressant-Like Effects in Adult Rats. Journal of Neuroscience 2010; 30(-38-):12653-12663. >>> K252a; antibody, chicken anti-BDNF; antibody, chicken IgY; CSF, artificial; DMSO; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (3 mo old, Sprague Dawley, 180-220 g, male); 50% DMSO used; depression.

10787 Kaneko, M., Hanover, J.L., England, P.M., Stryker, M.P. TrkB kinase is required for recovery, but not loss, of cortical responses following monocular deprivation. Nature Neuroscience 2008; 11(-4-):497-504. >>> 1NM-PP1; antibody, anti-TrkB; K252a; DMSO; tween 20; saline; PBS; CSF, artificial; SC; CSF/CNS (cortex); Mice; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (TrkBF616A, wt); enzyme inhibitor (TrkB kinase); 4% DMSO used; 2% Tween 20 used.

10604 Pinnock, S.B., Blake, A.M., Platt, N.J., Herbert, J. The Roles of BDNF, pCREB and Wnt3a in the Latent Period Preceding Activation of Progenitor Cell Mitosis in The Adult Dentate Gyrus by Fluoxetine. PLoS One 2010; 5(-10-):U236-U243. >>> K252a; fluoxetine; Saline; CSF/CNS; SC; Rat; 1002; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 8 wks old, 200-250 g); multiple pumps per animal (2); cannula placement verified by examining its track on sections stained with cresyl violet.

8306 Obata, K., Katsura, H., Sakurai, J., Kobayashi, K., Yamanaka, H., Dai, Y., Fukuoka, T., Noguchi, K. Suppression of the p75 neurotrophin receptor in uninjured sensory neurons reduces neuropathic pain after nerve injury. Journal of Neuroscience 2006; 26(-46-):11974-11986. >>> Antibody, anti-NGF; antibody, anti-P75NTR; K252a; DMSO; saline; CSF/CNS (intrathecal, lumbar); Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 200-250 grams); nerve injury; silastic tubing used; K252a in 50% DMSO; behavioral testing.

5919 Liang, F.-Q., Allen, G., Earnest, D. Role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the circadian regulation of the suprachiasmatic pacemaker by light. J Neurosci 2000; 20(-8-):2978-2987. >>> Brain-derived neurotrophic factor; K252a; CSF, artificial; BSA; DMSO; CSF/CNS (suprachiasmatic nucleus); Rat; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; comparison of acute injections vs. mp p.2979; enzyme inhibitor (tyrosine kinase); BDNF was recombinant human; dissolved in a CSF&0.1% BSA; K252a was dissolved in DMSO; guide cannula used with a stylet; 3-day recovery period before pump implantation.

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78. KN-92 And KN-93

15096 Tagawa, K., Homma, H., Saito, A., Fujita, K., Chen, X.G., Imoto, S., Oka, T., Ito, H., Motoki, K., Yoshida, C., Hatsuta, H., Murayama, S., Iwatsubo, T., Miyano, S., Okazawa, H., Okazawa, H. Comprehensive phosphoproteome analysis unravels the core signaling network that initiates the earliest synapse pathology in preclinical Alzheimer's disease brain. HUMAN MOLECULAR GENETICS 2015; 24(--):540-558. >>> Go6976; MLR1023; KN-93; DMSO; PBS; Mice (transgenic); 1003D; Animal info (male, APP770 human double mutant); 0.1% DMSO used; neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's); behavioral testing (morris water maze, rotarod test, fear-conditioning, light-dark box, elevated plus maze);.

14905 Daft, P.G., Yang, Y., Napierala, D., Zayzafoon, M., Zayzafoon, M. The Growth and Aggressive Behavior of Human Osteosarcoma Is Regulated by a CaMKII-Controlled Autocrine VEGF Signaling Mechanism. PLoS One 2015; 10(--):U431-U450. >>> KN-93; CBO-P11; Saline; SC; Mice; 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Foxn1 nu, 6 weeks old); cancer (osteosarcoma);.

10900 Shioda, N., Beppu, H., Fukuda, T., Li, E., Kitajima, I., Fukunaga, K. Aberrant Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II (CaMKII) Activity Is Associated with Abnormal Dendritic Spine Morphology in the ATRX Mutant Mouse Brain. Journal of Neuroscience 2011; 31(-1-):346-358. >>> KN-93; Krebs-Ringer HEPES; CSF/CNS; Mice; 1004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (ATRX-delta E2, adult, 12 wks old, male); enzyme inhibitor (Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II, CaMKII).

7695 Reeves, S.R., Carter, E.S., Guo, S.Z., Gozal, D. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II mediates critical components of the hypoxic ventilatory response within the nucleus of the solitary tract in adult rats. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 2005; 289(-3-):R871-R876. >>> KN-93; PBS; CSF/CNS (caudate nucleus solitary tract); Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; dose-response (fig. 1); brain tissue distribution; multiple pumps per animal (2); animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 275-300 g); CaMKII antagonist; cannula placement verified by fluorescent labeling.

7495 Dai, Y., Wang, H., Ogawa, A., Yamanaka, H., Obata, K., Tokunaga, A., Noguchi, K. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in the spinal cord contributes to neuropathic pain in a rat model of mononeuropathy. European Journal of Neuroscience 2005; 21(-9-):2467-2474. >>> KN93; KN92; MK-801; DMSO; saline; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 1003D; 2001; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle, or KN92 control peptide; no stress (see pg. 2472); enzyme inhibitor (Ca/Calmodulin - dependent protein Kinase II); peptides; 10% DMSO; cannula tip location verified by dissection; NMDA receptor antagonist.

7406 Ogawa, A., Dai, Y., Yamanaka, H., Iwata, K., Niwa, H., Noguchi, K. Ca2+/calmodulin-protein kinase II alpha in the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis contributes to neuropathic pain following inferior alveolar nerve transection. Experimental Neurology 2005; 192(-2-):310-319. >>> KN-93; KN-92; DMSO; CSF/CNS (medulla); Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ KN-92; enzyme inhibitor (calcium-calmodulin protein kinase II); peptides; cannula placement confirmed by dissection.

6585 Benter, I.F., Juggi, J.S., Khan, I., Akhtar, S. Inhibition of Ras-GTPase, but not tyrosine kinases or Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, improves recovery of cardiac function in the globally ischemic heart. MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR BIOCHEMISTRY 2004; 259(-1-2-):35-42. >>> FPT III; KN-93; Genistein; Saline; IP; Rat; 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (tyrosine kinase, CaMKII); cardiovascular; ischemia (cardiac).

5441 Fang, L., Wu, J., Lin, Q., Willis, W.D. Calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II contributes to spinal cord central sensitization. J Neurosci 2002; 22(-10-):4196-4204. >>> KN-92; KN-93; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor; KN-93 is a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitor; 5-day recovery period.

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79. KT5823

6445 Leamey, C.A., Ho-Pao, C.L., Sur, M. Disruption of Retinogeniculate Pattern Formation by Inhibition of Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase. The Journal of Neuroscience 2004; 21(-11-):3871-3880. >>> KT5823; Oxadiazolo quinoxalin-1-one, 1H-[1,2,4], [4,3-a]; DMSO; saline; Eye; Ferret; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; dose-response (p.3875); enzyme inhibitor (guanylyl cyclase; protein Kinase G); DMSO at 50%; OD1; KT5832 added to vehicle control.

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80. L-NAME

16141 Netti, V. A., Iovane, A. N., Vatrella, M. C., Zotta, E., Fellet, A. L., Balaszczuk, A. M. Effects of nitric oxide system and osmotic stress on Aquaporin-1 in the postnatal heart. Biomed Pharmacother 2016; 81(--):225-34. >>> L-NAME; Saline; SC; Rat; 1003D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 25-50 days old); cardiovascular; L-NAME solution prepared in laminar flow cabinet and used filter; Dose (4 mg/kg/day);.

15930 Pojoga, L. H., Yao, T. M., Opsasnick, L. A., Siddiqui, W. T., Reslan, O. M., Adler, G. K., Williams, G. H., Khalil, R. A. Cooperative Role of Mineralocorticoid Receptor and Caveolin-1 in Regulating the Vascular Response to Low Nitric Oxide-High Angiotensin II-Induced Cardiovascular Injury. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2015; 355(-1-):32-47. >>> Angiotensin II; L-NAME; SC; animal info (male, cav-1 KO, 12 weeks old); AngII infused to induce cardiovascular injury; Dose (L-NAME 0.1 - 0.2 mg/mL; AngII 0.7-2.8 mg/kg/day);.

15097 Tain, Y.L., Huang, L.T., Chan, J.Y.H., Lee, C.T., Tain, Y.L. Transcriptome Analysis in Rat Kidneys: Importance of Genes Involved in Programmed Hypertension. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES 2015; 16(--):4744-4758. >>> L-NAME; SC; Rat (pregnant); Controls received mp w/ saline, iso-osmotic; animal info (female, Sprague Dawley); teratology; cardiovascular; bp measured using tail cuff;.

14424 Tain, Y.L., Huang, L.T., Lee, C.T., Chan, J.Y.H., Hsu, C.N., Tain, Y.L. Maternal Citrulline Supplementation Prevents Prenatal N(G)-Nitro-L-Arginine-Methyl Ester (L-NAME)-Induced Programmed Hypertension in Rats. Biology of Reproduction 2015; 92(--):U27-U33. >>> L-NAME; SC; Rat (pregnant); Animal info (female, Sprague Dawley, 10 weeks old); teratology; cardiovascular;.

14423 Tain, Y.L., Lee, C.T., Huang, L.T., Tain, Y.L. Long-Term Effects of Maternal Citrulline Supplementation on Renal Transcriptome Prevention of Nitric Oxide Depletion-Related Programmed Hypertension: The Impact of Gene-Nutrient Interactions. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 2014; 15(--):23255-23268. >>> L-NAME; SC; Rat (pregnant); Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (female, Sprague Dawley, 10 weeks old); teratology; cardiovascular;.

13570 Zana-Taieb, E., Butruille, L., Franco-Montoya, M.L., Lopez, E., Vernier, F., Grandvuillemin, I., Evain-Brion, D., Deruelle, P., Baud, O., Delacourt, C., Jarreau, P.H. Effect of Two Models of Intrauterine Growth Restriction on Alveolarization in Rat Lungs: Morphometric and Gene Expression Analysis. PLoS One 2013; 8(-11-):U35-U45. >>> L-NAME; Saline; SC; Rat (pregnant); Controls received high protein diet; animal info (Female, Sprague Dawley); teratology.

13402 Kurabayashi, A., Kakinuma, Y., Morita, T., Inoue, K., Sato, T., Furihata, M. Conditional VHL Gene Deletion Causes Hypoglycemic Death Associated with Disproportionately Increased Glucose Uptake by Hepatocytes through an Upregulated IGF-I Receptor. PLoS One 2013; 8(-7-):U1405-U1415. >>> L-NAME; Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor; Saline; acetic acid; SC; Mice; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (VHL-KO); 25% acetic acid used; immunology.

13324 Abe, H., Ishikawa, W., Kushima, T., Nishimura, T., Mori, C., Onuki, A., Suzuki, T., Ishii, Y., Kansaku, N., Miyazaki, Y., Tanaka, K., Morita, H., Takizawa, T. Nitric Oxide Induces Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression in the Rat Placenta in Vivo and in Vitro. BIOSCIENCE BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY 2013; 77(-5-):971-976. >>> L-NAME; SC; Rat (pregnant); 2001D; Animal info (Crj Wistar); enzyme inhibitor (NOS, nitric oxide).

12904 Butruille, L., Mayeur, S., Moitrot, E., Storme, L., Knauf, C., Lesage, J., Deruelle, P. Maternal hypertension induced by NO blockade does not program adult metabolic diseases in growth-restricted rat fetuses. METABOLISM-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL 2013; 62(-3-):442-445. >>> L-NAME; SC; Rat (pregnant); 2ML1; Control animals received mp w/ saline; animal info (Wistar Han, female, E17).

12482 Hale, S.A., Weger, L., Mandala, M., Osol, G. Reduced NO signaling during pregnancy attenuates outward uterine artery remodeling by altering MMP expression and collagen and elastin deposition. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology 2011; 301(-4-):H1266-H1275. >>> L-NAME; SC; Rat (pregnant); Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (Sprague Dawley, female).

12479 Ivars, J., Butruille, L., Knauf, C., Bouckenooghe, T., Mayeur, S., Vieau, D., Valet, P., Deruelle, P., Lesage, J. Maternal hypertension induces tissue-specific modulations of the apelinergic system in the fetoplacental unit in rat. Peptides 2012; 35(-1-):136-138. >>> L-NAME; SC; Rat (pregnant); Animal info (Wistar, female, E17); enzyme inhibitor (nitric oxide synthase, NOS);.

12373 Butruille, L., Mayeur, S., Duparc, T., Knauf, C., Moitrot, E., Fajardy, I., Valet, P., Storme, L., Deruelle, P., Lesage, J. Prenatal fasudil exposure alleviates fetal growth but programs hyperphagia and overweight in the adult male rat. European Journal of Pharmacology 2012; 689(-1-3-):278-284. >>> L-NAME; fasudil; SC; Rat (pregnant); Controls received mp w/ normal saline; animal info (Wistar Han, 200-250 g, E14, female); enzyme inhibitor (nitric oxide synthase, NOS, Rho-kinase, ROCK); one group contained mixture of fasudil and L-NAME; teratology.

11872 Neerhof, M.G., Synowiec, S., Khan, S., Thaete, L.G. Impact of Endothelin A Receptor Antagonist Selectivity in Chronic Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition-Induced Fetal Growth Restriction in the Rat. HYPERTENSION IN PREGNANCY 2010; 29(-3-):284-293. >>> FR139317; L-NAME; A-127722; ABT-546; Saline; ethyl alcohol; propylene glycol; NaOH; SC; IV (jugular); Rat; 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Sprague Dawley, male, female, 11-20 wks old, 225-250 g); FR139317 is a tripeptide with 8000-fold selectivity for ETA23; peptides; multiple pumps used (2); enzyme inhibitor (NOS, nitric oxide synthase); ABT-546 is a nonpeptide ETA antagonist.

11848 Chung, E., Zelinski, L.M., Ohgami, Y., Shirachi, D.Y., Quock, R.M. Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment Induces a 2-Phase Antinociceptive Response of Unusually Long Duration in Mice. JOURNAL OF PAIN 2010; 11(-9-):847-853. >>> L-NAME; naltrexone; Saline, physiological; CSF/CNS; Mice; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (NIH, Swiss, 18-22 g); ALZET brain infusion kit used; hyperbaric oxygen.

11674 Wroblewska-Seniuk, K., Nowicki, S., Le Bouguenec, C., Nowicki, B., Yallampalli, C. Maternal/fetal mortality and fetal growth restriction: role of nitric oxide and virulence factors in intrauterine infection in rats. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2011; 205(-1-):U242-U248. >>> L-NAME; Rat (pregnant); 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Sprague Dawley, female, timed-pregnant); enzyme inhibitor (NOS, nitric oxide synthase).

11609 Suzuki, T., Nagamatsu, C., Kushima, T., Miyakoshi, R., Tanaka, K., Morita, H., Sakaue, M., Takizawa, T. Apoptosis caused by an inhibitor of NO production in the decidua of rat from mid-gestation. EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE 2010; 235(-4-):455-462. >>> L-NAME; SC; Rat (pregnant); 2ML1; Animal info (female, Crj, Wistar, 10-15 wks old); enzyme inhibitor (NOS).

11396 Hu, X.L., Atzler, D., Xu, X., Zhang, P., Guo, H.P., Lu, Z.B., Fassett, J., Schwedhelm, E., Boeger, R.H., Bache, R.J., Chen, Y.J. Dimethylarginine Dimethylaminohydrolase-1 Is the Critical Enzyme for Degrading the Cardiovascular Risk Factor Asymmetrical Dimethylarginine. ARTERIOSCLEROSIS THROMBOSIS AND VASCULAR BIOLOGY 2011; 31(-7-):1540-U145. >>> L-NAME; SC; Mice; Wild type controls received mp w/ L-NAME; animal info (DDAH1 -/-).

11347 Gao, J., Zhang, H., Le, K.D., Chao, J., Gao, L. Activation of Central Angiotensin Type 2 Receptors Suppresses Norepinephrine Excretion and Blood Pressure in Conscious Rats. American Journal of Hypertension 2011; 24(-6-):724-730. >>> Compound 21; L-NAME; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS; Rat; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 290-380 g); ALZET brain infusion kit used.

11192 Thaete, L.G., Neerhof, M.G., Silver, R.K. Differential Effects of Endothelin A and B Receptor Antagonism on Fetal Growth in Normal and Nitric Oxide-Deficient Rats. J. Soc. Gynecol. Invest 2001; 8(-1-):18-23. >>> FR-139317; L-NAME; A-127722; A-182086; Ethyl alcohol; propylene glycol; sodium hydroxide; water; IV (jugular); Rat (pregnant); Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, Sprague-Dawley); teratology; peptides; multiple pumps per animal (2); 20% ethyl alcohol used; wound clips used.

11191 Thaete, L.G., Neerhof, M.G. ENDOTHELIN AND BLOOD PRESSURE REGULATION IN THE FEMALE RAT: STUDIES INNORMAL PREGNANCY AND WITH NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE INHIBITION-INDUCEDHYPERTENSION. HYPERTENSION IN PREGNANCY 2011; 19(-2-):233-247. >>> A-127722; A-182086; A-192621; FR-139317; L-NAME; Ethyl alcohol; propylene glycol; NaOH; water; SC; IV (jugular); Rat (pregnant); rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, Sprague-Dawley); multiple pumps per animal (2); wound clips used; 20% ethyl alcohol used;"It is likely that administration with the pumps resulted in more consistent drug levels..."pg 242.

11140 Mihout, F., Shweke, N., Bige, N., Jouanneau, C., Dussaule, J.C., Ronco, P., Chatziantoniou, C., Boffa, J.J. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) induces chronic kidney disease through a mechanism involving collagen and TGF-beta 1 synthesis. Journal of Pathology 2011; 223(-1-):37-45. >>> L-NAME; dimethylarginine, asymmetric; SC; Mice; Controls received mp w/ iso-osmotic saline serum; animal info (23 g, male, SV129, 8 wks old, uninephrectomized); long-term study; enzyme inhibitor (nitric oxide synthase, NOS).

11051 Neerhof, M.G., Synowiec, S., Khan, S., Thaete, L.G. Pathophysiology of Chronic Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition-Induced Fetal Growth Restriction in the Rat. HYPERTENSION IN PREGNANCY 2011; 30(-1-):28-36. >>> L-NAME; ABT-546; Saline; ethyl alcohol; SC; Rat; 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, male, Sprague-Dawley, 11-20 wks old, 225-250 g); multiple pumps per animal (2).

10221 Santhanam, L., Tuday, E.C., Webb, A.K., Dowzicky, P., Kim, J.H., Oh, Y.J., Sikka, G., Kuo, M., Halushka, M.K., Macgregor, A.M., Dunn, J., Gutbrod, S., Yin, D., Shoukas, A., Nyhan, D., Flavahan, N.A., Belkin, A.M., Berkowitz, D.E. Decreased S-Nitrosylation of Tissue Transglutaminase Contributes to Age-Related Increases in Vascular Stiffness. Circulation Research 2010; 107(-1-):117-U243. >>> L-NAME; Cystamine; Mice; rat; Controls received mp w/vehicle; cardiovascular; enzyme inhibitor (NO synthase; transglutaminase); animal info (male, BL6129S wt, TG2 -/-, 3-5 months old; Fisher 344, 18-19 months old); pumps replaced every 4 weeks; long-term study.

10312 Xue, B.J., Singh, M., Guo, F., Hay, M., Johnson, A.K. Protective actions of estrogen on angiotensin II-induced hypertension: role of central nitric oxide. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology 2009; 297(-5-):H1638-H1646. >>> L-NAME; L-VNIO; Angiotensin II; SC; CSF/CNS; Mice; 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; peptides; cardiovascular; enzyme ihibitor (NO synthase); animal info (male, female, C57BL/6, 12-16 weeks old); replacement therapy (ovariectomy, gonadectomy); cannula placement confirmed post mortem histologically; N5-(1-imino-3-butenyl)-L-ornithine (L-VNIO).

8742 Ravishankar, V., Buhimschi, C.S., Booth, C.J., Bhandari, V., Norwitz, E., Copel, J., Buhimschi, I.A. Fetal nucleated red blood cells in a rat model of intrauterine growth restriction induced by hypoxia and nitric oxide synthase inhibition. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2007; 196(-5-):U104-U111. >>> L-NAME; Saline, sterile; SC; Rat (pregnant); 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (NO synthase); animal info (female, Sprague-Dawley, G-D17, 300-350 g).

8712 Clarkson, A.N., Liu, H., Schiborra, F., Shaw, O., Sammut, I.A., Jackson, D.M., Appleton, I. Angiogenesis as a predictive marker of neurological outcome following hypoxia-ischemia. Brain Research 2007; 1171(--):111-121. >>> Clomethiazole; L-NAME; SC; Rat; 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ vehicle or saline or no treatment; no stress (see pg. 112); enzyme inhibitor (NO synthase); ischemia (cerebral); animal info (male, Wistar, 21 days old).

8724 Ebose, E.J., Campbell, P.I., Okorodudu, A.O. Electrolytes and pH changes in pre-eclamptic rats. Clinica Chimica Acta 2007; 384(-1-2-):135-140. >>> L-NAME; Saline, sterile, isotonic; SC; Rat (pregnant); 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (NOS); animal info (female, Sprague-Dawley, 270-340g, GD15).

8587 Gangula, P.R.R., Maner, W.L., Micci, M.A., Garfield, R.E., Pasricha, P.J. Diabetes induces sex-dependent changes in neuronal nitric oxide synthase dimerization and function in the rat gastric antrum. American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 2007; 292(-3-):G725-G733. >>> L-NAME; SC; Rat; 2ML1; Replacement therapy (STZ-induced diabetes mellitus; enzyme inhibitor (nitric oxide synthase); animal info (male, female, Sprague-Dawley, 7 wks old).

8574 Schwenke, D.O., Pearson, J.T., Mori, H., Shirai, M. Does central nitric oxide elicit pulmonary hypertension in conscious rats?. RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY&NEUROBIOLOGY 2006; 153(-3-):250-260. >>> L-NAME; SIN-1; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (NO synthase); cardiovascular; animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 200-320 grams, 8 weeks old); Evans blue dye used to confirm correct cannula placement; SIN-1 is 2-[4-morpholinyl]-sydnonimine-hydrochloride.

8508 Badn, W., Hegardt, P., Fellert, M.A., Darabi, A., Esbjoernsson, M., Smith, K.E., Janelidze, S., Salford, L.G., Visse, E., Siesjoe, P. Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase enhances anti-tumour immune responses in rats immunized with IFN-gamma-secreting glioma cells. SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY 2007; 65(-3-):289-297. >>> L-NAME; L-NIL; Saline; IP; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; dose-response (fig. 3); comparison of IP injections vs. mp; enzyme inhibitor (Nitric oxide synthase, iNOS); cancer (glioma); L-NIL is L-N6- (1-iminsethyl) -L-lysine.

8435 Aikawa, K., Chichester, P., Whitbeck, C., Levin, R.M. Effect of nitric oxide synthase inhibition on changes induced by estradiol in bladders from ovariectomized rabbits. UROLOGIA INTERNATIONALIS 2005; 75(-2-):133-138. >>> L-NAME; Saline; SC; Rabbit; Controls received sham OVX w/ no mp; enzyme inhibitor (NO synthase); animal info (female, New Zealand White, 3.5-4.0 kg.).

8103 Coates, B.J., Broderick, T.L., Batia, L.M., Standley, C.A. MgSO4 prevents left ventricular dysfunction in an animal model of preeclampsia. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2006; 195(-5-):1398-1403. >>> L-NAME; magnesium sulfate; Saline; SC; Rat (pregnant); 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; cardiovascular; animal info (female, Sprague-Dawley, 150-175g.);"Infusion of L-NAME in pregnant rats represent an excellent animal model suitable for the study of cardiovascular dysfunction in preeclampsia."(pg. 1401).

7963 Schwenke, D.O., Pearson, J.T., Kangawa, K., Shirai, M. Does central nitric oxide chronically modulate the acute hypoxic ventilatory response in conscious rats?. ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA 2006; 186(-4-):309-318. >>> L-NAME; sydnonimine-hydrochloride, 3-[4-morpholinyl]-; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; no stress (see pg. 312); enzyme inhibitor (no synthase); post op. care (viccillin); animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 8 wk. old, 200-320g.); correct catheter positioning confirmed post mortem w/ Evans blue dye.

7509 Takei, H., Yamamoto, M., Kase, Y., Takeda, S. The effect of herbal medicine Toki-shakuyaku-san on blood pressure in an Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester-induced pre-eclampsia rat model during pregnancy and the postpartum period. JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGICAL SCIENCES 2005; 98(-3-):255-262. >>> L-NAME; SC; Rat (pregnant); 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ saline; enzyme inhibitor (NO synthase); cardiovascular.

7414 Pfosser, A., Thalgott, M., Buettner, K., Brouet, A., Feron, O., Boekstegers, P., Kupatt, C. Liposomal Hsp90 cDNA induces neovascularization via nitric oxide in chronic ischemia. Cardiovascular Research 2005; 65(-3-):728-736. >>> Geldanamycin; L-NAME; SC; Rabbit; Enzyme inhibitor (Hsp90, NO synthase).

7389 Jacobi, J., Sydow, K., von Degenfeld, G., Zhang, Y., Dayoub, H., Wang, B.Y., Patterson, A.J., Kimoto, M., Blau, H.M., Cooke, J.P. Overexpression of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase reduces tissue asymmetric dimethylarginine levels and enhances angiogenesis. Circulation 2005; 111(-11-):1431-1438. >>> L-NAME; dimethylarginine, asymmetric; PBS; SC; IP; Mice; mice (transgenic); 2002; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (nitric oxide synthase); cardiovascular; ischemia (hindlimb).

7258 Bourraindeloup, M., Adamy, C., Candiani, G., Cailleret, M., Bourin, M.C., Badoual, T., Su, J.B., Adubeiro, S., Roudot-Thoraval, F., Dubois-Rande, J.L., Hittinger, L., Pecker, F. N-acetylcysteine treatment normalizes serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha level and hinders the progression of cardiac injury in hypertensive rats. Circulation 2004; 110(-14-):2003-2009. >>> L-NAME; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Functionality of mp verified by systolic blood pressure; pumps replaced after 4 weeks; enzyme inhibitor (no synthase); cardiovascular.

7233 De Seranno, S., Estrella, C., Loyens, A., Cornea, A., Ojeda, S.R., Beauvillain, J.C., Prevot, V. Vascular endothelial cells promote acute plasticity in ependymoglial cells of the neuroendocrine brain. Journal of Neuroscience 2004; 24(-46-):10353-10363. >>> L-NAME; Sodium chloride; CSF/CNS (median eminence); Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by determining correct cannula placement and exhaustion of infusion solution; enzyme inhibitor (NOS).

7161 Thaete, L.G., Kushner, D.M., Dewey, E.R., Neerhof, M.G. Endothelin and the regulation of uteroplacental perfusion in nitric oxide synthase inhibition-induced fetal growth restriction. PLACENTA 2005; 26(-2-3-):242-250. >>> L-NAME; A-127722; Saline; ethyl alcohol; NaOH; water; propylene glycol; SC; Rat (pregnant); 2ML1; Functionality of mp verified by residual volume; stability verified by prior experiment (24 days); multiple pumps per animal (2); drugs infused in separate pumps; A-127722 (ETA receptor antagonist) was dissolved in 20% alcohol, 40% PG and 0.04 M of NaOH.

6838 Li, X., Simard, J.M. Increase in Cx45 gap junction channels in cerebral smooth muscle cells from SHR. Hypertension 2002; 40(-6-):940-946. >>> Angiotensin II; L-NAME; captopril; SC; Rat; Enzyme inhibitor (nitric oxide synthase); cardiovascular; antihypertensive.

6692 Wheeler, M.T., Allikian, M.J., Heydemann, A., Hadhazy, M., Zarnegar, S., McNally, E.M. Smooth muscle cell-extrinsic vascular spasm arises from cardiomyocyte degeneration in sarcoglycan-deficient cardiomyopathy. Journal of Clinical Investigation 2004; 113(-5-):668-675. >>> L-NAME; IP; Mice (transgenic); Controls received mp w/ saline; enzyme inhibitor (no synthase); cardiovascular.

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81. L-NIL

13271 Park, J.E., Abrams, M.J., Efron, P.A., Barbul, A. Excessive nitric oxide impairs wound collagen accumulation. Journal of Surgical Research 2013; 183(-1-):487-492. >>> L-N6-(1-iminoethyl)-Lysine (L-NIL); SC; Rat; Animal info (male, 12-14-week-old, Sprague-Dawley, 350-450g); immunology; Dose response (Pg. 489); enzyme inhibitor (iNOS); pump was used in conjuction with polyvinyl alcohol sponge by a silastic catheter (pg. 488).

12649 Oppeltz, R.F., Rani, M., Zhang, Q., Schwacha, M.G. Gamma delta (gammadelta) T-cells are critical in the up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase at the burn wound site. Cytokine 2012; 60(-2-):528-534. >>> L-Nil; PBS; SC; Mice; 2001; Animal info (C57BL/6, gamma TCR -/-, male, 8-10 wks old); enzyme inhibitor (nitric oxide synthase, iNOS).

8928 Badn, W., Visse, E., Darabi, A., Smith, K.E., Salford, L.G., Siesjoe, P. Postimmunization with IFN-gamma-secreting glioma cells combined with the inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor mercaptoethylguanidine prolongs survival of rats with intracerebral tumors. Journal of Immunology 2007; 179(-6-):4231-4238. >>> L-NIL; Saline; IP; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ PBS; pumps replaced after 7 days and 3 non-delivery days; enzyme inhibitor (iNOS); cancer (glioma); animal info (Fischer 344, 8-10 wks old); L-N6-(1-imminoethyl)-lysine.

8508 Badn, W., Hegardt, P., Fellert, M.A., Darabi, A., Esbjoernsson, M., Smith, K.E., Janelidze, S., Salford, L.G., Visse, E., Siesjoe, P. Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase enhances anti-tumour immune responses in rats immunized with IFN-gamma-secreting glioma cells. SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY 2007; 65(-3-):289-297. >>> L-NAME; L-NIL; Saline; IP; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; dose-response (fig. 3); comparison of IP injections vs. mp; enzyme inhibitor (Nitric oxide synthase, iNOS); cancer (glioma); L-NIL is L-N6- (1-iminsethyl) -L-lysine.

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82. L-NIO

5954 Kanno, S., Wu, Y-J.L., Lee, P.C., Billiar, T.R, Ho, C. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor preserves p21 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats. Circulation 2001; 104(-8-):945-950. >>> L-NIO; IV (jugular); Rat; Controls received mp w/ saline; enzyme inhibitor (Nitric oxide synthase); L-NIO is N-iminoethyl-L-ornithine, a potent NOS inhibitor.

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83. L-NMMA

8163 Parathath, S.R., Parathath, S., Tsirka, S.E. Nitric oxide mediates neurodegeneration and breakdown of the blood-brain barrier in tPA-dependent excitotoxic injury in mice. Journal of Cell Science 2006; 119(-2-):339-349. >>> Tissue plasminogen activator; tissue plasminogen activator, S 481A; TmPyP; NMMA; TMPyP, Fe-; PTIO; TPPS, Fe-; SC; Mice; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; dose-response (fig 3); enzyme inhibitor (tPA; NO synthase); neurodegenerative; animal info (C57BL/6).

8009 Seto, S., Nagao, S., Ozeki, S., Tetsuo, H., Akahoshi, M., Yano, K. Contribution of central nitric oxide to the regulation of blood pressure and sodium balance in DOCA-salt hypertension. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 2006; 47(-5-):680-685. >>> L-NMMA; IP; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ saline; replacement therapy (nephrectomy); dose-response (fig. 1); enzyme inhibitor (no synthase); cardiovascular; animal info (male, Wistar, 7 wk. old, 240g.); cannula location confirmed by methylene blue staining.

7481 Kashiwagi, S., Izumi, Y., Gohongi, T., Demou, Z.N., Xu, L., Huang, P.L., Buerk, D.G., Munn, L.L., Jain, R.K., Fukumura, D. NO mediates mural cell recruitment and vessel morphogenesis in murine melanomas and tissue-engineered blood vessels. Journal of Clinical Investigation 2005; 115(-7-):1816-1827. >>> L-NMMA; D-NMMA; SC; Mice; mice (SCID); 1002; Controls received mp w/ D-NMMA; pumps replaced at day 14; enzyme inhibitor (NO synthase); cancer (melanoma); cardiovascular; eNOS -/- mice; iNOS -/- mice.

7054 Hagendoorn, J., Padera, T.P., Kashiwagi, S., Isaka, N., Noda, F., Lin, M.I., Huang, P.L., Sessa, W.C., Fukumura, D., Jain, R.K. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase regulates microlymphatic flow via collecting lymphatics. Circulation Research 2004; 95(-2-):204-209. >>> L-NMMA; D-NMMA; SC; Mice; Controls received mp w/ D-NMMA; enzyme inhibitor (NO synthase); cardiovascular.

6962 Momohara, Y., Sakamoto, S., Obayashi, S., Aso, T., Goto, M., Azuma, H. Roles of endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitors and endothelin-1 for regulating myometrial contractions during gestation in the rat. MOLECULAR HUMAN REPRODUCTION 2004; 10(-7-):505-512. >>> L-NMMA; IP; Rat; Controls received mp w/ saline; enzyme inhibitor (no synthase).

4523 Schaffer, M.R., Tantry, U., Thornton, F.J, Barbul, A. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis in wounds: pharmacology and effect on accumulation of collagen in wounds in mice.. Eur. J. Surg 1999; 165(--):262-267. >>> L-NMMA; Aminoguanidine hemisulphate; MITU;; PBS;; IP;; mice;; control received mp w/vehicle; comparison of IP injections vs. mp; wound healing study; MITU is S-methyl isothiouronium, a competitive NO synthase inhibitor..

4331 Wada, Y., Matsuoka, H., Okuda, S., Imaizumi, T. Chronic inhibition of nitric oxide in central nervous system does not cause hypertension. Hypertension Res 1998; 21(--):97-101. >>> L-NMMA; D-NMMA; CSF/CNS (cisterna magna); rat; 2001; controls received mp w/D-NMMA; no stress (p. 98); nitric oxide synthase inhibitor; L-NMMA is N6-monomethyl-L-arginine; silastic PE10 tubing connected to PE50 tubing; pump implanted 7 days after cannula implantation; catheter patency verified; cardiovascular.

3630 Suzuki, Y., Ikari, H., Hayashi, T., Iguchi, A. Central administration of a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor impairs spatial memory in spontaneous hypertensive rats. Neuroscience Letters 1996; 207(--):105-108. >>> L-NMMA; Saline; Trypan blue; CSF/CNS (dorsal third ventricle); rat; 2001; agent is N-monomethyl-L-arginine; enzyme inhibitor: nitric oxide synthase.

3581 Cohen, T.I., Weinberg, R.J., Blight, A.R. Intrathecal infusion of the Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitor N-methyl L-arginine after experimental spinal cord injury in guinea pigs. J. Neurotrauma 1996; 13(-7-):361-369. >>> L-NMMA; D-NMMA; CSF/CNS (spinal cord, intrathecal); guinea-pig; 2001; spinal cord injury.

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84. LY294002

15278 Chrystelle V. Garat, PhD,, Joseph T. Crossno, Jr, MD, PhD,, Timothy M. Sullivan, BS,, Jane E. B. Reusch, MD,, Dwight J. Klemm, PhD. Inhibition of Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt Signaling Attenuates Hypoxia-induced Pulmonary Artery Remodeling and Suppresses CREB Depletion in Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells. J Cardiovasc. Pharmacol 2014; 62(-6-):539-548. >>> Triciribine; LY294002; DMSO; water; SC; rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; 50% DMSO used; pumps were filled with either vehicle or test agent solution; animal info (Male Wistar-Kyoto rats); functionality of mp verified by expected results being observed in the test animals ; cancer (use of triciribine, which inhibits growth of Akt-overexpressing human cancer cells lines; in this case, cancer of the pulmonary artery system); good methods (Methods/Animal care and treatment section); no stress (see pg. 540); Cardiovascular focus on vasoconstriction and muscularization of vessels; PI3K aka Phosphatidylinositol; CREB aka cAMP response element binding protein; enzyme inhibitor (inhibition of PI3K); Therapeutic indication (hypoxia and other insults); Dose: 1mg/kg/d of LY294002 or 0.5mg/kg/d of triciribine.

11863 Romo, L.B., Tapia, R. VEGF protects spinal motor neurons against chronic excitotoxic degeneration in vivo by activation of PI3-K pathway and inhibition of p38MAPK. Journal of Neurochemistry 2010; 115(-5-):1090-1101. >>> Isoxazolepropionate, alpha amino-3-hydroxy-5-; vascular endothelial growth factor, recomb., 164; SU14980, tyrphostin; LY294002; wortmannin; PD-98059; SB203580; neurodegenerative (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis);; PBS; DMSO; CSF/CNS (intrathecal, spinal cord); Rat; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Wistar, male, 270-290 g, adult); alpha amino-3-hydroxy-5-isoxazolepropionate also known as AMPA; wound clips used; post op. care, pg 1091 (penicillin); good methods, pg 1091; multiple pumps used (2); multiple intrathecal catheters used; wound clips used; 2% DMSO used; enzyme inhibitor (p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, p38MAPK).

11013 Bruel-Jungerman, E., Veyrac, A., Dufour, F., Horwood, J., Laroche, S., Davis, S. Inhibition of PI3K-Akt Signaling Blocks Exercise-Mediated Enhancement of Adult Neurogenesis and Synaptic Plasticity in the Dentate Gyrus. PLoS One 2009; 4(-11-):U52-U61. >>> LY294002; DMSO; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (young, male, adult, Sprague-Dawley, 10-12 wks old); enzyme inhibitor (Phosphoinositide 3-kinase, PI3K); post op. care (topical antiseptic, exocptoplix); behavioral testing (running wheel); 30% DMSO used; aCSF recipe.

8207 Gelling, R.W., Morton, G.J., Morrison, C.D., Niswender, K.D., Myers, MG Jr, Rhodes, C.J., Schwartz, M.W. Insulin action in the brain contributes to glucose lowering during insulin treatment of diabetes. Cell Metabolism 2006; 3(-1-):67-73. >>> LY294002; CSF/CNS (third ventricle); Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; comparison of icv injections vs. mp; enzyme inhibitor (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase); animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 250-350g); cannula placement confirmed; tissue perfusion (ventricle).

8033 Dell, S., Peters, S., Muether, P., Kociok, N., Joussen, A.M. The role of PDGF receptor inhibitors and PI3-kinase signaling in the pathogenesis of corneal neovascularization. INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY&VISUAL SCIENCE 2006; 47(-5-):1928-1937. >>> AG-1296; wortmannin; LY294002; PBS; IP; Mice; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; dose-response (fig. 6); enzyme inhibitor (PDGF receptor kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase); animal info (male, C57BL/6,7-10wk old 20g.).

7123 Poulaki, V., Joussen, A.M., Mitsiades, N., Mitsiades, C.S., Iliaki, E.F., Adamis, A.P. Insulin-like growth factor-I plays a pathogenetic role in diabetic retinopathy. American Journal of Pathology 2004; 165(-2-):457-469. >>> Wortmannin; ly294002; antibody, monoclonal aLR-3; SP600125; SN50; geldanamycin; IP; Rat; 2002; Enzyme inhibitor (P1-3K, JNK, janus kinase); diabetes.

5409 Nakanishi, K., Sakamoto, M., Yasuda, J., Takamura, M., Fujita, N., Tsuruo, T., Todo, S., Hirohashi, S. Critical involvement of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway in anchorage-independent growth and hematogeneous intrahepatic metastasis of liver cancer. Cancer Res 2002; 62(-10-):2971-2975. >>> LY294002; DMSO; IP; Mice; 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; pumps replaced after 2 weeks; cancer; enzyme inhibitor; 35% DMSO used; LY4294002 is a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor.

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85. Lepirudin

11259 Chuang, K.I., Leung, B., Hsu, N., Harris, H.W. Heparin protects against septic mortality via apoE-antagonism. American Journal of Surgery 2011; 202(-3-):325-335. >>> Heparin; octasaccharide; lepirudin; IP; Mice; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (male, C57BL/6, 8 wks old, 20-25 g).

8543 Castellino, F.J., Ganopolsky, J.G., Noria, F., Sandoval-Cooper, M.J., Ploplis, V.A. Focal arterial inflammation is augmented in mice with a deficiency of the protein C gene. THROMBOSIS AND HAEMOSTASIS 2006; 96(-6-):794-801. >>> Lepirudin; IP; Mice; 2001; Controls received no treatment; enzyme inhibitor (thrombin); cardiovascular; copper/silicone cuff on left carotid artery.

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86. Letrozole

11081 Zhu, W., Wang, L., Zhang, L., Palmateer, J.M., Libal, N.L., Hurn, P.D., Herson, P.S., Murphy, S.J. ISOFLURANE PRECONDITIONING NEUROPROTECTION IN EXPERIMENTAL FOCAL STROKE IS ANDROGEN-DEPENDENT IN MALE MICE. Neuroscience 2010; 169(-2-):758-769. >>> Letrozole; Propylene glycol; SC; Mice; 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, C57BL/6, ArKO, ArWT); enzyme inhibitor (aromatase).

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87. Leupeptin

14710 Deshotels, M.R., Xia, H.J., Sriramula, S., Lazartigues, E., Filipeanu, C.M., Lazartigues, E. Angiotensin II Mediates Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Type 2 Internalization and Degradation Through an Angiotensin II Type I Receptor-Dependent Mechanism. Hypertension 2014; 64(--):1368-U438. >>> Angiotensin II; leupeptin; Saline; cerebrospinal fluid, artificial; SC; CSF/CNS; Mice; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (C57Bl6 or ACE2 KO, 25-30g, 14-16 weeks old); cardiovascular; peptides; bp measured using radiotelemetry; Ang II infused SC; leupeptin infused ICV;.

11222 Abaamrane, L., Raffin, F., Schmerber, S., Sendowski, I. Intracochlear perfusion of leupeptin and z-VAD-FMK: influence of antiapoptotic agents on gunshot-induced hearing loss. European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology 2011; 268(-7-):987-993. >>> Leupeptin; z-VAD-FMK; Ear (cochlea); Guinea pig; 2001; Controls received no treatment; animal info (albino, 400-600 g); enzyme inhibitor (caspase); artificial perilymph solution recipe;"A miniature glass pipette with a ring of glue placed next to the tip to provide a leak-proof seal protecting the cochlea from contamination was connected to the catheter."pg 988; tissue perfusion.

10501 Shinohara, M., Sato, N., Kurinami, H., Takeuchi, D., Takeda, S., Shimamura, M., Yamashita, T., Uchiyama, Y., Rakugi, H., Morishita, R. Reduction of Brain beta-Amyloid (A-beta) by Fluvastatin, a Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitor, through Increase in Degradation of Amyloid Precursor Protein C-terminal Fragments (APP-CTFs) and A-beta Clearance. Journal of Biological Chemistry 2010; 285(-29-):22091-22102. >>> Leupeptin; E-64a; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS; Mice (transgenic); 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; peptides; ALZET brain infusion kit 3 used; no stress (see pg 22092); neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's Disease); animal info (male, C57BL/6, APP23 Tg, 8 wks old); lysosomal inhibitor; aCSF recipe.

9294 Yang, D.S., Kumar, A., Stavrides, P., Peterson, J., Peterhoff, C.M., Pawlik, M., Levy, E., Cataldo, A.M., Nixon, R.A. Neuronal apoptosis and autophagy cross talk in aging PS/APP mice, a model of Alzheimer's disease. American Journal of Pathology 2008; 173(-3-):665-681. >>> Leupeptin; HEPES, buffer; CSF/CNS; Mice (transgenic); 2004; Enzyme inhibitor (cysteine protease); cyanoacrylate adhesive; animal info (6 months old, PS/APP, or wt); neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's Disease); pumps primed in sterile saline at 37 degree Celsius for 48 hours.

7424 Nakajima, T., Takauchi, S., Ohara, K., Kokai, M., Nishii, R., Maeda, S., Takanaga, A., Tanaka, T., Takeda, M., Seki, M., Morita, Y. Alpha-Synuclein-positive structures induced in leupeptin-infused rats. Brain Research 2005; 1040(-1-2-):73-80. >>> Leupeptin; PBS; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (protease); peptides;"The leupeptin infusion rat model is thought to be a useful material for studying several neuronal changes resembling the aging or degeneration of the central nervous tissue."(p. 79).

7300 yala-Grosso, C., Tam, J., Xanthoudakis, S., Bureau, Y., Roy, S., Nicholson, D.W., Robertson, G.S. Effects of fimbria-fornix transection on calpain and choline acetyl transferase activities in the septohippocampal pathway. Neuroscience 2004; 126(-4-):927-940. >>> Leupeptin; MDL 28170; Saline, sterile; DMSO; cyclodextrin; CSF/CNS; Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; replacement therapy (axotomy); enzyme inhibitor (calpain); 2% DMSO; mp primed overnight at 37 degree Celsius; 10% cyclodextrin used.

4853 Tang, W, Seidman, M.D, Henig, J.P, Shulman, A, Stracher, A. The effects of leupeptin on cochlear blood flow, auditory sensitivity, and histology.. International Tinnitus Journal 2001; 7(-1-):4-12. >>> Leupeptin;; Hank's solution;; ear (round window);; guinea-pig;; 2002;; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; tissue perfusion (bulla); long-term study, pumps replaced every 13 days; IntraEAR catheter used; Leupeptin is a potent calpain inhibitor; neuroprotection; buprenorphine given as postoperative analgesic; chloramphenicol given as prophlactic antibiotic;.

4370 Frautschy, S.A., Horn, D.L., Sigel, J.J., Harris-White, M.E., Mendoza, J.J., Yang, F., Saido, T.C., Cole, G.M. Protease inhibitor coinfusion with amyloid beta-protein results in enhanced deposition and toxicity in rat brain. Journal of Neuroscience 1998; 18(-20-):8311-8321. >>> Amyloid protein, beta; Aprotinin; Leupeptin;; HEPES;; CSF/CNS;; rat; 2004;; controls received mp w/ vehicle; peptides; ALZET brain infusion kit used; beta-amyloid protein infused alone, or concomitantly with aprotinin or leupeptin; enzyme inhibitors.

3919 Arai, T., Ikarashi, Y., Okamoto, K., Kuribara, H., Maruyama, Y. Memory disturbance and hippocampal degeneration induced by continuous intraventricular infusion of a protease inhibitor, leupeptin. Brain Research 1997; 754(--):157-162. >>> Leupeptin; CSF, artificial;; CSF/CNS; rat; 2002; controls received mp w/aCSF; ALZET brain infusion kit used.

3862 Porta, E.A., Monserrat, A.J., Berra, A., Rubio, M.C. Effects of lovastatin and leupeptin on ceroidogenesis of vitamin E-deficient and-supplemented young rats. In'Lipofuscin and ceroid pigments', E. A. Porta (ed. ), Plenum Press, N. Y 1990; (--):169-190. >>> Leupeptin; Saline; IP; rat; 2002; long-term study, pumps replaced every 15 days; no stress (see pgs. 178, 180).

3371 Karran, E.H., Dodgson, K., Harris, S.J., Markwell, R.E., Harper, G.P. A simple in vivo model of collagen degradation using collagen-gelled cotton buds: the effects of collagenase inhibitors and other agents. Inflamm. Res 1995; 44(--):36-46. >>> Collagenase inhibitor A; Collagenase inhibitor B; Collagenase inhibitor C; tempol; Superoxide dismutase-PEG; Cytochalasin B; Pepstatin; APMSF; TLCK; SBTI; Leupeptin; E-64; Methylamine; SC; Rat; 2001; 2ML1; controls received mp w/vehicle; no stress (see pg. 39); immunology; pumps connected with catheter tubing to 14C-collagen-gelled cotton buds.

1998 Kitani, K., Nagy, I.Zs., Ohta, M., Kanai, S., Sato, Y., Ivy, G.O. Effect of leupeptin on the lateral mobility of proteins in the plasma membrane of hepatocytes of C57BL/6 mice: FRAP studies on liver smears. Arch. Gerontol. Geriatr 1992; 14(--):27-45. >>> Leupeptin; IP; mice; stress/adverse reaction: states IP mp may have had adverse effect on results, however, mp size used was too large for animal/implant site per manufacturer; thiol-protease inhibitor.

1983 Ivy, G.O. Protease inhibitors as a model for NCL disease, with special emphasis on the infantile and adult forms. Am. J. Med. Genet 1992; 42(--):555-560. >>> E-64C; Aprotinin; Chloroquine; Leupeptin; CSF/CNS; rat; 2002; no comment posted.

1912 Lee, K.S., Frank, S., Vanderklish, P., Arai, A., Lynch, G. Inhibition of proteolysis protects hippocampal neurons from ischemia. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci 1991; 88(--):7233-7237. >>> Leupeptin; CSF/CNS; gerbil; Ischemia (cerebral); peptides.

1893 Ivy, G.O., Kanai, S., Ohta, M., Sato, Y., Otsubo, K., Kitani, K. Leupeptin causes an accumulation of lipofuscin-like substances in liver cells of young rats. Mech. Ageing Dev 1991; 57(--):213-231. >>> Leupeptin; Saline; IP; rat; peptides; thiol protease inhibitor.

1243 Staubli, U., Larson, J., Thibault, O., Baudry, M., Lynch, G. Chronic administration of a thiol-proteinase inhibitor blocks long-term potentiation of synaptic responses. Brain Research 1988; 444(-1-):153-158. >>> Leupeptin; Saline; CSF/CNS; rat; 2002; controls received mp w/ saline; mp connected to cannula in left ventricle; peptides.

1100 Morris, R.G.M., Hagan, J.J., Nadel, L., Jensen, J., Baudry, M., Lynch, G.S. Spatial learning in the rat: Impairment induced by the thiol-proteinase inhibitor, leupeptin, and an analysis of [3H] glutamate receptor binding in relation to learning. Behav. Neural. Biol 1987; 47(--):333-345. >>> Leupeptin; Saline; CSF/CNS; rat; 2002; controls received mp w/saline; mp connected to catheter in lateral ventricle; 2 experiments were conducted, only 1 used the mp; peptides.

935 Siman, R., Ahdoot, M., Lynch, G. Ontogeny, compartmentation, and turnover of spectrin isoforms in rat central neurons. J. Neurosci 1987; 7(-1-):55-64. >>> Leupeptin; Saline; CSF/CNS; rat; mp model not stated; controls received mp w/saline; peptides; see p.534 for methods.

884 Ostrowski, L.E., Ahsan, A., Suthar, B.P., Pagast, P., Bain, D.L., Wong, C., Patel, A., Schultz, R.M. Selective inhibition of proteolytic enzymes in an in vivo mouse model for experimental metastasis. Cancer Res 1986; 46(--):4121-4128. >>> Arginal, H-D-Phe-Pro-; EP-453; Leupeptin; DMSO; PBS; Propylene glycol; SC; mice; 2001; controls received mp w/vehicle; mice injected w/melanoma cells; comparison of ip injections vs. mp infusion; cancer; no stress (see p. 4123); peptides.

633 Staubli, U., Baudry, M., Lynch, G. Olfactory discrimination learning is blocked by leupeptin, a thiol protease inhibitor. Brain Research 1985; 337(--):333-336. >>> Leupeptin; Saline; CSF/CNS; rat; 2002; 2 doses leupeptin given; dose-response data; infusion into lateral ventricle; peptides.

534 Ivy, G.O., Schottler, F., Wenzel, J., Baudry, M., Lynch, G. Inhibitors of lysosomal enzymes: accumulation of lipofuscin-like dense bodies in the brain. Science 1984; 226(-4677-):985-987. >>> Chloroquine; Leupeptin; Saline; CSF/CNS; rat; mp model not stated; comparison of icv injection vs. mp infusion; comparison of agents effects; 3 doses of leupeptin used; peptides.

456 Lynch, G., Baudry, M. The biochemistry of memory: a new and specific hypothesis. Science 1984; 224(-4653-):1057-1063. >>> Leupeptin; Aprotinin; Saline; CSF/CNS; rat; 2002; comparison of agents effects; 3 different drug concentrations used in mp: 4 mg Leu./ml saline, 8 mg/ml, 20 mg/ml; aprotinin and saline used separately as controls; peptides.

362 Kuranda, M.J., Aronson Jr, N.N. Tissue locations for the turnover of radioactively labeled rat orosomucoid in vivo. Arch. Biochem. Biophys 1983; 224(-2-):526-533. >>> Leupeptin; Saline; SC; rat; 2ML1; 125I-orosomucoid admin. 12 hours after pump implant; peptides.

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88. Lovastatin

14828 Assaggaf, M.A., Kantarci, A., Sume, S.S., Trackman, P.C., Trackman, P.C. Prevention of Phenytoin-Induced Gingival Overgrowth by Lovastatin in Mice. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY 2015; 185(--):1588-1599. >>> Phenytoin; lovastatin; Water; propylene glycol; ethanol; SC; Mice; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle or saline; animal info (male, BALB/cByJ, 8 weeks old); 9% ethanol used; 41% propylene glycol used; long-term study; phenytoin and lovastatin inside one pump; used autoclips; pumps primed in 37C saline overinight;.

2082 Joles, J., Willekes-Koolschijn, N., Koomans, H., Van Tol, A., Geelhoed-Mieras, T., Crommelin, D., Van Bloois, L., Krajnc-Franken, M., Cohen, L., Griffioen, M., Erkelens, W. Subcutaneous administration of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors in hyperlipidaemic and normal rats. Lab. Anim 1992; 26(--):269-280. >>> Lovastatin; Pravastatin; Liposomes; Simvastatin; Propylene glycol; rat; 2ML4; comparison of injections and oral administration vs. mp; stress/adverse reaction: local cystic reaction to simvastatin and lovastatin (p. 271, 275); enzyme inhibitor (HMG-CoA reductase), sc injections of simvastatin also caused subcutaneous toxicity.

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89. Lysine Chloromethyl Ketone, N-a-tosyl-L-

P4854 Zhang,J.L., Yamaguchi,Y., Mori,K., Okabe,K., Hidaka,H., Ohshiro,H., Uchino,S., Ishihara,K., Furuhashi,T., Yamada,S., Ogawa,M. A serine protease inhibitor, N-alpha-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone, prolongs rat hepatic allograft survival. Journal of Surgical Research 2001; 96(--):296-303. >>> Lysine chloromethyl ketone, N-a-tosyl-L-; Saline; SC; rat; up to 7 days; controls received mp w/ vehicle; immunology; enzyme inhibitor; TLCK is a serine protease inhibitor; immunosuppression..

P1673 Pakzad,R. Influence of the trypsin inhibitors aprotinin (Trasylol) and TLCK, administered locally by osmotic minipumps, on the gelatinolytic activity of acrosin and the transport of spermatozoa in the female reproductive tract of rabbits. Z.Mikrosk.-Anat.Forsch. 1989; 103(-6-):957-966. >>> Lysine chloromethyl ketone, N-a-tosyl-L-; Aprotinin; intrauterine; rabbit; 6 days; German with English summary (p. 957); trypsin inhibitors; tissue perfusion (uterus).

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90. Lysine Chloromethyl Ketone, N-a-tosyl-L-

4964 Zhang, J.L., Yamaguchi, Y., Mori, K., Okabe, K., Hidaka, H., Ohshiro, H., Uchino, S., Ishihara, K., Furuhashi, T., Yamada, S., Ogawa, M. A serine protease inhibitor, N-alpha-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone, prolongs rat hepatic allograft survival. Journal of Surgical Research 2001; 96(--):296-303. >>> Lysine chloromethyl ketone, N-a-tosyl-L-; Saline; SC; rat; controls received mp w/ vehicle; immunology; enzyme inhibitor; TLCK is a serine protease inhibitor; immunosuppression..

1670 Pakzad, R. Influence of the trypsin inhibitors aprotinin (Trasylol) and TLCK, administered locally by osmotic minipumps, on the gelatinolytic activity of acrosin and the transport of spermatozoa in the female reproductive tract of rabbits. Z. Mikrosk. -Anat. Forsch 1989; 103(-6-):957-966. >>> Lysine chloromethyl ketone, N-a-tosyl-L-; Aprotinin; intrauterine; rabbit; German with English summary (p. 957); trypsin inhibitors; tissue perfusion (uterus).

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91. MDL 28,170

14442 Tona, Y., Hamaguchi, K., Ishikawa, M., Miyoshi, T., Yamamoto, N., Yamahara, K., Ito, J., Nakagawa, T., Nakagawa, T. Therapeutic potential of a gamma-secretase inhibitor for hearing restoration in a guinea pig model with noise-induced hearing loss. BMC NEUROSCIENCE 2014; 15(--):U1-U8. >>> MDL28170; DMSO; PBS; Ear (cochlea); Guinea pig; 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Hartley strain, 350-400g); 0.3% DMSO used; tissue perfusion (cochlea); used Tefron tube with inner diameter of 180 um to cannulate cochlea; MDL28170 is a gamma-secretase inhibitor;.

11641 Ueceyler, N., Biko, L., Sommer, C. MDL-28170 Has No Analgesic Effect on CCI Induced Neuropathic Pain in Mice. MOLECULES 2010; 15(-5-):3038-3047. >>> MDL-28170; DMSO; PEG400; IP; Mice; 1003D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (8-10 wks old, female, wt, C57BL/6J).

11268 Chagniel, L., Robitaille, C., Lebel, M., Cyr, M. Striatal inhibition of calpains prevents levodopa-induced neurochemical changes and abnormal involuntary movements in the hemiparkinsonian rat model. NEUROBIOLOGY OF DISEASE 2012; 45(-1-):645-655. >>> Roscovitine; MDL28170; Saline; DMSO; cyclodextrin, hydroxypropyl beta; CSF/CNS (striatum); Rat; 2004; Animal info (adult, male, Sprague Dawley, 200-250g); ALZET brain infusion kit 2 used; neurodegenerative (Parkinson's disease).

8954 Hori, R., Nakagawa, T., Sakamoto, T., Matsuoka, Y., Takebayashi, S., Ito, J. Pharmacological inhibition of Notch signaling in the mature guinea pig cochlea. NeuroReport 2007; 18(-18-):1911-1914. >>> MDL 28170; DMSO; PBS; Ear (cochlea); Guinea-pig; 1002; Tissue perfusion (cochlea); enzyme inhibitor (gamma secretase); peptides; animal info (Hartley strain, 350-400g); MDL 28170 is a gamma-secretase inhibitor; 0.3% DMSO used;"a silicon tube (180 micron OD) connected to a micro-osmotic minipump...".

7300 yala-Grosso, C., Tam, J., Xanthoudakis, S., Bureau, Y., Roy, S., Nicholson, D.W., Robertson, G.S. Effects of fimbria-fornix transection on calpain and choline acetyl transferase activities in the septohippocampal pathway. Neuroscience 2004; 126(-4-):927-940. >>> Leupeptin; MDL 28170; Saline, sterile; DMSO; cyclodextrin; CSF/CNS; Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; replacement therapy (axotomy); enzyme inhibitor (calpain); 2% DMSO; mp primed overnight at 37 degree Celsius; 10% cyclodextrin used.

5749 Crocker, S.J., Smith, P.D., Jackson-Lewis, V., Lamba, W.R., Hayley, S.P., Grimm, E., Callaghan, S.M., Slack, R.S., Melloni, E., Przedborski, S., Robertson, G.S., Anisman, H., Merali, Z., Park, D.S. Inhibition of calpains prevents neuronal and behavioral deficits in an MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Journal of Neuroscience 2003; 23(-10-):4081-4091. >>> MDL 28170; Ringer's solution; cyclodextrins; DMSO; CSF/CNS; Mice; 1007D; Neurodegenerative (Parkinson's disease); MDL-28170 is a calpain inhibitor.

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92. MDL 28842

2580 Zhang, C., Bowlin, T., Mirkin, B.L. Suppression of C-1300 murine neuroblastoma cell proliferation in tissue culture and tumor growth in vivo by (Z) 5'-fluoro-4', -5'-didehydro-5'-deoxyadenosine (MDL 28,842), an irreversible inhibitor of s-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase. Oncology Res 1993; 5(-10/11-):433-439. >>> MDL 28842; DMSO; Ethanol; Saline; SC; mice; 2001; dose-response (table p. 435, graph p. 436); pumps replaced every 10 days; cancer; enzyme inhibitor.

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93. MDL 73811

5484 Marasco, CJ Jr, Kramer, D.L., Miller, J., Porter, C.W., Bacchi, C.J., Rattendi, D., Kucera, L., Iyer, N., Bernacki, R., Pera, P., Sufrin, J.R. Synthesis and evaluation of analogues of 5'-([(Z)-4-amino-2-butenyl]m ethylamino)-5'-deoxyadenosine as inhibitors of tumor cell growth, trypanosomal growth, and HIV-1 infectivity. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 2002; 45(-23-):5112-5122. >>> MDL 73811; MDL 73811 analogue; Water; Mice; Dose-response; immunology.

2165 Bacchi, C.J., Nathan, H.C., Yarlett, N., Goldberg, B., McCann, P.P., Bitonti, A.J., Sjoerdsma, A. Cure of murine trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense infections with an S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase inhibitor. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother 1992; 36(-12-):2736-2740. >>> MDL 73811; mice; 2001; 2002; comparison of oral admin vs mp; enzyme inhibitor.

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94. MI-1, 2

15533 Karran, E.H., Young, T.J., Markwell, R.E., Harper, G.P. In vivo model of cartilage degradation - effects of a matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 1995; 54(--):662-669. >>> MI-1; MI-2; Propylene glycol; cartilage, femoral head; rat; 2ML2; tissue perfusion (femoral head cartilage); good methods (p. 663); MI-1 and MI-2 are matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors; enzyme inhibitors.

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95. ML-7

9384 Han, Y.J., Hu, W.Y., Piano, M., de Lanerolle, P. Regulation of myosin by angiotensin II in light chain kinase expression hypertension. American Journal of Hypertension 2008; 21(-8-):860-865. >>> U0126; ML-7; DMSO; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (smMLCK or MEK or MAP kinase); animal info (male, SHR, WKY, 16 wks old); 50% DMSO used.

9372 Barkan, D., Kleinman, H., Simmons, J.L., Asmussen, H., Kamaraju, A.K., Hoenorhoff, M.J., Liu, Z.Y., Costes, S.V., Cho, E.H., Lockett, S., Khanna, C., Chambers, A.F., Green, J.E. Inhibition of metastatic outgrowth from single dormant tumor cells by targeting the cytoskeleton. Cancer Research 2008; 68(-15-):6241-6250. >>> ML-7; DMSO; Mice (nude); 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (myosin light chain kinase, MLCK); cancer (breast); animal info (4-6 wks old, female, BALB/c, nu/nu).

8351 Han, Y.J., Hu, W.Y., Chernaya, O., Antic, N., Gu, L.Z., Gupta, M., Piano, M., de Lanerolle, P. Increased myosin light chain kinase expression in hypertension: Regulation by serum response factor via an insertion mutation in the promoterD. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF THE CELL 2006; 17(-9-):4039-4050. >>> U0126; ML-7; DMSO; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (myosin light chain kinase); cardiovascular; animal info (SHR, Wistar-Kyoto, 1, 16 wks old); 50% DMSO.

8338 Goldman, J., Zhong, L., Liu, S.Q. Negative regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell migration by blood shear stress. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology 2007; 292(-2-):H928-H938. >>> PD-98059; ML-7; IV (vena cava); Rat; 2ML1; Enzyme inhibitor (MAP kinase-ERK kinase 1/2, myosin light chain kinase); animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 30. old, vein grafts).

7996 Gu, L.Z., Hu, W.Y., Antic, N., Mehta, R., Turner, J.R., de Lanerolle, P. Inhibiting myosin light chain kinase retards the growth of mammary and prostate cancer cells. European Journal of Cancer 2006; 42(-7-):948-957. >>> ML-7; DMSO; SC; Mice; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; no stress (see pg. 952, 955); enzyme inhibitor (myosin light chain kinase); cancer (mammary adenocarcinoma); toxicology; animal info (female, 14-20 wk. old, MMTV-free, C3H/Hen); 50% DMSO.

7590 Fazal, F., Gu, L.Z., Ihnatovych, I., Han, Y., Hu, W., Antic, N., Carreira, F., Blomquist, J.F., Hope, T.J., Ucker, D.S., de Lanerolle, P. Inhibiting myosin light chain kinase induces apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR BIOLOGY 2005; 25(-14-):6259-6266. >>> ML-7; DMSO; Mice; 1002; Pumps replaced at 14 days; controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, 14-20 weeks old).

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96. MLN-4760

10310 Trask, A.J., Groban, L., Westwood, B.M., Varagic, J., Ganten, D., Gallagher, P.E., Chappell, M.C., Ferrario, C.M. Inhibition of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 Exacerbates Cardiac Hypertrophy and Fibrosis in Ren-2 Hypertensive Rats. American Journal of Hypertension 2010; 23(-6-):687-693. >>> MLN-4760; Saline, physiological; SC; Rat (transgenic); 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; cardiovascular; enzyme inhibitor (ACE2); no stress (see pg. 689); animal info (male, (mRen2)27 Tg, hypertensive, 12 weeks old).

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97. MS-PPOH

14623 Shim, C.Y., Kim, S., Chadderdon, S., Wu, M., Qi, Y., Xie, A., Alkayed, N.J., Davidson, B.P., Lindner, J.R., Lindner, J.R. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids mediate insulin-mediated augmentation in skeletal muscle perfusion and blood volume. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-ENDOCRINOLOGY AND METABOLISM 2014; 307(--):E1097-E1104. >>> MS-PPOH; IP; Rat; 2001D; Animal info ( Sprague Dawley, 230-270 g, male); enzyme inhibitor (epoxygenase); MS-PPOH also known as N-methylsulfonyl-2-(2-propynyloxy)-benzenehexanamide.

8972 Zhang, W.R., Koerner, I.P., Noppens, R., Grafe, M., Tsai, H.J., Morisseau, C., Luria, A., Hammock, B.D., Falck, J.R., Alkayed, N.J. Soluble epoxide hydrolase: a novel therapeutic target in stroke. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 2007; 27(-12-):1931-1940. >>> MS-PPOH; SC; Mice; 2001D; Enzyme inhibitor (p45D epoxygenase; ischemia (cerebral); animal info (C57BL/6, 20-26g, MCAO); N-methylsultonyl-6-(2-propargyloxyphenyl) hexanamide.

8059 Pokreisz, P., Fleming, I., Kiss, L., Barbosa-Sicard, E., Fisslthaler, B., Falck, J.R., Hammock, B.D., Kim, I.H., Szelid, Z., Vermeersch, P., Gillijns, H., Pellens, M., Grimminger, F., van Zonneveld, A.J., Collen, D., Busse, R., Janssens, S. Cytochrome P450 epoxygenase gene function in hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and pulmonary vascular remodeling. Hypertension 2006; 47(-4-):762-770. >>> MS-PPOH; Cyclodextrin, 2-hydroxypropyl-beta; SC; Mice; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (epoxygenase); cardiovascular; animal info (Swiss Webster, 30-35g., 7% hypoxia); N-methylsulfonyl-6-(2-propargyloxyphenyl) hexanamide; 45% cyclodextrin used.

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98. Marimastat

15034 Marshall, D.C., Lyman, S.K., McCauley, S., Kovalenko, M., Spangler, R., Liu, C., Lee, M., O'Sullivan, C., Barry-Hamilton, V., Ghermazien, H., Mikels-Vigdal, A., Garcia, C.A., Jorgensen, B., Velayo, A.C., Wang, R., Adamkewicz, J.I., Smith, V., Smith, V. Selective Allosteric Inhibition of MMP9 Is Efficacious in Preclinical Models of Ulcerative Colitis and Colorectal Cancer. PLoS One 2015; 10(--):U2689-U2714. >>> Marimastat; DMSO; water; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Lewis); 50% DMSO used; behavioral testing (resting posture, gait);.

12516 Mazurek, S.G.N., Li, J., Nabozny, G.H., Reinhart, G.A., Muthukumarana, A.C., Harrison, P.C., Fryer, R.M. Functional biomarkers of musculoskeletal syndrome (MSS) for early in vivo screening of selective MMP-13 inhibitors. Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods 2011; 64(-1-):89-96. >>> Marimastat; DMSO; water; SC; Rat; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Sprague Dawley, male, 180-370); wound clips used; enzyme inhibitor (matrix metalloproteinase, MMP-13).

11746 Frant, J., Veerendhar, A., Chernilovsky, T., Nedvetzki, S., Vaksman, O., Hoffman, A., Breuer, E., Reich, R. Orally Active, Antimetastatic, Nontoxic Diphenyl Ether-Derived Carbamoylphosphonate Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors. ChemMedChem 2011; 6(-8-):1471-1477. >>> Marimastat; Propylene glycol; DMSO; SC; Rat; 2ML2; animal info (male, Lewis, 150-180 g); 50% DMSO used.

9918 Skipper, J.B., McNally, L.R., Rosenthal, E.L., Wang, W.Q., Buchsbaum, D.J. In vivo Efficacy of Marimastat and Chemoradiation in Head and Neck Cancer Xenografts. ORL-JOURNAL FOR OTO-RHINO-LARYNGOLOGY AND ITS RELATED SPECIALTIES 2009; 71(-1-):1-5. >>> Marimastat; DMSO; SC; Mice (nude); 2002; Controls received mp w/vehicle; cancer; animal info (3 mo old, female).

8294 Fridman, J.S., Caulder, E., Hansbury, M., Liu, X.D., Yang, G.J., Wang, Q., Lo, Y., Zhou, B.B., Pan, M., Thomas, S.M., Grandis, J.R., Zhuo, J.C., Yao, W.Q., Newton, R.C., Friedman, S.M., Scherle, P.A., Vaddi, K. Selective inhibition of ADAM metalloproteases as a novel approach for modulating ErbB pathways in cancer. Clinical Cancer Research 2007; 13(-6-):1892-1902. >>> Marimastat; INCB3619; SC; Mice; mice (nude); Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (metalloprotease); cancer (squamous cell carcinoma, breast, lung carcinoma); toxicology; animal info (BALB/c, CD-1 nu/nu); ErbB ligand shedding inhibitor; half-life (pg 1894)"<2h in the mouse"6.1h in larger animals.

6103 Wada, N., Otani, Y., Kubota, T., Kimata, M., Minagawa, A., Yoshimizu, N., Kameyama, K., Saikawa, Y., Yoshida, M., Furukawa, T., Fujii, M., Kumai, K., Okada, Y., Kitajima, M. Reduced angiogenesis in peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer through gelatinase inhibition. CLINICAL&EXPERIMENTAL METASTASIS 2003; 20(-5-):431-435. >>> Marimastat; DMSO; water; SC; Mice (SCID); 2002; controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (matrix metalloprotease); marimastat, the broad-spectrum matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor was dissolved in 50% DMSO; angiogenesis inhibitor.

5585 Charoenrat, P., Rhys-Evans, P., Eccles, S. A synthetic matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor prevents squamous carcinoma cell proliferation by interfering with epidermal growth factor receptor autocrine loops. International Journal of Cancer 2002; 100(-5-):527-533. >>> Marimastat; DMSO; Water, sterile; SC; Mice; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; cancer; enzyme inhibitor (matrix metalloproteinase).

5478 Kimata, M., Otani, Y., Kubota, T., Igarashi, N., Yokoyama, T., Wada, N., Yoshimizu, N., Fujii, M., Kameyama, K., Okada, Y., Kumai, K., Kitajima, M. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor, marimastat, decreases peritoneal spread of gastric carcinoma in nude mice. Japanese Journal of Cancer Research 2002; 93(-7-):834-841. >>> Marimastat; DMSO; SC; Mice (nude); Controls received mp w/ vehicle; pumps replaced after 14 days; gastric cancer; enzyme inhibitor; matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor; 50% DMSO vehicle.

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99. Mepacrine HCl

2861 Nakamura, S. Effects of phospholipase a2 inhibitors on the antidepressant-induced axonal regeneration of noradrengeric locus coeruleus neurons. Microscopy Res. and Tech 1994; 29(--):204-210. >>> Desipramine HCl; Mepacrine HCl; Bromphenacyl bromide, 4-; Saline; DMSO; CSF/CNS (cortex); rat; 2002; antidepressant; mepacrine and 4-bromphenacyl bromide are phospholipase a2 inhibitors; 2 pumps implanted: one delivered just desipramine to one hemisphere, while the other infused desipramine and pla2 inhibitors to the other hemisphere.

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100. Methazolamide

1549 Linser, P.J., Plunkett, J.A. A role for carbonic anhydrase in early eye morphogenesis. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci 1989; 30(-4-):783-785. >>> Methazolamide; Tyrode's solution; Eye; in vitro (egg, eye); Bird (chicken embryo); 2001; comparison of topical dosing vs. mp infusion; tissue perfusion.

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101. Metyrapone

10476 Yamana, R., Shirai, M., Suzuki, T., Tanaka, K., Yamamoto, M., Arishima, K., Takizawa, T. Corticosterone Synthesis Inhibitor-Induced Decrease in the Age-Dependant Expression of Nitric Oxide Synthase 3 in the Preterm Ductus Arteriosus of Rats. JOURNAL OF VETERINARY MEDICAL SCIENCE 2010; 72(-5-):555-560. >>> Metyrapone; DMSO; PEG 400; SC; Rat; 2001D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (11-beta-hydroxylase); animal info (female, Wistar, 10-12 wks old); 50% DMSO used; 50% PEG 400 used.

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102. Mevalonate

12127 Cook, C.C., Kim, A., Terao, S., Gotoh, A., Higuchi, M. Consumption of oxygen: a mitochondrial-generated progression signal of advanced cancer. Cell Death&Disease 2012; 3(-;-):U115-U126. >>> Mevalonate; SC; Mice (nude); 2004; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (athymic, BALB/c, nu/nu, 4 wks old).

7214 Duncan, R.E., El-Sohemy, A., Archer, M.C. Mevalonate promotes the growth of tumors derived from human cancer cells in vivo and stimulates proliferation in vitro with enhanced cyclin-dependent kinase-2 activity. Journal of Biological Chemistry 2004; 279(-32-):33079-33084. >>> Mevalonate; SC; Mice (nude); 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle, or isotonic saline; long-term study; pumps replaced every 28 days; cancer (MDA-MB-435); MDA-MB-435 is a highly malignant human cancer of either breast adenocarcinoma or occult melanoma (origin uncertain); cancer (breast, melanoma, adenocarcinoma).

6941 Duncan, R.E, El-Sohemy, A, Archer, M.C. Delivery of mevalonate to murine extrahepatic tissues via mini-osmotic pumps. Journal of Pharmalogical and Toxicological Methods 2004; 50(--):139-143. >>> Mevalonate; Water, distilled; saline; SC; Mice; 1002; Controls received mp w/ saline;"...delivery from pumps without the use of an outflow direction device was effective for delivering mevalonate to mammary glands and colons of mice."p. 141.

6206 Ohashi, K., Osuga, J., Tozawa, R., Kitamine, T., Yagyu, H., Sekiya, M., Tomita, S., Okazaki, H., Tamura, Y., Yahagi, N., Iizuka, Y., Harada, K., Gotoda, T., Shimano, H., Yamada, N., Ishibashi, S. Early embryonic lethality caused by targeted disruption of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase gene. Journal of Biological Chemistry 2003; 278(-44-):42936-42941. >>> Mevalonate; SC; Mice (pregnant); 2004; Teratology.

3565 Soma, M.R., Parolini, C., Donetti, E., Fumagalli, R., Paoletti, R. Inhibition of isoprenoid biosynthesis and arterial smooth-muscle cell proliferation. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol 1995; 25(-S 4-):S20-S24. >>> Mevalonate; Fluvastatin; IP; perivascular (arterial collar); rabbit; controls received mp w/ saline; tissue perfusion (carotid artery collar); cardiovascular; enzyme inhibitor (HMG-CoA reductase).

3551 Corsini, A., Bernini, F., Quarato, P., Donetti, E., Bellosta, S., Fumagalli, R., Paoletti, R., Soma, V.M.R. Non-lipid-related effects of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors. Cardiology 1996; 87(--):458-468. >>> Mevalonate; Fluvastatin; Saline, physiological; IP; perivascular (arterial collar); tissue perfusion (lesion site-carotid collar); enzyme inhibitor (HMG-CoA reductase).

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103. Miglustat

8544 Bone, W., Walden, C.M., Fritsch, M., Voigtmann, U., Leifke, E., Gottwald, U., Boomkamp, S., Platt, F.M., van der Spoel, A.C. The sensitivity of murine spermiogenesis to miglustat is a quantitative trait: a pharmacogenetic study. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology 2007; 5(--):U1-U13. >>> Miglustat; SC; Mice; 2004; Functionality of mp verified by serum agent levels; comparison of oral vs. mp; long-term study; enzyme inhibitor (ceramide glucosyltransferase); animal info (male, C57BL/6J, BALB/C, FVB/N, 6 weeks old); reproductive endocrinology.

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104. Nitropropionic Acid

15750 Kyoung Joo Cho,, So Young Cheon, &Gyung Whan Kim. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 mediates striatal degeneration via the regulation of C1q. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS 2016; 6(--):1-11. >>> 3-nitropropionic acid; RNA, small interfering ASK1; Transfection reagent; SC; CSF/CNS (striatum); Mice (transgenic); 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, C57BL6J or R6/2 HD tg, 10 weeks old); behavioral testing (rotarod apparatus);.

12567 Chaumeil, M.M., Valette, J., Baligand, C., Brouillet, E., Hantraye, P., Bloch, G., Gaura, V., Rialland, A., Krystkowiak, P., Verny, C., Damier, P., Remy, P., Bachoud-Levi, A.C., Carlier, P., Lebon, V. pH as a biomarker of neurodegeneration in Huntington's disease: a translational rodent-human MRS study. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 2012; 32(-5-):771-779. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; SC; Rat; Animal info (male, Lewis, 12 wks old, 336 g).

11473 Lee, S.T., Chu, K., Im, W.S., Yoon, H.J., Im, J.Y., Park, J.E., Park, K.H., Jung, K.H., Lee, S.K., Kim, M., Roh, J.K. Altered microRNA regulation in Huntington's disease models. Experimental Neurology 2011; 227(-1-):172-179. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; SC; Rat; 2ML1; Animal info (Lewis, male, 300-320 g, 12 wks old).

10899 Yang, L.C., Shi, Q.L., Ho, D.J., Starkov, A.A., Wille, E.J., Xu, H., Chen, H.L., Zhang, S., Stack, C.M., Calingasan, N.Y., Gibson, G.E., Beal, M.F. Mice deficient in dihydrolipoyl succinyl transferase show increased vulnerability to mitochondrial toxins. NEUROBIOLOGY OF DISEASE 2009; 36(-2-):320-330. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; SC; Mice; WT controls received mp; animal info (8 mo old, male, DLST+/-, wt); enzyme inhibitor (mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase).

10748 Puerta, E., Hervias, I., Barros-Minones, L., Jordan, J., Ricobaraza, A., Cuadrado-Tejedor, M., Garcia-Osta, A., Aguirre, N. Sildenafil protects against 3-nitropropionic acid neurotoxicity through the modulation of calpain, CREB, and BDNF. NEUROBIOLOGY OF DISEASE 2010; 38(-2-):237-245. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; SC; Rat; 2ML1; Animal info (male, Lewis, 290-340 g.); neurodegenerative (Huntington's Disease).

10744 Cleren, C., Calingasan, N.Y., Starkov, A., Jacquard, C., Chen, J.Y., Brouillet, E., Beal, M.F. Promethazine protects against 3-nitropropionic acid-induced neurotoxicity. NEUROCHEMISTRY INTERNATIONAL 2010; 56(-2-):208-212. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; Water, distilled; SC; Rat; 2ML1; Animal info (male, Lewis, 12 wks old).

10018 Yang, L.C., Calingasan, N.Y., Thomas, B., Chaturvedi, R.K., Kiaei, M., Wille, E.J., Liby, K.T., Williams, C., Royce, D., Risingsong, R., Musiek, E.S., Morrow, J.D., Sporn, M., Beal, M.F. Neuroprotective Effects of the Triterpenoid, CDDO Methyl Amide, a Potent Inducer of Nrf2-Mediated Transcription. PLoS One 2009; 4(-6-):U87-U99. >>> MPTP; nitropropionic acid, 3-; PBS; SC; Rat; mice; 2004; 2ML1; Animal info (male, C57BL/6, 3 months old, 25-30 g., male, Lewis, 3 months old, 250-300 g.); neurodegenerative (Parkinson's, Huntington's Disease).

9949 Kraft, J.C., Osterhaus, G.L., Ortiz, A.N., Garris, P.A., Johnson, M.A. IN VIVO DOPAMINE RELEASE AND UPTAKE IMPAIRMENTS IN RATS TREATED WITH 3-NITROPROPIONIC ACID. Neuroscience 2009; 161(-3-):940-949. >>> Nitropropionic acid-3; Water; SC; Rat; 2ML1; Controls received sham surgery; animal info (male, Lewis, 12 wks old, 300-350 g); behavioral testing (force plate actometer).

9804 Yang, L.C., Calingasan, N.Y., Wille, E.J., Cormier, K., Smith, K., Ferrante, R.J., Beal, M.F. Combination therapy with Coenzyme Q10 and creatine produces additive neuroprotective effects in models of Parkinson's and Huntington's Diseases. Journal of Neurochemistry 2009; 109(-5-):1427-1439. >>> MPTP; nitropropionic acid, 2-; PBS; SC; Rat; mice; 2004; 2ML1; Animal info (male, C57BL/6, 25-30g, Lewis 260-300g); neurodegenerative (Parkinson's, Hungtington's disease).

9543 Park, J.E., Lee, S.T., Im, W.S., Chu, K., Kim, M. Galantamine reduces striatal degeneration in 3-nitropropionic acid model of Huntington's disease. Neuroscience Letters 2008; 448(-1-):143-147. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; PBS; SC; Rat; 2ML1; Animal info (male, Lewis, 12 wks old, 300-320 g.); neurodegenerative (Huntington's Disease).

9504 Puchowicz, M.A., Zechel, J.L., Valerio, J., Emancipator, D.S., Xu, K., Pundik, S., LaManna, J.C., Lust, W.D. Neuroprotection in diet-induced ketotic rat brain after focal ischemia. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 2008; 28(-12-):1907-1916. >>> Butyrate, sodium-B-hydroxy-; propionate; nitropropionic acid, 3-; Saline, normal; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; ALZET brain infusion kit used; ischemia (cerebral); animal info (male Wistar, 28 days old, 110 g., MCAO); neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Freidereich's ataxia, ALS, stroke).

9153 Escartin, C., Boyer, F., Bemelmans, A.P., Hantraye, P., Brouillet, E. IGF-1 exacerbates the neurotoxicity of the mitochondrial inhibitor 3NP in rats. Neuroscience Letters 2007; 425(-3-):167-172. >>> Insulin-like growth factor I; nitropropionic acid, 3-; Acetic acid; BSA; SC; Rat; 2001; 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by plasma glucose; dose-response (fig. 1, pg. 169); ALZET brain infusion kit used; animal info (Lewis, 400 g.); neurodegenerative (Huntington's Disease).

9130 Jacquard, C., Trioulier, Y., Cosker, F., Escartin, C., Bizat, N., Hantraye, P., Cancela, J.M., Bonvento, G., Brouillet, E. Brain mitochondrial defects amplify intracellular [Ca2+] rise and neurodegeneration but not Ca2+ entry during NMDA receptor activation. FASEB Journal 2006; 20(-7-):U322-U336. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; Water, deionized; NaOH; Phosphate buffer; SC; Rat; 2ML1; Controls received empty mp; dose-response (fig.2); animal info (male, Lewis, 320-350 g., 12 wks old); neurodegenerative (Huntington's Disease).

9032 Lee, S.T., Park, J.E., Kim, D.H., Kim, S., Im, W.S., Kang, L., Jung, S.H., Kim, M.W., Chu, K., Kim, M. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor attenuates striatal degeneration with activating survival pathways in 3-nitropropionic acid model of Huntington's disease. Brain Research 2008; 1194(-;-):130-137. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; PBS; NaOH; SC; Rat; 2ML1; Animal info (male, Lewis, 300-320g., 12 wks. old); neurodegenerative (Huntington's disease).

8337 Lee, S.T., Chu, K., Park, J.E., Kang, L., Ko, S.Y., Jung, K.H., Kim, M. Memantine reduces striatal cell death with decreasing calpain level in 3-nitropropionic model of Huntington's disease. Brain Research 2006; 1118(-;-):199-207. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; PBS; NaOH; SC; Rat; 2ML1; Animal Info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 220-240g.); neurodegenerative (Huntington's disease).

8270 Newcomb, J.D., Brown, W.D., Rodriguez, A.I., Garbuzova-Davis, S., Saporta, S., Sanberg, P.R., Willing, A.E. Behavioral alterations in Lewis rats following two-day continuous 3-nitropropionic acid administration. NEUROTOXICITY RESEARCH 2005; 8(-3-4-):259-265. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; Saline; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; toxicology; animal info (male, Lewis, 12 wks old, 250-300g.).

8317 Woodruff, T.M., Crane, J.W., Proctor, L.M., Buller, K.M., Shek, A.B., de Vos, K., Pollitt, S., Williams, H.M., Shiels, I.A., Monk, P.N., Taylor, S.M. Therapeutic activity of C5a receptor antagonists in a rat model of neurodegeneration. FASEB Journal 2006; 20(-9-):1407-1417. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; PBS; sodium hydroxide; SC; Rat; 2ML1; Animal info (male, Lewis); neurodegenerative (Huntington's disease).

8126 Picconi, B., Passino, E., Sgobio, C., Bonsi, P., Barone, I., Ghiglieri, V., Pisani, A., Bernardi, G., mmassari-Teule, M., Calabresi, P. Plastic and behavioral abnormalities in experimental Huntington's disease: A crucial role for cholinergic interneurons. NEUROBIOLOGY OF DISEASE 2006; 22(-1-):143-152. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; Water, distilled; NaOH; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received emtpy mp; neurodegenerative (Huntington's disease); animal info (male, Lewis, 340-370 g, 12 weeks old).

7504 Cleren, C., Calingasan, N.Y., Chen, J., Beal, M.F. Celastrol protects against MPTP- and 3-nitropropionic acid-induced neurotoxicity. Journal of Neurochemistry 2005; 94(-4-):995-1004. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; Water, distilled; SC; Rat; 2ML1; Enzyme inhibitor (succinate dehydrogenase).

7384 Bizat, N., Galas, M.C., Jacquard, C., Boyer, F., Hermel, J.M., Schiffmann, S.N., Hantraye, P., Blum, D., Brouillet, E. Neuroprotective effect of zVAD against the neurotoxin 3-nitropropionic acid involves inhibition of calpain. Neuropharmacology 2005; 49(-5-):695-702. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; zVAD; Saline; DMSO; SC; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2001; 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ vehicle sham operation; enzyme inhibitor (caspase, calpain), multiple pumps per animal (2); 40% DMSO.

7314 McBride, J.L, During, M.J, Wuu, J, Chen, E.Y, Leurgans, S.E., Kordower, J.H. Structural and functional neuroprotection in a rat model of Huntington's disease by viral gene transfer of GDNF. Experimental Neurology 2003; 181(--):213-223. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Neurodegenerative (huntington's disease).

7292 Yang, L.C., Sugama, S., Mischak, R.P., Kiaei, M., Bizat, N., Brouillet, E., Joh, T.H., Beal, M.F. A novel systemically active caspase inhibitor attenuates the toxicities of MPTP, malonate, and 3NP in vivo. NEUROBIOLOGY OF DISEASE 2004; 17(-2-):250-259. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; NaOH; SC; Rat; 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ agent, but no Q-VD-OPH treatment; enzyme inhibitor (succinate dehydrogenase).

7145 Blum, D., Gall, D, Cuvelier, L., Schiffmann, S.N. Topological analysis of striatal lesions induced by 3-nitropropionic acid in the Lewis rat. Neuropharmacology and Neurotoxicology 2001; 12(-8-):1769-1772. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; PBS; SC; Rat; 2ML1; Neurodegenerative (Huntington's Disease).

7144 Dautry, C, Vaufrey, F, Brouillet, E., Bizat, N, Henry, P.G, Conde, F., Bloch, G., Hantraye, P. Early N-Acetylaspartate Depletion is a Marker of Neuronal Dysfunction in Rats and Primates Chronically Treated With the Mitochondrial Toxin 3-Nitropropionic Acid. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 2000; 20(--):789-799. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received empty mp; neurodegenerative (Huntington's Disease).

7143 Brouillet, E., Jenkins, B.G., Hyman, B.T., Ferrante, R.J., Kowall, N.W., Srivastava, R., Roy, D.S., Rosen, B.R., Beal, M.F. Age-dependent vulnerability of the striatum to the mitochondrial toxin 3-nitropropionic acid. J. Neurochem 1993; 60(-1-):356-359. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; Water, deionized; NaOH; Rat; 2ML4; Neurodegenerative (Huntington's disease).

7142 Lastres-Becker, I., Bizat, N., Boyer, F., Hantraye, P., Fernandez-Ruiz, J., Brouillet, E. Potential involvement of cannabinoid receptors in 3-nitropropionic acid toxicity in vivo. NeuroReport 2004; 15(-15-):2375-2379. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; SC; Rat; 2ML1; Neurodegenerative (Huntington's disease).

7119 Jenkins, B.G., Brouillet, E., Chen, Y.C., Schulz, J.B., Kirschner, P. Non-Invasive Neurochemical Analysis of Focal Excitotoxic Lesions in Models of Neurodegenerative Illness Using Spectroscopic Imagine. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 1996; 16(--):450-461. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; azide, sodium; SC; Rat; Neurodegenerative (Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease).

7102 Bizat, N, Hermel, J.M., Humbert, S, Jacquard, C., Creminon, C., Escartin, C., Saudou, F, Krajewski, S., Hantraye, P., Brouillet, E. In Vivo Calpain/Caspase Cross-talk during 3-Nitropropionic Acid-induced Striatal Degeneration. Journal of Biological Chemistry 2003; 278(-44-):43245-43253. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; calpain inhibitor I; DMSO; PBS; SC; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2001; 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ vehicle or sham operation; enzyme inhibitor (succinate dehydrogenase); ALZET brain infusion kit used; multiple pumps per animal (2); 40% DMSO used for calpain inhibitor I; neurodegenerative (Huntington's disease).

7101 El Massioui, N, Quary, S, Cheruel, F, Hantraye, P., Brouillet, E. Perseverative Behavior Underlying Attentional Set-Shifting Deficits in Rats Chronically Treated With the Neurotoxin 3-Nitropropionic Acid. Experimental Neurology 2001; 172(--):172-181. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received empty mp.

7092 Beal, M.F., Brouillet, E., Jenkins, B.G., Ferrante, R.J., Kowall, N.W., Miller, J.M. Neurochemical and Histologic Characterization of Striatal Excitotoxic Lesions Produced by the Mitochondrial Toxin 3-Nitropropionic Acid. Journal of Neuroscience 1993; 13(-10-):4181-4192. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; Water; NaOH; Rat; Controls received mp w/ normal saline; comparison of intrastriatal injections vs. mp; stress/adverse reaction: (see pg. 4182), agent caused half of animals to become acutely ill, controls had no adverse reactions; toxicology; MRI.

7090 Guyot, M.C., Hantraye, P., Dolan, R., Palfi, S., Maziere, M., Brouillet, E. Quantifiable bradykinesia, gait abnormalities and Huntington's disease-like striatal lesions in rats chronically treated with 3-nitropropionic acid. Neuroscience 1997; 79(-1-):45-56. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ saline; comparison of IP injections vs. mp; stress/adverse reaction: (see pg. 47) 5 animals with 3NP and mp and 4 animals with 3NP IP injections died due to toxicity of agent, no animals w/ saline mp died or had any adverse effects; toxicology; neurodegenerative (Huntington's disease).

7082 Blum, D., Hemming, F.J., Galas, M.C., Torch, S., Cuvelier, L., Schiffmann, S.N., Sadoul, R. Increased Alix (apoptosis-linked gene-2 interacting protein X) immunoreactivity in the degenerating striatum of rats chronically treated by 3-nitropropionic acid. Neurosci. Lett 2004; 368(-3-):309-313. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; PBS; NaOH; SC; Rat; 2ML1; Controls received sham operation with no mp.

6638 Blum, D., Galas, M.G., Cuvelier, L., Schiffmann, S.N. Chronic intoxication with 3-nitropropionic acid in rats induces the loss of striatal dopamine terminals without affecting nigral cell viability. Neuroscience Letters 2004; 354(-3-):234-238. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; PBS; NAOH; SC; Rat; 2ML1; Enzyme inhibitor (succinate dehydrogenase); neurodegenerative (Huntington's disease); 3NP pH was adjusted to 7.4;"chronic intoxication with 3NP leads to alterations in striatal dopamine terminals similar to those found in HD patients and transgenic models."p.237.

6340 Mittoux, V., Quary, S, Monville, C, Lisovoski, F, Poyot, T, Conde, F., Escartin, C., Robichon, R. Corticostriatopallidal Neuroprotection by Adenovirus-Mediated Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Gene Transfer in a Rat Model of Progressive Striatal Degeneration. Journal of Neuroscience 2002; 22(-11-):4478-4486. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; Water, deionized; NaOH; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ nothing; gene therapy; neurodegenerative (Huntington's disease); behavioral testing; 3NP had a pH of 7.4.

6267 Tieu, K., Perier, C., Caspersen, C., Teismann, P., Wu, D.C., Yan, S.D., Naini, A., Vila, M., Jackson-Lewis, V., Ramasamy, R., Przedborski, S. D-beta-hydroxybutyrate rescues mitochondrial respiration and mitigates features of Parkinson disease. Journal of Clinical Investigation 2003; 112(-6-):892-901. >>> Hydroxybutyrate, D-B; hydroxybutyrate, L; nitropropionic acid, 3-; Saline; SC; Mice; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; neurodegenerative (Parkinson's disease).

6068 Bizat, N., Hermel, J.M., Boyer, F., Jacquard, C., Creminon, C., Ouary, S., Escartin, C., Hantraye, P., Krajewski, S., Brouillet, E. Calpain is a major cell death effector in selective striatal degeneration induced in vivo by 3-nitropropionate: Implications for Huntington's disease. Journal of Neuroscience 2003; 23(-12-):5020-5030. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; calpain inhibitor-1; PBS; DMSO; SC; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2001; 2ML1; ALZET brain infusion kit 1 used; neurodegenerative (Huntington's disease); 3-NP was infused using the 2ML1,&the CI-1 was delievered ICV using the 2001; CI-1 was dissolved in PBS&40% DMSO; pumps implanted simultaneously.

6067 Blum, D., Galas, M.C., Pintor, A., Brouillet, E., Ledent, C., Muller, C.E., Bantubungi, K., Galluzzo, M., Gall, D., Cuvelier, L., Rolland, A.S., Popoli, P., Schiffmann, S.N. A dual role of adenosine A2A receptors in 3-nitropropionic acid-induced striatal lesions: Implications for the neuroprotective potential of A2A antagonists. Journal of Neuroscience 2003; 23(-12-):5361-5369. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; PBS; sodium hydroxide; SC; Rat; 2ML1; .

5654 Blum, D., Galas, M.C., Gall, D., Cuvelier, L., Schiffmann, S.N. Striatal and cortical neurochemical changes induced by chronic metabolic compromise in the 3-nitropropionic model of Huntington's disease. NEUROBIOLOGY OF DISEASE 2002; 10(-3-):410-426. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; PBS; SC; Rat; 2ML1; Neurodegenerative (Huntington's disease); neurotoxicity.

5506 Sun, Z., Xie, J., Reiner, A. The differential vulnerability of striatal projection neurons in 3-nitropropionic acid-treated rats does not match that typical of adult-onset Huntington's disease. Experimental Neurology 2002; 176(-1-):55-65. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; SC; Rat; Neurodegenerative (Huntington's disease).

5456 Blum, D., Gall, D., Galas, M.C., d'Alcantara, P., Bantubungi, K., Schiffmann, S.N. The adenosine A1 receptor agonist adenosine amine congener exerts a neuroprotective effect against the development of striatal lesions and motor impairments in the 3-nitropropionic acid model of neurotoxicity. Journal of Neuroscience 2002; 22(-20-):9122-9133. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; PBS; SC; Rat; 2ML1; Neurodegenerative (Huntington's disease).

5210 Garcia, M., Vanhoutte, P., Pages, C., Besson, M.J., Brouillet, E., Caboche, J. The mitochondrial toxin 3-nitropropionic acid induces striatal neurodegeneration via a c-Jun N-terminal kinase/c-Jun module. Journal of Neuroscience 2002; 22(-6-):2174-2184. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; Water; Sodium hydroxide; SC; rat; 2ML4; controls received empty pumps; neurodegenerative (Huntington's disease); 3-NP causes pathophysiological features and striatal degeneration of Huntington's..

4923 Vis, J.C., Verbeek, M.M., de Waal, R.M.W., ten Donkelaar, H.J., Kremer, B. The mitochondrial toxin 3-nitropropionic acid induces differential expression patterns of apoptosis-related markers in rat striatum.. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology 2001; 27(--):68-76. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-;; Water;; SC;; rat;; Controls received mp w/ saline; neurodegenerative (Huntington's disease).

4867 Leventhal, L, Sortwell, C.E, Hanbury, R, Collier, T.J., Korkower, J.H, Palfi, S. Cyclosporin A protects striatal neurons in vitro and in vivo from 3-nitropropionic acid toxicity.. The Journal of Comparative Neurology 2000; 425(--):471-478. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; PBS;; SC;; rat;; 2004;; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; toxicology; 3-nitro-propionate also called 3-nitropropionic acid (3NP); 3NP is a mitochondrial toxin; neurodegenerative (Huntington's disease).

4776 Ouary, S, Bizat, N, Altairac, S., Menetrat, H, Mittoux, V., Conde, F., Hantraye, P., Brouillet, E. Major strain differences in response to chronic systemic administration of the mitochondrial toxin 3-nitropropionic acid in rats: Implications for neuroprotection studies.. Neuroscience 2000; 97(-3-):521-530. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-;; Saline;; SC; rat; 2ML4;; Controls received empty pumps; comparison of IP injections vs. mp; neurodegenerative (Huntington's disease); mitochondrial toxin; neuroprotection..

4335 Andreassen, O.A., Ferrante, R.J., Beal, M.F., Jorgensen, H.A. Oral dyskinesias and striatal lesions in rats after long-term co-treatment with haloperidol and 3-nitropropionic acid. Neuroscience 1998; 87(-3-):639-648. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; Water; NaOH; SC; rat; controls received empty plastic tube; long-term study, pumps replaced after 33 and 38 days; stress/adverse reaction (p. 640); enzyme inhibitor.

4313 Araujo, D.M., Hilt, D.C. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor attenuates the locomotor hypofunction and striatonigral neurochemical deficits induced by chronic systemic administration of the mitochondrial toxin 3-nitropropionic acid. Neuroscience 1998; 82(-1-):117-127. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; PBS; IP; rat; controls received mp w/PBS.

3588 Brouillet, E., Guyot, M.-C., Mittoux, V., Altairac, S., Conde, F., Palfi, S., Hantraye, P. Partial inhibition of brain succinate dehydrogenase by 3-nitropropionic acid is sufficient to initiate striatal degeneration in rat. J. Neurochem 1998; 70(--):794-805. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; Water; NaOH; SC; rat; 2ML4; controls received mp w/ saline; comparison of IP injections vs. mp.

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105. Nitropropionic Acid

Q2281 Chaumeil,M.M., Valette,J., Baligand,C., Brouillet,E., Hantraye,P., Bloch,G., Gaura,V., Rialland,A., Krystkowiak,P., Verny,C., Damier,P., Remy,P., Bachoud-Levi,A.C., Carlier,P., Lebon,V. pH as a biomarker of neurodegeneration in Huntington's disease: a translational rodent-human MRS study. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 2012; 32(-5-):771-779. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; SC; Rat; ; Animal info (male, Lewis, 12 wks old, 336 g).

Q1202 Lee,S.T., Chu,K., Im,W.S., Yoon,H.J., Im,J.Y., Park,J.E., Park,K.H., Jung,K.H., Lee,S.K., Kim,M., Roh,J.K. Altered microRNA regulation in Huntington's disease models. Experimental Neurology 2011; 227(-1-):172-179. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; SC; Rat; 2ML1; 1, 3, 5 days; Animal info (Lewis, male, 300-320 g, 12 wks old).

Q0650 Yang,L.C., Shi,Q.L., Ho,D.J., Starkov,A.A., Wille,E.J., Xu,H., Chen,H.L., Zhang,S., Stack,C.M., Calingasan,N.Y., Gibson,G.E., Beal,M.F. Mice deficient in dihydrolipoyl succinyl transferase show increased vulnerability to mitochondrial toxins. NEUROBIOLOGY OF DISEASE 2009; 36(-2-):320-330. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; SC; Mice; 5 days; WT controls received mp; animal info (8 mo old, male, DLST+/-, wt); enzyme inhibitor (mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase).

Q0499 Puerta,E., Hervias,I., Barros-Minones,L., Jordan,J., Ricobaraza,A., Cuadrado-Tejedor,M., Garcia-Osta,A., Aguirre,N. Sildenafil protects against 3-nitropropionic acid neurotoxicity through the modulation of calpain, CREB, and BDNF. NEUROBIOLOGY OF DISEASE 2010; 38(-2-):237-245. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; SC; Rat; 2ML1; 5 days; Animal info (male, Lewis, 290-340 g.); neurodegenerative (Huntington's Disease).

Q0495 Cleren,C., Calingasan,N.Y., Starkov,A., Jacquard,C., Chen,J.Y., Brouillet,E., Beal,M.F. Promethazine protects against 3-nitropropionic acid-induced neurotoxicity. NEUROCHEMISTRY INTERNATIONAL 2010; 56(-2-):208-212. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; Water, distilled; SC; Rat; 2ML1; 6 days; Animal info (male, Lewis, 12 wks old).

P9837 Yang,L.C., Calingasan,N.Y., Thomas,B., Chaturvedi,R.K., Kiaei,M., Wille,E.J., Liby,K.T., Williams,C., Royce,D., Risingsong,R., Musiek,E.S., Morrow,J.D., Sporn,M., Beal,M.F. Neuroprotective Effects of the Triterpenoid, CDDO Methyl Amide, a Potent Inducer of Nrf2-Mediated Transcription. PLoS One 2009; 4(-6-):U87-U99. >>> MPTP; nitropropionic acid, 3-; PBS; SC; Rat; mice; 2004; 2ML1; 7, 28 days; Animal info (male, C57BL/6, 3 months old, 25-30 g., male, Lewis, 3 months old, 250-300 g.); neurodegenerative (Parkinson's, Huntington's Disease).

P9752 Kraft,J.C., Osterhaus,G.L., Ortiz,A.N., Garris,P.A., Johnson,M.A. IN VIVO DOPAMINE RELEASE AND UPTAKE IMPAIRMENTS IN RATS TREATED WITH 3-NITROPROPIONIC ACID. Neuroscience 2009; 161(-3-):940-949. >>> Nitropropionic acid-3; Water; SC; Rat; 2ML1; 5 days; Controls received sham surgery; animal info (male, Lewis, 12 wks old, 300-350 g); behavioral testing (force plate actometer).

P9556 Yang,L.C., Calingasan,N.Y., Wille,E.J., Cormier,K., Smith,K., Ferrante,R.J., Beal,M.F. Combination therapy with Coenzyme Q10 and creatine produces additive neuroprotective effects in models of Parkinson's and Huntington's Diseases. Journal of Neurochemistry 2009; 109(-5-):1427-1439. >>> MPTP; nitropropionic acid, 2-; PBS; SC; Rat; mice; 2004; 2ML1; ; Animal info (male, C57BL/6, 25-30g, Lewis 260-300g); neurodegenerative (Parkinson's, Hungtington's disease).

P9305 Park,J.E., Lee,S.T., Im,W.S., Chu,K., Kim,M. Galantamine reduces striatal degeneration in 3-nitropropionic acid model of Huntington's disease. Neuroscience Letters 2008; 448(-1-):143-147. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; PBS; SC; Rat; 2ML1; 5 days; Animal info (male, Lewis, 12 wks old, 300-320 g.); neurodegenerative (Huntington's Disease).

P9266 Puchowicz,M.A., Zechel,J.L., Valerio,J., Emancipator,D.S., Xu,K., Pundik,S., LaManna,J.C., Lust,W.D. Neuroprotection in diet-induced ketotic rat brain after focal ischemia. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 2008; 28(-12-):1907-1916. >>> Butyrate, sodium-B-hydroxy-; propionate; nitropropionic acid, 3-; Saline, normal; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2001; 4 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; ALZET brain infusion kit used; ischemia (cerebral); animal info (male Wistar, 28 days old, 110 g., MCAO); neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Freidereich's ataxia, ALS, stroke).

P8922 Escartin,C., Boyer,F., Bemelmans,A.P., Hantraye,P., Brouillet,E. IGF-1 exacerbates the neurotoxicity of the mitochondrial inhibitor 3NP in rats. Neuroscience Letters 2007; 425(-3-):167-172. >>> Insulin-like growth factor I; nitropropionic acid, 3-; Acetic acid; BSA; SC; Rat; 2001; 2ML1; 5 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by plasma glucose; dose-response (fig. 1, pg. 169); ALZET brain infusion kit used; animal info (Lewis, 400 g.); neurodegenerative (Huntington's Disease).

P8899 Jacquard,C., Trioulier,Y., Cosker,F., Escartin,C., Bizat,N., Hantraye,P., Cancela,J.M., Bonvento,G., Brouillet,E. Brain mitochondrial defects amplify intracellular [Ca2+] rise and neurodegeneration but not Ca2+ entry during NMDA receptor activation. FASEB Journal 2006; 20(-7-):U322-U336. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; Water, deionized; NaOH; Phosphate buffer; SC; Rat; 2ML1; 6 days; Controls received empty mp; dose-response (fig.2); animal info (male, Lewis, 320-350 g., 12 wks old); neurodegenerative (Huntington's Disease).

P8801 Lee,S.T., Park,J.E., Kim,D.H., Kim,S., Im,W.S., Kang,L., Jung,S.H., Kim,M.W., Chu,K., Kim,M. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor attenuates striatal degeneration with activating survival pathways in 3-nitropropionic acid model of Huntington's disease. Brain Research 2008; 1194(-;-):130-137. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; PBS; NaOH; SC; Rat; 2ML1; 5 days; Animal info (male, Lewis, 300-320g., 12 wks. old); neurodegenerative (Huntington's disease).

P8115 Lee,S.T., Chu,K., Park,J.E., Kang,L., Ko,S.Y., Jung,K.H., Kim,M. Memantine reduces striatal cell death with decreasing calpain level in 3-nitropropionic model of Huntington's disease. Brain Research 2006; 1118(-;-):199-207. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; PBS; NaOH; SC; Rat; 2ML1; 4, 5 days; Animal Info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 220-240g.); neurodegenerative (Huntington's disease).

P8098 Newcomb,J.D., Brown,W.D., Rodriguez,A.I., Garbuzova-Davis,S., Saporta,S., Sanberg,P.R., Willing,A.E. Behavioral alterations in Lewis rats following two-day continuous 3-nitropropionic acid administration. NEUROTOXICITY RESEARCH 2005; 8(-3-4-):259-265. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; Saline; SC; Rat; 2ML4; 2 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; toxicology; animal info (male, Lewis, 12 wks old, 250-300g.).

P8039 Woodruff,T.M., Crane,J.W., Proctor,L.M., Buller,K.M., Shek,A.B., de Vos,K., Pollitt,S., Williams,H.M., Shiels,I.A., Monk,P.N., Taylor,S.M. Therapeutic activity of C5a receptor antagonists in a rat model of neurodegeneration. FASEB Journal 2006; 20(-9-):1407-1417. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; PBS; sodium hydroxide; SC; Rat; 2ML1; 7 days; Animal info (male, Lewis); neurodegenerative (Huntington's disease).

P7909 Picconi,B., Passino,E., Sgobio,C., Bonsi,P., Barone,I., Ghiglieri,V., Pisani,A., Bernardi,G., mmassari-Teule,M., Calabresi,P. Plastic and behavioral abnormalities in experimental Huntington's disease: A crucial role for cholinergic interneurons. NEUROBIOLOGY OF DISEASE 2006; 22(-1-):143-152. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; Water, distilled; NaOH; SC; Rat; 2ML4; 5 days; Controls received emtpy mp; neurodegenerative (Huntington's disease); animal info (male, Lewis, 340-370 g, 12 weeks old).

P7294 Cleren,C., Calingasan,N.Y., Chen,J., Beal,M.F. Celastrol protects against MPTP- and 3-nitropropionic acid-induced neurotoxicity. Journal of Neurochemistry 2005; 94(-4-):995-1004. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; Water, distilled; SC; Rat; 2ML1; 5 days; Enzyme inhibitor (succinate dehydrogenase).

P7174 Bizat,N., Galas,M.C., Jacquard,C., Boyer,F., Hermel,J.M., Schiffmann,S.N., Hantraye,P., Blum,D., Brouillet,E. Neuroprotective effect of zVAD against the neurotoxin 3-nitropropionic acid involves inhibition of calpain. Neuropharmacology 2005; 49(-5-):695-702. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; zVAD; Saline; DMSO; SC; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2001; 2ML1; 5 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle sham operation; enzyme inhibitor (caspase, calpain), multiple pumps per animal (2); 40% DMSO.

P7106 McBride,J.L, During,M.J, Wuu,J, Chen,E.Y, Leurgans,S.E., Kordower,J.H. Structural and functional neuroprotection in a rat model of Huntington's disease by viral gene transfer of GDNF. Experimental Neurology 2003; 181(--):213-223. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; SC; Rat; 2ML4; 6 days; Neurodegenerative (huntington's disease).

P7083 Yang,L.C., Sugama,S., Mischak,R.P., Kiaei,M., Bizat,N., Brouillet,E., Joh,T.H., Beal,M.F. A novel systemically active caspase inhibitor attenuates the toxicities of MPTP, malonate, and 3NP in vivo. NEUROBIOLOGY OF DISEASE 2004; 17(-2-):250-259. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; NaOH; SC; Rat; 2ML1; 7 days; Controls received mp w/ agent, but no Q-VD-OPH treatment; enzyme inhibitor (succinate dehydrogenase).

P6937 Blum,D., Gall,D, Cuvelier,L., Schiffmann,S.N. Topological analysis of striatal lesions induced by 3-nitropropionic acid in the Lewis rat. Neuropharmacology and Neurotoxicology 2001; 12(-8-):1769-1772. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; PBS; SC; Rat; 2ML1; 5 days; Neurodegenerative (Huntington's Disease).

P6936 Dautry,C, Vaufrey,F, Brouillet,E., Bizat,N, Henry,P.G, Conde,F., Bloch,G., Hantraye,P. Early N-Acetylaspartate Depletion is a Marker of Neuronal Dysfunction in Rats and Primates Chronically Treated With the Mitochondrial Toxin 3-Nitropropionic Acid. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 2000; 20(--):789-799. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; SC; Rat; 2ML4; 3,5 days; Controls received empty mp; neurodegenerative (Huntington's Disease).

P6935 Brouillet,E., Jenkins,B.G., Hyman,B.T., Ferrante,R.J., Kowall,N.W., Srivastava,R., Roy,D.S., Rosen,B.R., Beal,M.F. Age-dependent vulnerability of the striatum to the mitochondrial toxin 3-nitropropionic acid. J.Neurochem. 1993/1; 60(-1-):356-359. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; Water, deionized; NaOH; Rat; 2ML4; 1 month; Neurodegenerative (Huntington's disease).

P6934 Lastres-Becker,I., Bizat,N., Boyer,F., Hantraye,P., Fernandez-Ruiz,J., Brouillet,E. Potential involvement of cannabinoid receptors in 3-nitropropionic acid toxicity in vivo. NeuroReport 2004; 15(-15-):2375-2379. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; SC; Rat; 2ML1; 5 days; Neurodegenerative (Huntington's disease).

P6910 Jenkins,B.G., Brouillet,E., Chen,Y.C., Schulz,J.B., Kirschner,P. Non-Invasive Neurochemical Analysis of Focal Excitotoxic Lesions in Models of Neurodegenerative Illness Using Spectroscopic Imagine. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 1996; 16(--):450-461. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; azide, sodium; SC; Rat; 2 weeks; Neurodegenerative (Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease).

P6893 Bizat,N, Hermel,J.M., Humbert,S, Jacquard,C., Creminon,C., Escartin,C., Saudou,F, Krajewski,S., Hantraye,P., Brouillet,E. In Vivo Calpain/Caspase Cross-talk during 3-Nitropropionic Acid-induced Striatal Degeneration. Journal of Biological Chemistry 2003; 278(-44-):43245-43253. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; calpain inhibitor I; DMSO; PBS; SC; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2001; 2ML1; 1-5 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle or sham operation; enzyme inhibitor (succinate dehydrogenase); ALZET brain infusion kit used; multiple pumps per animal (2); 40% DMSO used for calpain inhibitor I; neurodegenerative (Huntington's disease).

P6892 El Massioui,N, Quary,S, Cheruel,F, Hantraye,P., Brouillet,E. Perseverative Behavior Underlying Attentional Set-Shifting Deficits in Rats Chronically Treated With the Neurotoxin 3-Nitropropionic Acid. Experimental Neurology 2001; 172(--):172-181. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; SC; Rat; 2ML4; 5 days; Controls received empty mp.

P6883 Beal,M.F., Brouillet,E., Jenkins,B.G., Ferrante,R.J., Kowall,N.W., Miller,J.M. Neurochemical and Histologic Characterization of Striatal Excitotoxic Lesions Produced by the Mitochondrial Toxin 3-Nitropropionic Acid. Journal of Neuroscience 1993; 13(-10-):4181-4192. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; Water; NaOH; Rat; 1 month; 5 days; Controls received mp w/ normal saline; comparison of intrastriatal injections vs. mp; stress/adverse reaction: (see pg. 4182), agent caused half of animals to become acutely ill, controls had no adverse reactions; toxicology; MRI.

P6881 Guyot,M.C., Hantraye,P., Dolan,R., Palfi,S., Maziere,M., Brouillet,E. Quantifiable bradykinesia, gait abnormalities and Huntington's disease-like striatal lesions in rats chronically treated with 3-nitropropionic acid. Neuroscience 1997/7; 79(-1-):45-56. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; Rat; 2ML4; 1 month; Controls received mp w/ saline; comparison of IP injections vs. mp; stress/adverse reaction: (see pg. 47) 5 animals with 3NP and mp and 4 animals with 3NP IP injections died due to toxicity of agent, no animals w/ saline mp died or had any adverse effects; toxicology; neurodegenerative (Huntington's disease).

P6873 Blum,D., Hemming,F.J., Galas,M.C., Torch,S., Cuvelier,L., Schiffmann,S.N., Sadoul,R. Increased Alix (apoptosis-linked gene-2 interacting protein X) immunoreactivity in the degenerating striatum of rats chronically treated by 3-nitropropionic acid. Neurosci.Lett. 2004/9/30; 368(-3-):309-313. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; PBS; NaOH; SC; Rat; 2ML1; 5 days; Controls received sham operation with no mp.

P6441 Blum,D., Galas,M.G., Cuvelier,L., Schiffmann,S.N. Chronic intoxication with 3-nitropropionic acid in rats induces the loss of striatal dopamine terminals without affecting nigral cell viability. Neuroscience Letters 2004; 354(-3-):234-238. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; PBS; NAOH; SC; Rat; 2ML1; 5 days; Enzyme inhibitor (succinate dehydrogenase); neurodegenerative (Huntington's disease); 3NP pH was adjusted to 7.4; "chronic intoxication with 3NP leads to alterations in striatal dopamine terminals similar to those found in HD patients and transgenic models." p.237.

P6179 Mittoux,V., Quary,S, Monville,C, Lisovoski,F, Poyot,T, Conde,F., Escartin,C., Robichon,R. Corticostriatopallidal Neuroprotection by Adenovirus-Mediated Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Gene Transfer in a Rat Model of Progressive Striatal Degeneration. Journal of Neuroscience 2002; 22(-11-):4478-4486. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; Water, deionized; NaOH; SC; Rat; 2ML4; 5,16 days; Controls received mp w/ nothing; gene therapy; neurodegenerative (Huntington's disease); behavioral testing; 3NP had a pH of 7.4.

P6114 Tieu,K., Perier,C., Caspersen,C., Teismann,P., Wu,D.C., Yan,S.D., Naini,A., Vila,M., Jackson-Lewis,V., Ramasamy,R., Przedborski,S. D-beta-hydroxybutyrate rescues mitochondrial respiration and mitigates features of Parkinson disease. Journal of Clinical Investigation 2003; 112(-6-):892-901. >>> Hydroxybutyrate, D-B; hydroxybutyrate, L; nitropropionic acid, 3-; Saline; SC; Mice; 2001; 7 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; neurodegenerative (Parkinson's disease).

P5908 Bizat,N., Hermel,J.M., Boyer,F., Jacquard,C., Creminon,C., Ouary,S., Escartin,C., Hantraye,P., Krajewski,S., Brouillet,E. Calpain is a major cell death effector in selective striatal degeneration induced in vivo by 3-nitropropionate: Implications for Huntington's disease. Journal of Neuroscience 2003; 23(-12-):5020-5030. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; calpain inhibitor-1; PBS; DMSO; SC; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2001; 2ML1; 5 days; ALZET brain infusion kit 1 used; neurodegenerative (Huntington's disease); 3-NP was infused using the 2ML1,&the CI-1 was delievered ICV using the 2001; CI-1 was dissolved in PBS&40% DMSO; pumps implanted simultaneously.

P5907 Blum,D., Galas,M.C., Pintor,A., Brouillet,E., Ledent,C., Muller,C.E., Bantubungi,K., Galluzzo,M., Gall,D., Cuvelier,L., Rolland,A.S., Popoli,P., Schiffmann,S.N. A dual role of adenosine A2A receptors in 3-nitropropionic acid-induced striatal lesions: Implications for the neuroprotective potential of A2A antagonists. Journal of Neuroscience 2003; 23(-12-):5361-5369. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; PBS; sodium hydroxide; SC; Rat; 2ML1; 5 days.

P5504 Blum,D., Galas,M.C., Gall,D., Cuvelier,L., Schiffmann,S.N. Striatal and cortical neurochemical changes induced by chronic metabolic compromise in the 3-nitropropionic model of Huntington's disease. NEUROBIOLOGY OF DISEASE 2002; 10(-3-):410-426. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; PBS; SC; Rat; 2ML1; 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 days; Neurodegenerative (Huntington's disease); neurotoxicity.

P5367 Sun,Z., Xie,J., Reiner,A. The differential vulnerability of striatal projection neurons in 3-nitropropionic acid-treated rats does not match that typical of adult-onset Huntington's disease. Experimental Neurology 2002; 176(-1-):55-65. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; SC; Rat; 28 days; Neurodegenerative (Huntington's disease).

P5325 Blum,D., Gall,D., Galas,M.C., d'Alcantara,P., Bantubungi,K., Schiffmann,S.N. The adenosine A1 receptor agonist adenosine amine congener exerts a neuroprotective effect against the development of striatal lesions and motor impairments in the 3-nitropropionic acid model of neurotoxicity. Journal of Neuroscience 2002; 22(-20-):9122-9133. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-;; Water;; SC;; rat;; 5 days; Controls received mp w/ saline; neurodegenerative (Huntington's disease).

P4756 Leventhal,L, Sortwell,C.E, Hanbury,R, Collier,T.J., Korkower,J.H, Palfi,S. Cyclosporin A protects striatal neurons in vitro and in vivo from 3-nitropropionic acid toxicity.. The Journal of Comparative Neurology 2000; 425(--):471-478. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; PBS;; SC;; rat;; 2004;; 7 days;; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; toxicology; 3-nitro-propionate also called 3-nitropropionic acid (3NP); 3NP is a mitochondrial toxin; neurodegenerative (Huntington's disease).

P4670 Ouary,S, Bizat,N, Altairac,S., Menetrat,H, Mittoux,V., Conde,F., Hantraye,P., Brouillet,E. Major strain differences in response to chronic systemic administration of the mitochondrial toxin 3-nitropropionic acid in rats: Implications for neuroprotection studies.. Neuroscience 2000; 97(-3-):521-530. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-;; Saline;; SC; rat; 2ML4;; 5 days;; Controls received empty pumps; comparison of IP injections vs. mp; neurodegenerative (Huntington's disease); mitochondrial toxin; neuroprotection..

P4232 Andreassen,O.A., Ferrante,R.J., Beal,M.F., Jorgensen,H.A. Oral dyskinesias and striatal lesions in rats after long-term co-treatment with haloperidol and 3-nitropropionic acid. Neuroscience 1998; 87(-3-):639-648. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; Water; NaOH; SC; rat; 16 weeks; controls received empty plastic tube; long-term study, pumps replaced after 33 and 38 days; stress/adverse reaction (p. 640); enzyme inhibitor.

P4210 Araujo,D.M., Hilt,D.C. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor attenuates the locomotor hypofunction and striatonigral neurochemical deficits induced by chronic systemic administration of the mitochondrial toxin 3-nitropropionic acid. Neuroscience 1998; 82(-1-):117-127. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; PBS; IP; rat; 4 weeks; controls received mp w/PBS.

P3480 Brouillet,E., Guyot,M.-C., Mittoux,V., Altairac,S., Conde,F., Palfi,S., Hantraye,P. Partial inhibition of brain succinate dehydrogenase by 3-nitropropionic acid is sufficient to initiate striatal degeneration in rat. J.Neurochem. 1998; 70(--):794-805. >>> Nitropropionic acid, 3-; Water; NaOH; SC; rat; 2ML4; 7 days; controls received mp w/ saline; comparison of IP injections vs. mp.

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106. OKY-046

1643 Ruiz, P., Coffman, T.M., Klotman, P.E., Sanfilippo, F. Association of chronic thromboxane inhibition with reduced in situ cytotoxic T cell activity in rejecting rat renal allografts. Transplantation 1989; 48(-4-):660-666. >>> OKY-046; Saline; IA (renal); rat; tissue perfusion; OKY-046 is a thromboxane synthetase inhibitor.

1431 Coffman, T.M., Ruiz, P., Sanfilippo, F., Klotman, P.E. Chronic thromboxane inhibition preserves function of rejecting rat renal allografts. Kidney Int 1989; 35(--):24-30. >>> OKY-046; Saline; IA (renal); rat; schematic of OP ligated to aortic cuff of allograft; tissue perfusion; cancer/immunology.

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107. ONO-1714

6229 Kato, Y., Miura, Y., Yamamoto, N., Ozaki, N., Oiso, Y. Suppressive effects of a selective inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor on pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction. Diabetologia 2003; 46(-9-):1228-1233. >>> ONO-1714; Saline; SC; Mice (NOD); 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; ONO-1714 plasma levels taken; ONO-1714 is a novel cyclic amidine analog (an iNOS inhibitor); low an high dose used.

5983 Ogawa, D., Shikata, K., Matsuda, M., Okada, S., Usui, H., Wada, J., Taniguchi, N., Makino, H. Protective effect of a novel and selective inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase on experimental crescentic glomerulonephritis in WKY rats. NEPHROLOGY DIALYSIS TRANSPLANTATION 2002; 17(-12-):2117-2121. >>> ONO-1714; Saline; IP; Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (inducible Nitric oxide synthase); ONO-1714 is a novel cyclic amidine analog (an iNOS inhibitor).

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108. Olprinone

12325 Oishi, H., Takano, K., Tomita, K., Takebe, M., Yokoo, H., Yamazaki, M., Hattori, Y. Olprinone and colforsin daropate alleviate septic lung inflammation and apoptosis through CREB-independent activation of the Akt pathway. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-LUNG CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR PHYSIOLOGY 2012; 303(-2-):L130-L140. >>> Olprinone; colforsin daropate; IP; Mice; 1003D; Animal info (BALB/c, 8-12 wks old).

11084 Yamanaka, K., Hatano, E., Narita, M., Kitamura, K., Yanagida, A., Asechi, H., Nagata, H., Taura, K., Nitta, T., Uemoto, S. Olprinone Attenuates Excessive Shear Stress Through Up-Regulation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase in a Rat Excessive Hepatectomy Model. LIVER TRANSPLANTATION 2011; 17(-1-):60-69. >>> Olprinone; IP; Rat; 2001; Controls received equal amounts of saline; animal info (male, Lewis, inbred, 9-10 wks old, 240-280 g, hepatectomy); enzyme inhibitor (phosphodiesterase III);"We used Alzet peritoneal pump placement instead of intravenous access for continuous administration in this study because the peritoneal pump could more steadily and easily administer OLP continuously."pg 67.

10584 Narita, M., Hatano, E., Ikai, I., Miyagawa-Hayashino, A., Yanagida, A., Nagata, H., Asechi, H., Taura, K., Uemoto, S. A Phosphodiesterase III Inhibitor Protects Rat Liver From Sinusoidal Obstruction Syndrome Through Heme Oxygenase-1 Induction. Annals of Surgery 2009; 249(-5-):806-813. >>> Olprinone; Water, distilled; IP; Rat; 2001; Animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 7-8 wks old, 250 g); enzyme inhibitor (phosphodiesterase III).

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109. Ozagrel Natrium

9111 Yokoyama, Y., Kawai, T., Kawai, S., Kitagawa, T., Watanabe, K., Kawai, K., Nagino, M. Up-regulated thromboxane production in the rat liver with biliary obstruction does not contribute to promote hepatic injury. SHOCK 2008; 29(-6-):688-691. >>> Ozagrel natrium; SQ29548; PBS; IP; Rat; 2001; Controls received sham operation; enzyme inhibitor (TXA2 synthase); animal info (male, Wistar, 250-300g.); SQ29548 is a TXA2 receptor antagonist.

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110. Ozagrel Natrium

P8880 Yokoyama,Y., Kawai,T., Kawai,S., Kitagawa,T., Watanabe,K., Kawai,K., Nagino,M. Up-regulated thromboxane production in the rat liver with biliary obstruction does not contribute to promote hepatic injury. SHOCK 2008; 29(-6-):688-691. >>> Ozagrel natrium; SQ29548; PBS; IP; Rat; 2001; 4 days; Controls received sham operation; enzyme inhibitor (TXA2 synthase); animal info (male, Wistar, 250-300g.); SQ29548 is a TXA2 receptor antagonist.

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111. PD-98059

15840 Shun-Guang Wei, Yang Yu, Robert M. Weiss, Robert B. Felder. Inhibition of Brain Mitogen-Activated Protein KinaseSignaling Reduces Central Endoplasmic Reticulum Stressand Inflammation and Sympathetic Nerve Activity in HeartFailure Rats. Hypertension 2016; 67(--):229-236. >>> PD98059; SB203580; SP600125; CSF, artificial; DMSO; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, adult, 275-325g); 5% DMSO used; cardiovascular;.

14400 Shimizu, K., Matsumoto, K., Noma, N., Matsuura, S., Ohara, K., Komiya, H., Watase, T., Ogiso, B., Tsuboi, Y., Shinoda, M., Hatori, K., Nakaya, Y., Iwata, K., Shimizu, K. Involvement of Trigeminal Transition Zone and Laminated Subnucleus Caudalis in Masseter Muscle Hypersensitivity Associated with Tooth Inflammation. PLoS One 2014; 9(--):U620-U630. >>> PD98059; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 250-450g); functionality of mp verified by residual volume; used PE45 tubing to catheterize IT space;.

13451 Sharma, R., Wu, X.H., Rhodes, S.D., Chen, S., He, Y.Z., Yuan, J., Li, J.L., Yang, X.L., Li, X.H., Jiang, L., Kim, E.T., Stevenson, D.A., Viskochil, D., Xu, M.J., Yang, F.C. Hyperactive Ras/MAPK signaling is critical for tibial nonunion fracture in neurofibromin-deficient mice. Human Molecular Genetics 2013; 22(-23-):4818-4828. >>> PD-98059; PBS; SC; Mice (transgenic); 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Col2.3Cre;Nfl flox/- and PreiCre;Nfl flox/-); PD98059 is an MEK inhibitor. Possible mistake - written that pumps released over 28 days at 0.25 ul/hr and used pump model 1007D..

12769 Liu, M.G., Matsuura, S., Shinoda, M., Honda, K., Suzuki, I., Shibuta, K., Tamagawa, T., Katagiri, A., Kiyomoto, M., Ohara, K., Furukawa, A., Urata, K., Iwata, K. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 contributes to inflammatory tongue pain via extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling in the trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis and upper cervical spinal cord. Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012; 9(-;-):U1-U16. >>> PD-98059; MPEP; DMSO; saline; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 2001; Animal info (Sprague Dawley, male, adult, 200-250 g); MPEP also known as 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine; PE45 tubing used; enzyme inhibitor (mitogen-activated protein kinase, MAPK); functionality of mp verified via residual drug levels.

11863 Romo, L.B., Tapia, R. VEGF protects spinal motor neurons against chronic excitotoxic degeneration in vivo by activation of PI3-K pathway and inhibition of p38MAPK. Journal of Neurochemistry 2010; 115(-5-):1090-1101. >>> Isoxazolepropionate, alpha amino-3-hydroxy-5-; vascular endothelial growth factor, recomb., 164; SU14980, tyrphostin; LY294002; wortmannin; PD-98059; SB203580; neurodegenerative (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis);; PBS; DMSO; CSF/CNS (intrathecal, spinal cord); Rat; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Wistar, male, 270-290 g, adult); alpha amino-3-hydroxy-5-isoxazolepropionate also known as AMPA; wound clips used; post op. care, pg 1091 (penicillin); good methods, pg 1091; multiple pumps used (2); multiple intrathecal catheters used; wound clips used; 2% DMSO used; enzyme inhibitor (p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, p38MAPK).

11736 Tsujimura, T., Shinoda, M., Honda, K., Hitomi, S., Kiyomoto, M., Matsuura, S., Katagiri, A., Tsuji, K., Inoue, M., Shiga, Y., Ituata, K. Organization of pERK-immunoreactive cells in trigeminal spinal nucleus caudalis, upper cervical cord, NTS and Pa5 following capsaicin injection into masticatory and swallowing-related muscles in rats. Brain Research 2011; 1417(-;-):45-54. >>> PD-98059; DMSO; saline; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Sprague-Dawley, male, 250-350 g); enzyme inhibitor (MEK, MAPK kinase); microsilicon tubing used; 10% DMSO used.

11485 Ljuca, F., Drevensek, G., Zerem, E. Contribution of Ras farnesyl transferase, MAP kinase and cytochrome P-450 metabolites to endothelin-1 induced hypertension. Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences 2011; 11(-2-):84-86. >>> Endothelin 1; FPT III; PD-98059; baicalein; ODYA, 17-; IV (jugular); Rat; Controls received no pump; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley); peptides; enzyme inhibitor (Ras farnesyl transferase, MAP kinase, COX); 17-ODYA is a CYP450 inhibitor; PE-60 tubing used.

11313 Dupont, E., Stevens, L., Cochon, L., Falempin, M., Bastide, B., Canu, M.H. ERK Is Involved in the Reorganization of Somatosensory Cortical Maps in Adult Rats Submitted to Hindlimb Unloading. PLoS One 2011; 6(-3-):U392-U400. >>> PD-98059; CSF/CNS (cortex); Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (adult, male, Wistar, 280-320 g); enzyme inhibitor (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2, ERK 1/2); post op. care (butadiene).

11083 Kobayashi, A., Shinoda, M., Sessle, B.J., Honda, K., Imamura, Y., Hitomi, S., Tsuboi, Y., Okada-Ogawa, A., Iwata, K. Mechanisms involved in extraterritorial facial pain following cervical spinal nerve injury in rats. Molecular Pain 2011; 7(-;-):U1-U11. >>> PD-98059; fluoroacetate; DMSO; CSF/CNS (spinal cord, intrathecal); Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (adult, male, Sprague Dawley, 200-300 g); enzyme inhibitor (mitogen-activated protein kinase, MEK 1/2); 10% DMSO used.

10644 Adachi, K., Shimizu, K., Hu, J.W., Suzuki, I., Sakagami, H., Koshikawa, N., Sessle, B.J., Shinoda, M., Miyamoto, M., Honda, K., Iwata, K. Purinergic receptors are involved in tooth-pulp evoked nocifensive behavior and brainstem neuronal activity. Molecular Pain 2010; 6(-;-):U1-U11. >>> PD-98059; DMSO; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; Animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, adult, 300-360 g); enzyme inhibitor (mitogen-activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase, MEK); 10% DMSO used.

9956 Tsujimura, T., Kondo, M., Kitagawa, J., Tsuboi, Y., Saito, K., Tohara, H., Ueda, K., Sessle, B.J., Iwata, K. Involvement of ERK phosphorylation in brainstem neurons in modulation of swallowing reflex in rats. JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-LONDON 2009; 587(-4-):805-817. >>> PD-98059; DMSO; saline; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/vehicle; animal info (Sprague Dawley, male, 250-350 g); 10% DMSO used.

9882 Creson, T.K., Hao, Y.L., Engel, S., Shen, Y., Hamidi, A., Zhuo, M., Manji, H.K., Chen, G. The anterior cingulate ERK pathway contributes to regulation of behavioral excitement and hedonic activity. BIPOLAR DISORDERS 2009; 11(-4-):339-350. >>> PD-98059; CSF/CNS (anterior cingulate, cortex); Rat; 1002; Enzyme inhibitor (ERK); ALZET brain infusion kit 1 used; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 250-200g); behavioral testing (open-field, elevated-plus-maze, forced-swim, saccharin preference, amphetamine induced hyperactivity); brain tissue distribution; tissue perfusion (cortex).

9701 Wei, S.G., Yu, Y., Zhang, Z.H., Felder, R.B. Angiotensin II upregulates hypothalamic AT1 receptor expression in rats via the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology 2009; 296(-5-):H1425-H1433. >>> Angiotensin II; losartan; PD-98059; SP-600125; SB-203580; Saline; DMSO; CSF, artificial; SC; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2002; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; pumps replaced after 2 weeks; enzyme inhibitor (MAP kinase, Jun N-terminal kinase, janus kinase); cardiovascular; peptides; multiple pumps per animal (2); animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 275-300 g.); cannula placement confirmed at end of study; 0.1%-0.5% DMSO used.

9503 Zhang, M., Hallows, J.L., Wang, X.Z., Bu, B.T., Wang, W., Vincent, I. Mitogen-activated protein kinase activity may not be necessary for the neuropathology of Niemann-Pick type C mice. Journal of Neurochemistry 2008; 107(-3-):814-822. >>> PD-98059; DMSO; saline; dye, Evan's blue; CSF/CNS; Mice; 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by dye infusion; dose-response (fig. 1); enzyme inhibitor (MAPK/ERK 1); brain tissue distribution; animal info (female, BALB/c, Nctr-Npc, 5 wks old); 50% DMSO used; behavioral testing (limb motor activity/coat hanger test).

8338 Goldman, J., Zhong, L., Liu, S.Q. Negative regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell migration by blood shear stress. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology 2007; 292(-2-):H928-H938. >>> PD-98059; ML-7; IV (vena cava); Rat; 2ML1; Enzyme inhibitor (MAP kinase-ERK kinase 1/2, myosin light chain kinase); animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 30. old, vein grafts).

8176 Di, Cristo G., Berardi, N., Cancedda, L., Pizzorusso, T., Putignano, E., Ratto, G.M., Maffei, L. Requirement of ERK activation for visual cortical plasticity. Science 2001; 292(-5525-):2337-2340. >>> U0126; PD-98059; SB203580; CSF/CNS (visual cortex); Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; stability verified by inhibition of ERK activation by picrotoxin; enzyme inhibitor (p38 MAP kinase); animal info (Dark-reared, P28); tissue perfusion (visual cortex).

6730 Haddad, F., Adams, G.R. Inhibition of MAP/ERK kinase prevents IGF-I-induced hypertrophy in rat muscles. Journal of Applied Physiology 2004; 96(-1-):203-210. >>> PD-98059; insulin-like growth factor I; IM (plantaris); Rat; 2002; Controls received no treatment to the contralateral muscle; functionality of mp verified by residual volume aspiration&measurement; no stress (see pg.205); good methods p. 203; enzyme inhibitor (MAPK/ERK kinase); mp primed in sterile saline @ 37 degrees Celsius.

4870 Muthalif, M.M, Benter, I.F., Khandekar, Z, Gaber, L, Estes, A, Malik, S, Parmentier, J.-H, Manne, V, Malik, K.U. Contribution of Ras GPase/MAP kinase and cytochrome P450 metabolites to deoxycorticosterone-salt-induced hypertension.. Hypertension 2000; 35(-part 2-):457-463. >>> FPT III; BMS-191563; PD-98059; IP; Rat; 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; replacement therapy (uninephrectomy); cardiovascular; antihypertensive; enzyme inhibitor; FPT III and BMS-191563 are Ras farnesyl transferase enzyme inhibitors; PD-98059 is an MEK enzyme inhibitor; MEK is MAP (mean arterial pressure) kinase inhibitor.

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112. PF-956980

9074 Changelian, P.S., Moshinsky, D., Kuhn, C.F., Flanagan, M.E., Munchhof, M.J., Harris, T.M., Doty, J.L., Sun, J.M., Kent, C.R., Magnuson, K.S., Perregaux, D.G., Sawyer, P.S., Kudlacz, E.M. The specificity of JAK3 kinase inhibitors. Blood 2008; 111(-4-):2155-2157. >>> PF-956980; PEG 300; SC; Mice; 2004; Dose-response (Fig. 1); enzyme inhibitor (JAK3); immunology.

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113. PF-3758309

10161 Murray, B.W., Guo, C.X., Piraino, J., Westwick, J.K., Zhang, C., Lamerdin, J., Dagostino, E., Knighton, D., Loi, C.M., Zager, M., Kraynov, E., Popoff, I., Christensen, J.G., Martinez, R., Kephart, S.E., Marakovits, J., Karlicek, S., Bergqvist, S., Smeal, T. Small-molecule p21-activated kinase inhibitor PF-3758309 is a potent inhibitor of oncogenic signaling and tumor growth. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 2010; 107(-20-):9446-9451. >>> PF-3758309; Mice (nude); Dose response; enzyme inhibitor (P21-activated kinsase); animal info (athymic, CRL breed, 6-8 weeks); cancer; chemotherapeutic.

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114. PI-88

9751 Parish, C.R. Identification of Sulfated Oligosaccharide-based Inhibitors of Tumor Growth and Metastasis Using Novel in Vitro Assays for Angiogenesis and Heparanase Activity. Cancer Research 1999; (-59-):3433-3441. >>> PI-88; Saline; IP; Rat; 2ML1; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, Fisher, 10-13 wks old); PI-88 is a phosphomannopentaose sulfate.

5788 Francis, D.J., Parish, C.R., McGarry, M., Santiago, F.S., Lowe, H.C., Brown, K.J., Bingley, J.A., Hayward, I.P., Cowden, W.B., Campbell, J.H., Campbell, G.R., Chesterman, C.N., Khachigian, L.M. Blockade of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and intimal thickening after balloon injury by the sulfated oligosaccharide PI-88 - Phosphomannopentaose sulfate directly binds FGF-2, blocks cellular signaling, and inhibits proliferation. Circulation Research 2003; 92(-8-):E70-E77. >>> PI-88; Saline; SC; IP; Rat; rabbit; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (heparanase); cardiovascular; PI-88 is a synthetic polysulfated oligosaccharide (also called phosphomannopentaose sulfate); potent inhibitor of tumor metastasis and angiogenesis; pumps implanted SC in rats and IP in rabbits..

5162 Iversen, P.O., Iversen, P.O., Sorensen, D.R., Benestad, H.B. Inhibitors of angiogenesis selectively reduce the malignant cell load in rodent models of human myeloid leukemias. LEUKEMIA 2002; 16(--):376-381. >>> Endostatin, LPS; PI-88; IP; mice; 2004; cancer; recombinant human endostatin used; PI-88 is an anticoagulant mannopentaose phosphate sulfate; angiogenesis inhibitors. Agents given singly or concomitantly in same pump.

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115. Parecoxib

14728 Eberstaal, S., Fritzell, S., Sanden, E., Visse, E., Darabi, A., Siesjoe, P., Eberstaal, S. Immunizations with unmodified tumor cells and simultaneous COX-2 inhibition eradicate malignant rat brain tumors and induce a long-lasting CD8(+) T cell memory. Journal of Neuroimmunology 2014; 274(--):161-167. >>> Parecoxib; IP; Rat; 2001; 2004; Animal info (male, Fischer 344, 8-10 weeks old); cancer (Glioma);.

13512 Eberstaal, S., Sanden, E., Fritzell, S., Darabi, A., Visse, E., Siesjoe, P. Intratumoral COX-2 inhibition enhances GM-CSF immunotherapy against established mouse GL261 brain tumors. International Journal of Cancer 2014; 134(-11-):2748-2753. >>> Parecoxib; valdecoxib; IP; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Mice; 1004; Animal info (C57BL/6, female, 8-10 wks old); cancer; tissue perfusion (intratumoral).

12351 Eberstaal, S., Badn, W., Fritzell, S., Esbjoernsson, M., Darabi, A., Visse, E., Siesjoe, P. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 enhances immunotherapy against experimental brain tumors. CANCER IMMUNOLOGY IMMUNOTHERAPY 2012; 61(-8-):1191-1199. >>> Parecoxib; Saline; IP; Rat; 2004; 2001; Controls were untreated; animal info (Fischer 344, 8-10 wks old, male); cancer (glioblastoma).

11547 Norregaard, R., Jensen, B.L., Topcu, S.O., Wang, G.X., Schweer, H., Nielsen, S., Frokiaer, J. Urinary tract obstruction induces transient accumulation of COX-2-derived prostanoids in kidney tissue. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 2010; 298(-4-):R1017-R1025. >>> Parecoxib; Saline; SC; Rat; Animal info (Munich Wistar, 220 g); enzyme inhibitor (cyclooxygenase-2, COX2).

11415 Jensen, A.M., Bae, E.H., Norregaard, R., Wang, G.X., Nielsen, S., Schweer, H., Kim, S.W., Frokiaer, J. Cyclooxygenase 2 inhibition exacerbates AQP2 and pAQP2 downregulation independently of V2 receptor abundance in the postobstructed kidney. American Journal of Physiology-Renal Physiology 2010; 298(-4-):F941-F950. >>> Parecoxib; Saline, physiological; SC; Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 240 g).

9279 Bivol, L.M., Hultstroem, M., Gudbrandsen, O.A., Berge, R.K., Iversen, B.M. Tetradecylthioacetic acid downregulates cyclooxygenase 2 in the renal cortex of two-kidney, one-clip hypertensive rats. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 2008; 295(-6-):R1866-R1873. >>> Parecoxib; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Enzyme inhibitor (COX-2); animal info (male, Wistar, 180-200 g.).

8832 Norregaard, R., Jensen, B.L., Topcu, S.O., Diget, M., Schweer, H., Knepper, M.A., Nielsen, S., Frokiaer, J. COX-2 activity transiently contributes to increased water and NaCl excretion in the polyuric phase after release of ureteral obstruction. American Journal of Physiology- Renal Physiology 2007; 292(-5-):F1322-F1333. >>> Parecoxib; Saline; SC; Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (cyclooxygenase-2); animal info (male, munich-wistar, 250 grams, bilateral ureteral obstruction and release).

8506 Norregaard, R., Jensen, B.L., Topcu, S.O., Nielsen, S.S., Walter, S., Djurhuus, J.C., Frokiaer, J. Cyclooxygenase type 2 is increased in obstructed rat and human ureter and contributes to pelvic pressure increase after obstruction. Kidney International 2006; 70(-5-):872-881. >>> Parecoxib; Saline, isotonic; SC; Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (cyclooxygenase-2); animal info (male, Munich-Wistar, 220-250g., Bilateral ureter obstruction).

7359 Norregaard, R., Jensen, B.L., Li, C.L., Wang, W.D., Knepper, M.A., Nielsen, S., Frokiaer, J. COX-2 inhibition prevents downregulation of key renal water and sodium transport proteins in response to bilateral ureteral obstruction. American Journal of Physiology-Renal Physiology 2005; 289(-2-):F322-F333. >>> Parecoxib; Saline; SC; Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle.

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116. Physostigmine

16023 Holschneider, D. P., Guo, Y., Wang, Z., Roch, M., Scremin, O. U. Remote brain network changes after unilateral cortical impact injury and their modulation by acetylcholinesterase inhibition. J Neurotrauma 2013; 30(-11-):907-19. >>> physostigmine; water; SC; rat; 2ML4; controls received mp w/ saline; animal info: sprague-dawley, male, 250-300g; functionality of mp verified by residual volume; enzyme inhibitor (Acetylcholine); neurodegenerative (Traumatic brain injury); except for model number, paper does not mention ALZET much; dose: 1.6 micromoles/kg/day.

12362 Miyazaki, R., Ichiki, T., Hashimoto, T., Ikeda, J., Kamiharaguchi, A., Narabayashi, E., Matsuura, H., Takeda, K., Sunagawa, K. Acetyleholinesterase inhibitors attenuate angiogenesis. Clinical Science 2012; 123(-3-4-):241-249. >>> Physostigmine; Mice; Animal info (C57BL/6, 9 wks old); enzyme inhibitor (acetylcholinesterase); hindlimb ischemia.

10674 Mauck, B., Lucot, J.B., Paton, S., Grubbs, R.D. Cholinesterase inhibitors and stress: Effects on brain muscarinic receptor density in mice. Neurotoxicology 2010; 31(-5-):461-467. >>> Pyridostigmine bromide; physostigmine; SC; Mice; Controls received mp w/saline; animal info (male, C57BL6, 25 g); enzyme inhibitor (cholinesterase).

10491 Van Kampen, J.M., Eckman, C.B. Agonist-induced restoration of hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive improvement in a model of cholinergic denervation. Neuropharmacology 2010; 58(-6-):921-929. >>> Physostigmine; carbachol; nicotine; pirenzepine; oxotremorine; mecamylamine; Saline; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2002; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, Sprague Dawley, 250 g.); neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's Disease).

7777 Philippens, I.H.C.H., Joosen, M.J.A., Vanwersch, R.A.P. Stress adversely affects efficacy of physostigmine-scopolamine pretreatment against soman in guinea pigs. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 2005; 82(-1-):125-132. >>> Physostigmine; scopolamine bromide; Water, distilled; propylene glycol; acetic acid, glacial; ethanol; SC; Guinea-pig; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; post op. care (nobecutane); animal info (male, dunkin-hartley albino, 400-450 g); 10% ETOH; wound clips used.

7010 Choi, E.K., Park, D., Yon, J.M., Hur, G.H., Ha, Y.C., Che, J.H., Kim, J., Shin, S., Jang, J.Y., Hwang, S.Y., Seong, Y.H., Kim, D.J., Kim, J.C., Kim, Y.B. Protection by sustained release of physostigmine and procyclidine of soman poisoning in rats. European Journal of Pharmacology 2004; 505(-1-3-):83-91. >>> Physostigmine salicytate; procyclidine hydrochloride; Propylene glycol; acetic acid, glacial; ethanol; water; SC; Rat; 2001; Functionality of mp verified by plasma levels; dose-response (table 1); enzyme inhibitor (cholinesterase); procyclidine is an NMDA antagonist.

6613 Langley, R.J., Kalra, R., Mishra, N.C., Sopori, M.L. Central but not the peripheral action of cholinergic compounds suppresses the immune system. Journal of Neuroimmunology 2004; 148(-1-2-):140-145. >>> Physostigmine; pyridostigmine bromide; edrophonium; Saline; CSF, artificial; SC; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (acetylcholinesterase); immunology; ALZET brain infusion kit.

5857 Muggleton, N.G., Bowditch, A.P., Crofts, H.S., Scott, E.A.M., Pearce, P.C. Assessment of a combination of physostigmine and scopolamine as pretreatment against the behavioral effects of organophosphates in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). Psychopharmacology 2003; 166(-3-):212-220. >>> Physostigmine salicylate; scopolamine hydrobromide; Saline; SC; Monkey (marmoset); 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; behavioral testing; agents infused via same pumps; toxicology.

5481 Wetherell, J., Hall, T., Passingham, S. Physostigmine and hyoscine improves protection against the lethal and incapacitating effects of nerve agent poisoning in the guinea-pig. Neurotoxicology 2002; 23(-3-):341-349. >>> Physostigmine salicylate; Hyoscine hydrobromide; Pyridostigmine; Saline; SC; Guinea-pig; 2001; Physostigmine and hyoscine infused together; toxicology.

5274 Meshulam, Y., Cohen, G., Chapman, S., Alkalai, D., Levy, A. Prophylaxis against organophosphate poisoning by sustained release of scopolamine and physostigmine. Journal of Applied Toxicology 2001; 21(--):S75-S78. >>> Scopolamine; Physostigmine; Propylene glycol; Ethanol; Water; Acetic acid, glacial; SC; Dog; 2001; functionality of mp verified by plasma scopolamine&physostigmine levels; dose-response (table, p. S77); toxicology; vehicle was 10% ethanol, 20% PG, 70% water, 0.0035% AA; mentions benefits of infusion via pump (p. S77).

5046 Beach, T.G., Kuo, Y.M., Schwab, C., Walker, D.G., Roher, A.E. Reduction of cortical amyloid beta levels in guinea pig brain after systemic administration of physostigmine. Neuroscience Letters 2001; 310(--):21-24. >>> Physostigmine salicylate; Saline, sterile; SC; guinea-pig; 2ML2; controls received mp w/ vehicle; peptides; neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's disease); peptide amyloid beta; physostigmine is an acetylcholesterase enzyme inhibitor;.

5036 Daniel, J.M., Dohanich, G.P. Acetylcholine mediates the estrogen-induced increase in NMDA receptor binding in CA1 of the hippocampus and the associated improvement in working memory. Journal of Neuroscience 2001; 21(-17-):6949-6956. >>> Physostigmine hemisulfate; Ethanol; Propylene glycol; Water, distilled;; SC; rat; controls received mp w/ vehicle; replacement therapy (ovariectomy); brain tissue distribution; enzyme inhibitor; physostigmine is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor; 10% ethanol and 40% propylene glycol vehicle used..

4917 Lallement, G., Foquin, A., Dorandeu, F., Baubichon, D., Carpentier, P. Subchronic administration of various pretreatments of nerve agent poisoning. II. Compared efficacy against soman toxicity. Drug and Chemical Toxicology 2001; 24(-2-):165-180. >>> Pyridostigmine; Huperzine; Physostigmine; Scopolamine;; SC;; guinea-pig;; Controls received sham operation; enzyme inhibitor; these are poisons known to be acetylcholinesterase inhibitors; doses inhibited 30% of AChE activity; Physostigmine was infused alone or together with Scopolamine; toxicology.

4532 Meshulam, Y, Davidovici, R, Wengier, A, Levy, A. Prophylactic transdermal treatment with Physostigmine and Scopolamine against soman intoxication in guinea-pigs.. Journal of Applied Toxicology 1995; 15(--):263-266. >>> Physostigmine;; SC;; guinea-pig;; 2001;; comparison of acute injections vs. mp; half-life (p. 263);"Physostigmine concentrations needed for protection under continuous delivery were significantly smaller...than those needed following acute injection"(p. 265); Physostigmine has half life of 15 min. in rats and 30 min. in humans..

4333 Philippens, I.H.C.H.M., Busker, R.W., Wolthuis, O.L., Olivier, B., Bruijnzeel, P.L.B., Melchers, B.P.C. Subchronic physostigmine pretreatment in guinea pigs: effective against soman and without side effects. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav 1998; 59(-4-):1061-1067. >>> Physostigmine; Scopolamine; Propylene glycol; Ethanol; Water; SC; guinea-pig; 2002; controls received mp w/vehicle; functionality of mp verified by scopolamine plasma levels; agents infused alone or combined in same pump;"because a bolus injection of physostigmine is not a very realistic pretreatment procedure, a more chronic application was considered and evaluated"(p. 1062).

2973 Wetherell, J.R. Continuous administration of low dose rates of physostigmine and hyoscine to guinea-pigs prevents the toxicity and reduces the incapacitation produced by soman poisoning. J. Pharm. Pharmacol 1994; 46(--):1023-1028. >>> Physostigmine; Hyoscine; Saline, sterile; SC; guinea-pig; 2001; 2002; controls received sham surgery.

2701 Meshulam, Y., Davidovici, R., Levy, A. Protection against soman and sarin exposure by transdermal physostigmine and scopolamine. Proc. Med. Def. Biosci. Rev 1993; 2(--):812-819. >>> Physostigmine; SC; guinea-pig; 2001; comparison of transdermal administration vs. mp; toxicology; physostigmine administered w/ and w/out scopolamine.

2681 Anderson, D.R., Harris, L.W., Lennox, W.J., Solana, R.P. Effects of subacute pretreatment with carbamate together with acute adjunct pretreatment against nerve agent exposure. Drug Chem. Toxicol 1991; 14(-1&2-):1-19. >>> Physostigmine salicylate; Pyridostigmine bromide; Acetic acid, glacial; Water; guinea-pig; 2ML2; controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by AChE assay; comparison of acute injections vs. mp; acute scopolamine administered concomitantly; toxicology.

2424 Miller, S.A., Blick, D.W., Kerenyi, S.Z., Murphy, M.R. Efficacy of physostigmine as a pretreatment for organophosphate poisoning. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav 1993; 44(--):343-347. >>> Physostigmine salicylate; Propylene glycol; Acetic acid, glacial; Ethanol, absolute; Water; SC; rat; 2001; controls received mp w/ vehicle solution; functionality of mp verified by ChE inhibition (graph, p. 345).

1887 Alberch, J., Carman-Krzan, M., Fabrazzo, M., Wise, B.C. Chronic treatment with scopolamine and physostigmine changes nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor density and NGF content in rat brain. Brain Research 1991; 542(--):233-240. >>> Physostigmine; SC; rat; 2001; no comment posted.

1612 Mandel, R.J., Chen, A.D., Connor, D.J., Thal, L.J. Continuous physostigmine infusion in rats with excitotoxic lesions of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis: effects on performance in the water maze task and cortical cholinergic markers. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther 1989; 251(-2-):612-619. >>> Physostigmine hemisulfate; Ethanol; Propylene glycol; Water; SC; rat; pump replaced at 12 days.

1508 Lim, D.K., Ito, Y., Yu, Z.J., Hoskins, B., Ho, I.K. Prevention of soman toxicity after the continuous administration of physostigmine. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav 1989; 31(--):633-639. >>> Physostigmine salicylate; Ethanol; Acetic acid, glacial; Propylene glycol; Water; SC; guinea-pig; 2001; no comment posted.

1507 Lim, D.K., Ito, Y., Stewart, T., Hoskins, B., Ho, I.K. Toxicity study of continuous administration of physostigmine salicylate. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav 1989; 31(--):627-631. >>> Physostigmine salicylate; Alcohol; Propylene glycol; Water; SC; guinea-pig; 2001; stability of agent in vehicle tested.

1482 Harris, L.W., Anderson, D.R., Lennox, W.J., Solana, R.P. Effects of subacute administration of physostigmine on blood acetylcholinesterase activity, motor performance, and soman intoxication. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol 1989; 97(--):267-271. >>> Physostigmine salicylate; Acetic acid, glacial; Ethanol; Propylene glycol; Water; SC; rat; 2ML4; functionality of mp verified in vitro.

1408 Miyamoto, M., Narumi, S., Nagaoka, A., Coyle, J.T. Effects of continuous infusion of cholinergic drugs on memory impairment in rats with basal forebrain lesions. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther 1989; 248(-2-):825-835. >>> Oxotremorine; Physostigmine sulfate; Saline; SC; rat; 2002; no comment posted.

978 James, M.K., Cubeddu, L.X. Pharmacologic characterization and functional role of muscarinic autoreceptors in the rabbit striatum. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther 1987; 240(-1-):203-215. >>> Physostigmine; SC; rabbit; 2ML2; controls received sham surgery; 2 doses of agent infused.

663 Fernando, J.C.R., Hoskins, B., Ho, I.K. Rapid induction of supersensitivity to muscarinic antagonists-induced motor excitation by continuous stimulation of cholinergic receptors. Life Sci 1985; 37(-9-):883-892. >>> Oxotremorine; Physostigmine sulfate; Saline; SC; rat; 2002; comparison of single sc injec vs. daily injec vs. mp infusion of agents effects.

429 Girgis, M. A combined histochemical-neurophysiological technique for investigating the extent of diffusion of intracerebrally injected drugs. Acta Anat 1983; 117(--):248-256. >>> Physostigmine; Reserpine; CSF/CNS (limbic system); cat; guinea-pig; monkey; rabbit; comparison of injec by microsyringe vs. mp infusion, infused hippocampus, septum, hypothalamus, caudate-putamen; chemitrode, mp advant. for icv admin; antihypertensive.

365 Loullis, C.C., Dean, R.L., Lippa, A.S., Meyerson, L.R., Beer, B., Bartus, R.T. Chronic administration of cholinergic agents: effects on behavior and calmodulin. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav 1983; 18(-4-):601-604. >>> Physostigmine; Scopolamine; Saline; SC; rat; comparison of agents effects.

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117. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1

P6178 Swiercz,R, Keck,R.W, Skrzypcak-Jankun,E, Selman,S.H, Jankun,J. Recombinant PAI-1 inhibits angiogenesis and reduces size of LNCaP prostate cancer xenografts in SCID mice. Oncology Reports 2001; 8(--):463-470. >>> Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1; Saline; SC; Mice (SCID); 2004; 28 days; Controls received mp w/ saline; dose-response (fig. 4 and 5); cancer (prostate); angiogenesis inhibitor.

P6129 Seeds,N.W., Basham,M.E., Ferguson,J.E. Absence of tissue plasminogen activator gene or activity impairs mouse cerebellar motor learning. Journal of Neuroscience 2003; 23(-19-):7368-7375. >>> Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1; tissue plasminogen activator, STOP; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS (cerebellum); Mice; 1007D; 7 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; stability verified by amidolytic assays (tpa-STOP); good methods (p. 7369); half-life (p. 7369, 145 hours); ALZET brain infusion kit 1 used; recovery period; PAI-1 was recomb. mutant; "pump implantation and subsequent infusion of either aCSF or PAI-1 did not impair the mice's ability to perform a previously learned motor task." p. 7372; behavioral study.

P4029 Tsirka,S.E., Rogove,A.D., Strickland,S. Neuronal cell death and tPA. Nature 1996; 384(--):123-124. >>> Tissue plasminogen activator, recomb. human; Plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1; PBS; CSF/CNS (hippocampus); mice; 1007D; 2 days; controls received mp w/vehicle; tissue plasminogen activator is a serine-protease; plasminogen activator inhibitor is a serine-protease inhibitor (enzyme inhibitor).

P3447 Mataga,N., Imamura,K., Shiomitsu,T., Yoshimura,Y., Fukamauchi,F., Watanabe,Y. Enhancement of mRNA expression of tissue-type plasminogen activator by L-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine in association with ocular dominance plasticity. Neurosci.Lett. 1996; 218(--):149-152. >>> Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1; CSF/CNS (visual cortex); cat (kitten); 2001; no duration posted; no comment posted.

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118. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1

6339 Swiercz, R, Keck, R.W, Skrzypcak-Jankun, E, Selman, S.H, Jankun, J. Recombinant PAI-1 inhibits angiogenesis and reduces size of LNCaP prostate cancer xenografts in SCID mice. Oncology Reports 2001; 8(--):463-470. >>> Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1; Saline; SC; Mice (SCID); 2004; Controls received mp w/ saline; dose-response (fig. 4 and 5); cancer (prostate); angiogenesis inhibitor.

6288 Seeds, N.W., Basham, M.E., Ferguson, J.E. Absence of tissue plasminogen activator gene or activity impairs mouse cerebellar motor learning. Journal of Neuroscience 2003; 23(-19-):7368-7375. >>> Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1; tissue plasminogen activator, STOP; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS (cerebellum); Mice; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; stability verified by amidolytic assays (tpa-STOP); good methods (p. 7369); half-life (p. 7369, 145 hours); ALZET brain infusion kit 1 used; recovery period; PAI-1 was recomb. mutant;"pump implantation and subsequent infusion of either aCSF or PAI-1 did not impair the mice's ability to perform a previously learned motor task."p. 7372; behavioral study.

4126 Tsirka, S.E., Rogove, A.D., Strickland, S. Neuronal cell death and tPA. Nature 1996; 384(--):123-124. >>> Tissue plasminogen activator, recomb. human; Plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1; PBS; CSF/CNS (hippocampus); mice; 1007D; controls received mp w/vehicle; tissue plasminogen activator is a serine-protease; plasminogen activator inhibitor is a serine-protease inhibitor (enzyme inhibitor).

3555 Mataga, N., Imamura, K., Shiomitsu, T., Yoshimura, Y., Fukamauchi, F., Watanabe, Y. Enhancement of mRNA expression of tissue-type plasminogen activator by L-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine in association with ocular dominance plasticity. Neurosci. Lett 1996; 218(--):149-152. >>> Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1; CSF/CNS (visual cortex); cat (kitten); 2001; no comment posted.

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119. Pravastatin

11511 Monceau, V., Pasinetti, N., Schupp, C., Pouzoulet, F., Opolon, P., Vozenin, M.C. Modulation of the Rho/ROCK Pathway in Heart and Lung after Thorax Irradiation Reveals Targets to Improve Normal Tissue Toxicity. CURRENT DRUG TARGETS 2010; 11(-11-):1395-1404Pravastatin; Y-27632. >>> Pravastatin; Y-27632; DMSO; SC; Mice; 1002; Animal info (female, C57BL6); enzyme inhibitor (ROCK, Rho-associated protein kinase); 10% DMSO used.

9512 Zaher, H., Schwabedissen, H.E.M.Z., Tirona, R.G., Cox, M.L., Obert, L.A., Agrawal, N., Palandra, J., Stock, J.L., Kim, R.B., Ware, J.A. Targeted disruption of murine organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1b2 (oatp1b2/Slco1b2) significantly alters disposition of prototypical drug substrates pravastatin and rifampin. MOLECULAR PHARMACOLOGY 2008; 74(-2-):320-329. >>> Rifampin; pravastatin; Water; DMSO; SC; Mice; 2001D; Functionality of mp verified by plasma concentrations; dose-response (fig. 5); comparison of IV injections vs. mp; animal info (male, DBA1/lacJ, wt, Slco1b2 -/-, 9-14 wks old); 0.5% DMSO used.

2082 Joles, J., Willekes-Koolschijn, N., Koomans, H., Van Tol, A., Geelhoed-Mieras, T., Crommelin, D., Van Bloois, L., Krajnc-Franken, M., Cohen, L., Griffioen, M., Erkelens, W. Subcutaneous administration of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors in hyperlipidaemic and normal rats. Lab. Anim 1992; 26(--):269-280. >>> Lovastatin; Pravastatin; Liposomes; Simvastatin; Propylene glycol; rat; 2ML4; comparison of injections and oral administration vs. mp; stress/adverse reaction: local cystic reaction to simvastatin and lovastatin (p. 271, 275); enzyme inhibitor (HMG-CoA reductase), sc injections of simvastatin also caused subcutaneous toxicity.

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120. Pyridostigmine

15970 Lataro, R. M., Silva, C. A., Tefe-Silva, C., Prado, C. M., Salgado, H. C. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition Attenuates the Development of Hypertension and Inflammation in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats. Am J Hypertens 2015; 28(-10-):1201-8. >>> Pyridostigmine bromide; donepezil; SC; Rat; 2004; animal info (male, Wistar-Kyoto or SHR); pumps replaced every 4 weeks; long-term study; cardiovascular; bp measured using tail cuff; Dose (Pyridostigmine bromide 1.5 mg/kg/day; donepezil 1.4 mg/kg/day);.

15818 Halil Sayin, Bruno Chapuis, Philippe Chevalier, Christian Barrès, Claude Julien. Assessment of cardiac autonomic tone in conscious rats. Autonomic Neuroscience-Basic&Clinical 2016; 194(--):26-31. >>> Pyridostigmine bromide; SC; Rat; 2ML4; animal info (male, SHR, 46 weeks old); cardiovascular; bp measured using radiotelemetry; Dose (15 mg/kg/day);.

14716 Durand, M.T., Becari, C., de Oliveira, M., do Carmo, J.M., Silva, C.A.A., Prado, C.M., Fazan, R.Jr, Salgado, H.C., Salgado, H.C. Pyridostigmine Restores Cardiac Autonomic Balance after Small Myocardial Infarction in Mice. PLoS One 2014; 9(--):U327-U335. >>> Pyridostigmine; Saline, sterile; SC; Mice; 1004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, C57BL6, 10-15 weeks old, 25-30g); ischemia (cardiac); cardiovascular; pyrostigmine is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor; pyrostigmine aka PYR; bp measured using radiotelemetry; pumps primed at 37C saline for 48 hours;.

13565 Richtsfeld, M., Yasuhara, S., Fink, H., Blobner, M., Martyn, J.A.J. Prolonged Administration of Pyridostigmine Impairs Neuromuscular Function with and without Downregulation of Acetylcholine Receptors. Anesthesiology 2013; 119(-2-):412-421. >>> Pyridostigmine; Saline; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 220-260g); dose-response (p.416, 418); post op. care (antibiotic ointment); incision closed with (4-0) suture;.

10674 Mauck, B., Lucot, J.B., Paton, S., Grubbs, R.D. Cholinesterase inhibitors and stress: Effects on brain muscarinic receptor density in mice. Neurotoxicology 2010; 31(-5-):461-467. >>> Pyridostigmine bromide; physostigmine; SC; Mice; Controls received mp w/saline; animal info (male, C57BL6, 25 g); enzyme inhibitor (cholinesterase).

8546 Bernatova, I., Babal, P., Grubbs, R.D., Morris, M. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition affects cardiovascular structure in mice. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESEARCH 2006; 55(--):S89-S97. >>> Pyridostigmine bromide; SC; Mice; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ isotonic saline; enzyme inhibitor (acetylcholinesterase); cardiovascular; animal info (male, C57BL/6J, 10-12 weeks old, 25 grams).

8496 Dubovicky, M., Paton, S., Morris, M., Mach, M., Lucot, J.B. Effects of combined exposure to pyridostigmine bromide and shaker stress on acoustic startle response, pre-pulse inhibition and open field behavior in mice. Journal of Applied Toxicology 2007; 27(-3-):276-283. >>> Pyridostigmine bromide; SC; Mice; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle, or isotonic saline; no stress (see pg. 278, 280); enzyme inhibitor (acetylcholinesterase); animal info (male, C57BL/6J, 24-26g., 2 months old).

8404 Griffiths, G.D., Hornby, R.J., Jagger, C.P., Brown, A.P., Stoten, A., Pearce, P.C., Scott, L., Pritchard, D.I. Development of methods to measure humoral immune responses against selected antigens in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and the effect of pyridostigmine bromide administration. INTERNATIONAL IMMUNOPHARMACOLOGY 2006; 6(-12-):1755-1764. >>> Pyridostigmine bromide; Saline, sterile isotonic; SC; Marmoset; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; no stress (see p.1759,1762); immunology; animal info (male, female, 300-500g.); mp primed 40 hours;"delivery by pump ensured the animals would receive an appropriate dose of the drug over the desired time period.", oral delivery"would introduce unacceptable stress into the experiment and presentation in food was discounted because of difficulties in estimating the dose administered."(p.1757).

8228 Hornby, R.J., Pearce, P.C., Bowditch, A.P., Scott, L., Griffiths, G.D. Multiple vaccine and pyridostigmine bromide interactions in the common marmoset Callithrix jacchus: Immunological and endocrinological effects. INTERNATIONAL IMMUNOPHARMACOLOGY 2006; 6(-12-):1765-1779. >>> Pyridostigmine bromide; Saline, sterile isotonic; SC; Marmoset; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; no stress (see p.1776); immunology; animal info (female, vasectomized male, 331-565g. 2-5.5 yrs. old); mp primed 40 hours.

7427 Griffiths, G.D., Telford, G., Hooi, D.S.W., Cook, D.L., Wilkinson, L.J., Green, C.A., Pritchard, D.I. A T-cell-dependent humoral immune response is preserved during the administration of the nerve agent pre-treatment pyridostigmine bromide in a murine model. INTERNATIONAL IMMUNOPHARMACOLOGY 2005; 5(-3-):525-540. >>> Pyridostigmine bromide; Saline, sterile isotonic; SC; Mice; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (cholinesterase); immunology; mp primed in saline at 37 degrees celsius for 48 hours;"PB administration was achieved by 28-day mini-osmotic pumps thus removing the requirement for multiple oral dosing and the associated stress this may have caused."(p. 536).

7239 Joaquim, L.F., Farah, V.M., Bernatova, I., Fazan, R.Jr, Grubbs, R., Morris, M. Enhanced heart rate variability and baroreflex index after stress and cholinesterase inhibition in mice. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology 2004; 287(-1-):H251-H257. >>> Pyridostigmine; SC; Mice; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ saline; enzyme inhibitor (acetylcholinesterase); cardiovascular.

6948 Van Helden, H.P.M., Vanwersch, R.A.P., Kuijpers, W.C., Trap, H.C., Philippens, I.H.C., Benschop, H.P. Low levels of Sarin affect the EEG in marmoset monkeys: a pilot study. Journal of Applied Toxicology 2004; 24(-6-):475-483. >>> Pyridostigmine bromide; Propylene glycol: ethanol; acidic acid, glacial; water, distilled; SC; Marmoset; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; toxicology; sarin vapor.

6742 Van Helden, H.P.M., Trap, H.C., Kuijpers, W.C., Oostdijk, J.P., Benschop, H.P., Langenberg, J.P. Low-level exposure of guinea pigs and marmosets to sarin vapour in air: Lowest-observable-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) for miosis. Journal of Applied Toxicology 2004; 24(-1-):59-68. >>> Pyridostigmine bromide; Propylene glycol; ethanol; water; acetic acid, glacial; SC; Guinea-pig; marmoset; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; toxicology.

6613 Langley, R.J., Kalra, R., Mishra, N.C., Sopori, M.L. Central but not the peripheral action of cholinergic compounds suppresses the immune system. Journal of Neuroimmunology 2004; 148(-1-2-):140-145. >>> Physostigmine; pyridostigmine bromide; edrophonium; Saline; CSF, artificial; SC; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (acetylcholinesterase); immunology; ALZET brain infusion kit.

5789 Bernatova, I., Dubovicky, M., Price, W.A., Grubbs, R.D., Lucot, J.B., Morris, M. Effect of chronic pyridostigmine bromide treatment on cardiovascular and behavioral parameters in mice. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 2003; 74(-4-):901-907. >>> Pyridostigmine bromide; Saline; SC; Mice; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; pyridostigmine blood levels checked; enzyme inhibitor (acetylcholinesterase)..

5676 Lallement, G., Demoncheaux, J.P., Foquin, A., Baubichon, D., Galonnier, M., Clarencon, D., Dorandeu, F. Subchronic administration of pyridostigmine or huperzine to primates: Compared efficacy against soman toxicity. Drug and Chemical Toxicology 2002; 25(-3-):309-320. >>> Pyridostigmine; huperzine; SC; Monkey; 2ML1; Enzyme inhibitor (acetylcholinesterase); toxicology.

5481 Wetherell, J., Hall, T., Passingham, S. Physostigmine and hyoscine improves protection against the lethal and incapacitating effects of nerve agent poisoning in the guinea-pig. Neurotoxicology 2002; 23(-3-):341-349. >>> Physostigmine salicylate; Hyoscine hydrobromide; Pyridostigmine; Saline; SC; Guinea-pig; 2001; Physostigmine and hyoscine infused together; toxicology.

4927 Griffiths, G.D., Hornby, R.J., Stevens, D.J., Scott, L.A.M., Upshall, D.G. Biological consequences of multiple vaccine and pyridostigmine pretreatment in the guinea pig.. Journal of Applied Toxicology 2001; 21(--):59-68. >>> Pyridostigmine bromide;; Saline;; SC;; guinea-pig;; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by AChE levels via assay p. 60; immunology; enzyme inhibitor; PB is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor; toxicology.

4917 Lallement, G., Foquin, A., Dorandeu, F., Baubichon, D., Carpentier, P. Subchronic administration of various pretreatments of nerve agent poisoning. II. Compared efficacy against soman toxicity. Drug and Chemical Toxicology 2001; 24(-2-):165-180. >>> Pyridostigmine; Huperzine; Physostigmine; Scopolamine;; SC;; guinea-pig;; Controls received sham operation; enzyme inhibitor; these are poisons known to be acetylcholinesterase inhibitors; doses inhibited 30% of AChE activity; Physostigmine was infused alone or together with Scopolamine; toxicology.

3384 Matthew, C.B., Glenn, J.F., Bowers Jr, W.D., Navara, D.K. Cholinergic drug interactions and heat tolerance. Life Sci 1994; 54(-17-):1237-1245. >>> Pyridostigmine bromide; SC; rat; 2ML2; controls received mp w/saline; comparison of iv injection vs. mp; toxicology.

3128 Walday, P., Aas, P., Haider, T., Fonnum, F. Effect of pyridostigmine pretreatment, HI-6 and toxogonin treatment on rat tracheal smooth muscle response to cholinergic stimulation after organophosphorus inhalation exposure. Arch. Toxicol 1993; 67(--):212-219. >>> Pyridostigmine; SC; rat; 2001; toxicology.

2681 Anderson, D.R., Harris, L.W., Lennox, W.J., Solana, R.P. Effects of subacute pretreatment with carbamate together with acute adjunct pretreatment against nerve agent exposure. Drug Chem. Toxicol 1991; 14(-1&2-):1-19. >>> Physostigmine salicylate; Pyridostigmine bromide; Acetic acid, glacial; Water; guinea-pig; 2ML2; controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by AChE assay; comparison of acute injections vs. mp; acute scopolamine administered concomitantly; toxicology.

2661 Kerenyi, S.Z., Murphy, M.R., Hartgraves, S.L. Toxic interactions between repeated soman and chronic pyridostigmine in rodents. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav 1990; 37(-2-):267-271. >>> Pyridostigmine bromide; Acetic acid; Sodium hydroxide; SC; rat; 2001; controls received mp w/ vehicle; dose-response (p.268); toxicology.

2292 Koplovitz, I., Gresham, V.C., Dochterman, L.W., Kaminskis, A., Stewart, J.R. Evaluation of the toxicity, pathology, and treatment of cyclohexylmethylphosphonofluoridate (CMPF) poisoning in rhesus monkeys. Arch. Toxicol 1992; 66(-9-):622-628. >>> Pyridostigmine; Saline; monkey; 2ML2; no comment posted.

2532 Blick, D.W., Kerenyi, S.Z., Miller, S., Murphy, M.R., Brown, G.C., Hartgraves, S.L. Behavioral toxicity of anticholinesterases in primates: chronic pyridostigmine and soman interactions. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav 1991; 38(--):527-532. >>> Pyridostigmine bromide; Acetic acid; Sodium hydroxide; SC; monkey; 2ML1; controls received mp w/ vehicle.

1978 Adler, M., Deshpande, S.S., Foster, R.E., Maxwell, D.M., Albuquerque, E.X. Effects of subacute pyridostigmine administration on mammalian skeletal muscle function. J. Applied Toxicol 1992; 12(-1-):25-33. >>> Pyridostigmine bromide; Citric acid; Sodium hydroxide; Parabens; Sodium citrate; SC; rat; 2ML2; cholinesterase inhibitor.

15365 Kerenyi, S.Z., Hartgraves, S.L. Premature excess release from the alzet osmotic pump. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav 1987; 27(-1-):199-201. >>> Dye, FD&C Red No. 40; Pyridostigmine; Acetate, sodium; Acetic acid; SC; Rat; 2001; dose-response; mp malfunction; pyridostigmine used in vivo, dye in vitro; excessive early release of mp attributed to temp. change after implant.; stress/adverse reaction (cholinesterase poisoning due to mp malf.).

1109 Kerenyi, S.Z., Hartgraves, S.L. Premature excess release from the alzet osmotic pump. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav 1987; 27(-1-):199-201. >>> Dye, FD&C Red No. 40; Pyridostigmine; Acetate, sodium; Acetic acid; SC; Rat; 2001; dose-response; mp malfunction; pyridostigmine used in vivo, dye in vitro; excessive early release of mp attributed to temp. change after implant.; stress/adverse reaction (cholinesterase poisoning due to mp malf.).

1085 Anderson, R.J., Chamberlain, W.L., Roesner, M., Dacko, C., Robertson, D.G. Decreased tetanic contracture of rat skeletal muscle induced by pyridostigmine. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 1986; 18(--):221-230. >>> Pyridostigmine; Saline; rat; mp model not stated; controls received mp w/vehicle; 2 doses of agent infused; comparison of ip inject. vs. mp infusion; mp malfunction - residual drug in exiting tube gave equivalent of bolus injection but was corrected in later exp..

984 Shiloff, J.D., Clement, J.G. Effects of subchronic pyridostigmine pretreatment on the toxicity of soman. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol 1986; 64(--):1047-1049. >>> Pyridostigmine; SC; rat; 2001; 2001, 5 days; toxicology; teratology.

847 Hudson, C.S., Foster, R.E., Kahng, M.W. Ultrastructural effects of pyridostigmine on neuromuscular junctions in rat diaphragm. Neurotoxicology 1987; 7(-1-):167-186. >>> Pyridostigmine bromide; Citric acid monohydrate; Methyl paraben; Propyl paraben; Saline; Sodium citrate dihydrate; Water; SC; rat; 2ML2; controls received mp w/vehicle; toxicology; various doses of agent infused; possible malfunction of one mp; comparison of sc injections vs. mp infusion; functionality of mp verified via assay.

822 Hudson, C.S., Foster, R.E., Kahng, M.W. Neuromuscular toxicity of pyridostigmine bromide in the diaphragm, extensor digitorum longus, and soleus muscles of the rat. Fundam. Appl. Toxicol 1985; 5(-6 pt. 2-):S260-S26S. >>> Pyridostigmine bromide; Citric acid monohydrate; Methyl paraben; Propyl paraben; Saline; Sodium citrate dihydrate; Water; SC; rat; 2ML2; comparison of single injection vs. mp infusion; controls received mp w/ vehicle; study to determine neuromuscular effects of agent on different types of muscle fibers; toxicology.

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121. Pyrostigmine

Q3265 Richtsfeld,M., Yasuhara,S., Fink,H., Blobner,M., Martyn,J.A.J. Prolonged Administration of Pyridostigmine Impairs Neuromuscular Function with and without Downregulation of Acetylcholine Receptors. Anesthesiology 2013; 119(-2-):412-421. >>> Pyridostigmine; Saline; SC; Rat; 2ML4; 14 days; 28 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 220-260g); dose-response (p.416, 418); post op. care (antibiotic ointment); incision closed with (4-0) suture;.

Q0425 Mauck,B., Lucot,J.B., Paton,S., Grubbs,R.D. Cholinesterase inhibitors and stress: Effects on brain muscarinic receptor density in mice. Neurotoxicology 2010; 31(-5-):461-467. >>> Pyridostigmine bromide; physostigmine; SC; Mice; 30 days; Controls received mp w/saline; animal info (male, C57BL6, 25 g); enzyme inhibitor (cholinesterase).

P8345 Bernatova,I., Babal,P., Grubbs,R.D., Morris,M. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition affects cardiovascular structure in mice. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESEARCH 2006; 55(--):S89-S97. >>> Pyridostigmine bromide; SC; Mice; 1007D; 7 days; Controls received mp w/ isotonic saline; enzyme inhibitor (acetylcholinesterase); cardiovascular; animal info (male, C57BL/6J, 10-12 weeks old, 25 grams).

P8259 Dubovicky,M., Paton,S., Morris,M., Mach,M., Lucot,J.B. Effects of combined exposure to pyridostigmine bromide and shaker stress on acoustic startle response, pre-pulse inhibition and open field behavior in mice. Journal of Applied Toxicology 2007; 27(-3-):276-283. >>> Pyridostigmine bromide; SC; Mice; 1007D; 7 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle, or isotonic saline; no stress (see pg. 278, 280); enzyme inhibitor (acetylcholinesterase); animal info (male, C57BL/6J, 24-26g., 2 months old).

P8143 Griffiths,G.D., Hornby,R.J., Jagger,C.P., Brown,A.P., Stoten,A., Pearce,P.C., Scott,L., Pritchard,D.I. Development of methods to measure humoral immune responses against selected antigens in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and the effect of pyridostigmine bromide administration. INTERNATIONAL IMMUNOPHARMACOLOGY 2006; 6(-12-):1755-1764. >>> Pyridostigmine bromide; Saline, sterile isotonic; SC; Marmoset; 28 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; no stress (see p.1759,1762); immunology; animal info (male, female, 300-500g.); mp primed 40 hours; "delivery by pump ensured the animals would receive an appropriate dose of the drug over the desired time period.", oral delivery "would introduce unacceptable stress into the experiment and presentation in food was discounted because of difficulties in estimating the dose administered." (p.1757).

P8082 Hornby,R.J., Pearce,P.C., Bowditch,A.P., Scott,L., Griffiths,G.D. Multiple vaccine and pyridostigmine bromide interactions in the common marmoset Callithrix jacchus: Immunological and endocrinological effects. INTERNATIONAL IMMUNOPHARMACOLOGY 2006; 6(-12-):1765-1779. >>> Pyridostigmine bromide; Saline, sterile isotonic; SC; Marmoset; 2004; 28 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; no stress (see p.1776); immunology; animal info (female, vasectomized male, 331-565g. 2-5.5 yrs. old); mp primed 40 hours.

P7217 Griffiths,G.D., Telford,G., Hooi,D.S.W., Cook,D.L., Wilkinson,L.J., Green,C.A., Pritchard,D.I. A T-cell-dependent humoral immune response is preserved during the administration of the nerve agent pre-treatment pyridostigmine bromide in a murine model. INTERNATIONAL IMMUNOPHARMACOLOGY 2005; 5(-3-):525-540. >>> Pyridostigmine bromide; Saline, sterile isotonic; SC; Mice; 2004; 28 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (cholinesterase); immunology; mp primed in saline at 37 degrees celsius for 48 hours; "PB administration was achieved by 28-day mini-osmotic pumps thus removing the requirement for multiple oral dosing and the associated stress this may have caused." (p. 536).

P7030 Joaquim,L.F., Farah,V.M., Bernatova,I., Fazan,R.Jr, Grubbs,R., Morris,M. Enhanced heart rate variability and baroreflex index after stress and cholinesterase inhibition in mice. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology 2004; 287(-1-):H251-H257. >>> Pyridostigmine; SC; Mice; 1007D; 3 days; Controls received mp w/ saline; enzyme inhibitor (acetylcholinesterase); cardiovascular.

P6741 Van Helden,H.P.M., Vanwersch,R.A.P., Kuijpers,W.C., Trap,H.C., Philippens,I.H.C., Benschop,H.P. Low levels of Sarin affect the EEG in marmoset monkeys: a pilot study. Journal of Applied Toxicology 2004; 24(-6-):475-483. >>> Pyridostigmine bromide; Propylene glycol: ethanol; acidic acid, glacial; water, distilled; SC; Marmoset; 2002; ; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; toxicology; sarin vapor.

P6551 Van Helden,H.P.M., Trap,H.C., Kuijpers,W.C., Oostdijk,J.P., Benschop,H.P., Langenberg,J.P. Low-level exposure of guinea pigs and marmosets to sarin vapour in air: Lowest-observable-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) for miosis. Journal of Applied Toxicology 2004; 24(-1-):59-68. >>> Pyridostigmine bromide; Propylene glycol; ethanol; water; acetic acid, glacial; SC; Guinea-pig; marmoset; 2002; 4 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; toxicology.

P6417 Langley,R.J., Kalra,R., Mishra,N.C., Sopori,M.L. Central but not the peripheral action of cholinergic compounds suppresses the immune system. Journal of Neuroimmunology 2004; 148(-1-2-):140-145. >>> Physostigmine; pyridostigmine bromide; edrophonium; Saline; CSF, artificial; SC; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2ML4; 3 weeks; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (acetylcholinesterase); immunology; ALZET brain infusion kit.

P5638 Bernatova,I., Dubovicky,M., Price,W.A., Grubbs,R.D., Lucot,J.B., Morris,M. Effect of chronic pyridostigmine bromide treatment on cardiovascular and behavioral parameters in mice. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 2003; 74(-4-):901-907. >>> Pyridostigmine bromide; Saline; SC; Mice; 1007D; 7 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; pyridostigmine blood levels checked; enzyme inhibitor (acetylcholinesterase)..

P5528 Lallement,G., Demoncheaux,J.P., Foquin,A., Baubichon,D., Galonnier,M., Clarencon,D., Dorandeu,F. Subchronic administration of pyridostigmine or huperzine to primates: Compared efficacy against soman toxicity. Drug and Chemical Toxicology 2002; 25(-3-):309-320. >>> Pyridostigmine; huperzine; SC; Monkey; 2ML1; 6 days; Enzyme inhibitor (acetylcholinesterase); toxicology.

P5352 Wetherell,J., Hall,T., Passingham,S. Physostigmine and hyoscine improves protection against the lethal and incapacitating effects of nerve agent poisoning in the guinea-pig. Neurotoxicology 2002; 23(-3-):341-349. >>> Physostigmine salicylate; Hyoscine hydrobromide; Pyridostigmine; Saline; SC; Guinea-pig; 2001; 7 days; Physostigmine and hyoscine infused together; toxicology.

P4817 Griffiths,G.D., Hornby,R.J., Stevens,D.J., Scott,L.A.M., Upshall,D.G. Biological consequences of multiple vaccine and pyridostigmine pretreatment in the guinea pig.. Journal of Applied Toxicology 2001; 21(--):59-68. >>> Pyridostigmine bromide;; Saline;; SC;; guinea-pig;; 28 days;; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by AChE levels via assay p. 60; immunology; enzyme inhibitor; PB is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor; toxicology.

P4806 Lallement,G., Foquin,A., Dorandeu,F., Baubichon,D., Carpentier,P. Subchronic administration of various pretreatments of nerve agent poisoning. II. Compared efficacy against soman toxicity. Drug and Chemical Toxicology 2001; 24(-2-):165-180. >>> Pyridostigmine; Huperzine; Physostigmine; Scopolamine;; SC;; guinea-pig;; 6 days;; Controls received sham operation; enzyme inhibitor; these are poisons known to be acetylcholinesterase inhibitors; doses inhibited 30% of AChE activity; Physostigmine was infused alone or together with Scopolamine; toxicology.

P3276 Matthew,C.B., Glenn,J.F., Bowers Jr,W.D., Navara,D.K. Cholinergic drug interactions and heat tolerance. Life Sci. 1994; 54(-17-):1237-1245. >>> Pyridostigmine bromide; SC; rat; 2ML2; 2 weeks; controls received mp w/saline; comparison of iv injection vs. mp; toxicology.

P3020 Walday,P., Aas,P., Haider,T., Fonnum,F. Effect of pyridostigmine pretreatment, HI-6 and toxogonin treatment on rat tracheal smooth muscle response to cholinergic stimulation after organophosphorus inhalation exposure. Arch.Toxicol. 1993; 67(--):212-219. >>> Pyridostigmine; SC; rat; 2001; 18 days; toxicology.

P2593 Anderson,D.R., Harris,L.W., Lennox,W.J., Solana,R.P. Effects of subacute pretreatment with carbamate together with acute adjunct pretreatment against nerve agent exposure. Drug Chem.Toxicol. 1991; 14(-1&2-):1-19. >>> Physostigmine salicylate; Pyridostigmine bromide; Acetic acid, glacial; Water; guinea-pig; 2ML2; 14 days; controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by AChE assay; comparison of acute injections vs. mp; acute scopolamine administered concomitantly; toxicology.

P2573 Kerenyi,S.Z., Murphy,M.R., Hartgraves,S.L. Toxic interactions between repeated soman and chronic pyridostigmine in rodents. Pharmacol.Biochem.Behav. 1990; 37(-2-):267-271. >>> Pyridostigmine bromide; Acetic acid; Sodium hydroxide; SC; rat; 2001; 7 days; controls received mp w/ vehicle; dose-response (p.268); toxicology.

P2331 Koplovitz,I., Gresham,V.C., Dochterman,L.W., Kaminskis,A., Stewart,J.R. Evaluation of the toxicity, pathology, and treatment of cyclohexylmethylphosphonofluoridate (CMPF) poisoning in rhesus monkeys. Arch.Toxicol. 1992; 66(-9-):622-628. >>> Pyridostigmine; Saline; monkey; 2ML2; 3-12 days; no comment posted.

P2303 Blick,D.W., Kerenyi,S.Z., Miller,S., Murphy,M.R., Brown,G.C., Hartgraves,S.L. Behavioral toxicity of anticholinesterases in primates: chronic pyridostigmine and soman interactions. Pharmacol.Biochem.Behav. 1991; 38(--):527-532. >>> Pyridostigmine bromide; Acetic acid; Sodium hydroxide; SC; monkey; 2ML1; 5 days; controls received mp w/ vehicle.

P1982 Adler,M., Deshpande,S.S., Foster,R.E., Maxwell,D.M., Albuquerque,E.X. Effects of subacute pyridostigmine administration on mammalian skeletal muscle function. J.Applied Toxicol. 1992; 12(-1-):25-33. >>> Pyridostigmine bromide; Citric acid; Sodium hydroxide; Parabens; Sodium citrate; SC; rat; 2ML2; 14 days; cholinesterase inhibitor.

P1109 Kerenyi,S.Z., Hartgraves,S.L. Premature excess release from the alzet osmotic pump. Pharmacol.Biochem.Behav. 1987; 27(-1-):199-201. >>> Dye, FD&C Red No. 40; Pyridostigmine; Acetate, sodium; Acetic acid; SC; Rat; 2001; no duration posted; dose-response; mp malfunction; pyridostigmine used in vivo, dye in vitro; excessive early release of mp attributed to temp. change after implant.; stress/adverse reaction (cholinesterase poisoning due to mp malf.).

P1085 Anderson,R.J., Chamberlain,W.L., Roesner,M., Dacko,C., Robertson,D.G. Decreased tetanic contracture of rat skeletal muscle induced by pyridostigmine. J.Toxicol.Environ.Health 1986; 18(--):221-230. >>> Pyridostigmine; Saline; rat; 1, 4, 10, 20 days; mp model not stated; controls received mp w/vehicle; 2 doses of agent infused; comparison of ip inject. vs. mp infusion; mp malfunction - residual drug in exiting tube gave equivalent of bolus injection but was corrected in later exp..

P0984 Shiloff,J.D., Clement,J.G. Effects of subchronic pyridostigmine pretreatment on the toxicity of soman. Can.J.Physiol.Pharmacol. 1986; 64(--):1047-1049. >>> Pyridostigmine; SC; rat; 2001; 5 days; 2001, 5 days; toxicology; teratology.

P0847 Hudson,C.S., Foster,R.E., Kahng,M.W. Ultrastructural effects of pyridostigmine on neuromuscular junctions in rat diaphragm. Neurotoxicology 1987; 7(-1-):167-186. >>> Pyridostigmine bromide; Citric acid monohydrate; Methyl paraben; Propyl paraben; Saline; Sodium citrate dihydrate; Water; SC; rat; 2ML2; 2, 7, 14 days; controls received mp w/vehicle; toxicology; various doses of agent infused; possible malfunction of one mp; comparison of sc injections vs. mp infusion; functionality of mp verified via assay.

P0822 Hudson,C.S., Foster,R.E., Kahng,M.W. Neuromuscular toxicity of pyridostigmine bromide in the diaphragm, extensor digitorum longus, and soleus muscles of the rat. Fundam.Appl.Toxicol. 1985; 5(-6 pt. 2-):S260-S26S. >>> Pyridostigmine bromide; Citric acid monohydrate; Methyl paraben; Propyl paraben; Saline; Sodium citrate dihydrate; Water; SC; rat; 2ML2; 2 days; comparison of single injection vs. mp infusion; controls received mp w/ vehicle; study to determine neuromuscular effects of agent on different types of muscle fibers; toxicology.

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122. R03201195

8031 Goldstein, D.M., Alfredson, T., Bertrand, J., Browner, M.F., Clifford, K., Dalrymple, S.A., Dunn, J., Freire-Moar, J., Harris, S., Labadie, S.S., La Fargue, J., Lapierre, J.M., Larrabee, S., Li, F.J., Papp, E., McWeeney, D., Ramesha, C., Roberts, R., Rotstein, D., San Pablo, B., Sjogren, E.B., So, O.Y., Talamas, F.X., Tao, W., Trejo, A., Villasenor, A., Welch, M., Welch, T., Weller, P., Whiteley, P.E., Young, K., Zipfel, S. Discovery of S-[5-amino-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl]-[3-(2,3- dihydroxypropoxy)phenyl]methanone (RO3201195), an orally bioavailable and highly selective inhibitor of p38 map kinase. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 2006; 49(-5-):1562-1575. >>> R03201195; PEG 400; SC; Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by plasma concentrations; pumps replaced on day 8; enzyme inhibitor (p38 map kinase); multiple pumps per animal (2); animal info (female, Lewis, 120-150g., rat adjuvant arthritis).

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123. RO3303544

8874 Adachi, K., Mirzadeh, Z., Sakaguchi, M., Yamashita, T., Nikolcheva, T., Gotoh, Y., Peltz, G., Gong, L., Kawase, T., varez-Buylla, A., Okano, H., Sawamoto, K. beta-Catenin signaling promotes proliferation of progenitor cells in the adult mouse subventricular zone. Stem Cells 2007; 25(-11-):2827-2836. >>> Ro3303544; Saline; CSF/CNS; Mice; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (protein kinase); animal info (adult, male, C57BL/6, 9 wks); GSK3-beta is a protein kinase.

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124. Ro3303544

P8645 Adachi,K., Mirzadeh,Z., Sakaguchi,M., Yamashita,T., Nikolcheva,T., Gotoh,Y., Peltz,G., Gong,L., Kawase,T., varez-Buylla,A., Okano,H., Sawamoto,K. beta-Catenin signaling promotes proliferation of progenitor cells in the adult mouse subventricular zone. Stem Cells 2007; 25(-11-):2827-2836. >>> Ro3303544; Saline; CSF/CNS; Mice; 1007D; 7 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (protein kinase); animal info (adult, male, C57BL/6, 9 wks); GSK3-beta is a protein kinase.

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125. Rolipram

15905 Flora, G., Joseph, G., Patel, S., Singh, A., Bleicher, D., Barakat, D. J., Louro, J., Fenton, S., Garg, M., Bunge, M. B., Pearse, D. D. Combining neurotrophin-transduced schwann cells and rolipram to promote functional recovery from subacute spinal cord injury. Cell Transplant 2013; 22(-12-):2203-17. >>> Rolipram; Saline; ethanol; SC; Rat; 2001; animal info (female, Fischer, adult, 180-200g); pumps replaced every week; pumps replaced every week; spinal cord injury; Multiple pumps per animal (2); stress/adverse reaction: (see pg.2205); post op. care (gentamicin 5 mg/kg IM QD for 7 days; Buprenex 0.3 mg/kg SC QD for 2 days; lactated ringer's solution 5ml BID PRN, bladders expressed BID); Dose (0.5 mg/kg);.

15887 Syed, Y. A., Baer, A., Hofer, M. P., Gonzalez, G. A., Rundle, J., Myrta, S., Huang, J. K., Zhao, C., Rossner, M. J., Trotter, M. W., Lubec, G., Franklin, R. J., Kotter, M. R. Inhibition of phosphodiesterase-4 promotes oligodendrocyte precursor cell differentiation and enhances CNS remyelination. EMBO Mol Med 2013; 5(-12-):1918-34. >>> Rolipram; saline; DMSO; SC; rat; 2ML2; controls received mp w/ vehicle PBS (50% DMSO used); female, Sprague-Dawley, 180-200g; neurodegenerative (MS); mp were used to study the effect of Pde4 inhibitor (rolipram) on OPC (oligodendrocyte progenitor cell) differentiation; dose: 0.5 mg/kg/day;.

14602 Grosso, M.J., Matheus, V., Clark, M., van Rooijen, N., Iannotti, C.A., Steinmetz, M.P., Steinmetz, M.P. Effects of an Immunomodulatory Therapy and Chondroitinase After Spinal Cord Hemisection Injury. Neurosurgery 2014; 75(--):461-471. >>> Rolipram; SC; Rat; 1007D; Control animals received mp w/ PBS; animal info (adult, female, Sprague Dawley, 250-300 g); spinal cord injury; pumps replaced after one week.

13364 Costa, L.M., Pereira, J.E., Filipe, V.M., Magalhaes, L.G., Couto, P.A., Gonzalo-Orden, J.M., Raimondo, S., Geuna, S., Mauricio, A.C., Nikulina, E., Filbin, M.T., Varejao, A.S.P. Rolipram promotes functional recovery after contusive thoracic spinal cord injury in rats. Behavioural Brain Research 2013; 243(-;-):66-73. >>> Rolipram; DMSO; SC; Rat; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, Wistar, 200g); post op. care (wound irrigated with saline, heating pag, opthalmic gel, lactated Ringer's solution SC as needed, manual expression of bladders twice a day, injection of sulpladiazine and trimethoprim twice a day); behavioral testing (beam walk, treadmill locomotion);.

12382 Atkins, C.M., Kang, Y., Furones, C., Truettner, J.S., Alonso, O.F., Dietrich, W.D. Postinjury treatment with rolipram increases hemorrhage after traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neuroscience Research 2012; 90(-9-):1861-1871. >>> Rolipram; Ethanol; saline; SC; Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Wistar, male, 280-300 g, adult); 5% ethanol used.

11851 Bretzner, F., Plemel, J.R., Liu, J., Richter, M., Roskams, A.J., Tetzlaff, W. Combination of Olfactory Ensheathing Cells With Local Versus Systemic cAMP Treatment After a Cervical Rubrospinal Tract Injury. Journal of Neuroscience Research 2010; 88(-13-):2833-2846. >>> cAMP; rolipram; PBS, sterile; DMSO; SC; CSF/CNS (red nucleus); Rat; 2001; 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Sprague Dawley, male, adult, 300-400 g); wound clips used; enzyme inhibitor (phosphodiesterase); pumps replaced after one week; 16% DMSO used.

11400 Iannotti, C.A., Clark, M., Horn, K.P., van Rooijen, N., Silver, J., Steinmetz, M.P. A combination immunomodulatory treatment promotes neuroprotection and locomotor recovery after contusion SCI. Experimental Neurology 2011; 230(-1-):3-15. >>> Rolipram; DMSO; SC; Rat; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (adult, female, Sprague Dawley, 220-250 g); functionality of mp verified; pumps replaced after 1 week; post op. care (hydration with normal saline (10 cc), buprenex, cephalozolin).

10919 Nout, Y.S., Culp, E., Schmidt, M.H., Tovar, C.A., Proeschel, C., Mayer-Proeschel, M., Noble, M.D., Beattie, M.S., Bresnahan, J.C. Glial restricted precursor cell transplant with cyclic adenosine monophosphate improved some autonomic functions but resulted in a reduced graft size after spinal cord contusion injury in rats. Experimental Neurology 2011; 227(-1-):159-171. >>> Rolipram; DMSO; SC; Rat; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, 71 days old); stress/adverse reaction: (increased body-weight loss, increased micturition peak frequencies) see pg. 167; spinal cord injury.

10719 Dai, H.N., Macarthur, L., McAtee, M., Hockenbury, N., Tidwell, J.L., McHugh, B., Mansfield, K., Finn, T., Hamers, F.P.T., Bregman, B.S. Activity-Based Therapies To Promote Forelimb Use after a Cervical Spinal Cord Injury. Journal of Neurotrauma 2009; 26(-10-):1719-1732. >>> Rolipram; Saline; DMSO; SC; Rat; 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (adult, female, Sprague-Dawley, 6 wks old); 15% DMSO used; behavioral testing (Skilled target reaching, Gridwalk, Vertical exploration, CatWalk gait analysis).

10708 Beaumont, E., Whitaker, C.M., Burke, D.A., Hetman, M., Onifer, S.M. EFFECTS OF ROLIPRAM ON ADULT RAT OLIGODENDROCYTES AND FUNCTIONAL RECOVERY AFTER CONTUSIVE CERVICAL SPINAL CORD INJURY. Neuroscience 2009; 163(-4-):985-990. >>> Rolipram; DMSO; SC; Rat; 2002; Spinal cord injury; animal info (female, adult, Sprague Dawley, 228-267 g); multiple pumps per animal (2); stress/adverse reaction: (see pg. 966)"the data of one rat in the rolipram-treated group was removed from the study because of its morbidity".

10269 Udina, E., Ladak, A., Furey, M., Brushart, T., Tyreman, N., Gordon, T. Rolipram-induced elevation of cAMP or chondroitinase ABC breakdown of inhibitory proteoglycans in the extracellular matrix promotes peripheral nerve regeneration. Experimental Neurology 2010; 223(-1-):143-152. >>> Rolipram; Saline; SC; Rat; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (phosphodiesterase IV); animal info (female, Sprague Dawley, 200-220 g.).

9703 Whitaker, C.M., Beaumont, E., Wells, M.J., Magnuson, D.S.K., Hetman, M., Onifer, S.M. Rolipram attenuates acute oligodendrocyte death in the adult rat ventrolateral funiculus following contusive cervical spinal cord injury. Neuroscience Letters 2008; 438(-2-):200-204. >>> Rolipram; DMSO; SC; Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (phosphodiesterase 4); multiple pumps per animal (2); post op. care (Gentozen, bacitracin zinc); animal info (female, Sprague Dawley, 228-267 g., SCI).

8133 Monti, B., Berteotti, C., Contestabile, A. Subchronic Rolipram delivery activates hippocampal CREB and arc, enhances retention and slows down extinction of conditioned fear. Neuropsychopharmacology 2006; 31(-2-):278-286. >>> Rolipram; DMSO; saline; SC; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle or sham operated; comparison of IP injections vs. mp; no stress (see pg. 281); enzyme inhibitor (phosphodiesterase); animal info (male, Wistar, 10 weeks old); 50% DMSO used;"These concomitant effects were only observed in rats treated subchronically through osmotic minipumps, indicating that attainment of an increased steady level of expression and activity was essential in the enhancement of the behavioral response."(P. 283).

7985 Hinkle, R.T., Dolan, E., Cody, D.B., Bauer, M.B., Isfort, R.J. Phosphodiesterase 4 inhibition reduces skeletal muscle atrophy. Muscle&Nerve 2005; 32(-6-):775-781. >>> Pentoxifylline; clenbuterol; ariflo; rolipram; Saline, physiological; SC; Mice; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; comparison of SC injections vs. mp; enzyme inhibitor (cAMP phosphodiesterases); animal info (male, C57B16, 20-30g.); ariflo also known as cilomilast or SB-207499.

7681 Monti, B., Berteotti, C., Contestabile, A. Subchronic Rolipram delivery activates hippocampal CREB and arc, enhances retention and slows down extinction of conditioned fear. Neuropsychopharmacology 2005; 31(-2-):1-9. >>> Rolipram; DMSO; saline; SC; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle or sham operation; comparison of IP injection vs. mp; no stress (see pg. 4); enzyme inhibitor (phosphodiesterase); animal info (male, Wistar, 10 wk old); 50% DMSO;"effects were only observed in rats treated subchronically through osmotic minipumps, indicating that attainment of an increased steady level of expression and activity was essential in the enhancement of the behavioral response.".

7032 Day, Y.J., Huang, L., McDuffie, M.J., Rosin, D.L., Ye, H., Chen, J.F., Schwarzschild, M.A., Fink, J.S., Linden, J., Okusa, M.D. Renal protection from ischemia mediated by A2A adenosine receptors on bone marrow-derived cells. J. Clin. Invest 2003; 112(-6-):883-891. >>> ATL146e; rolipram; DMSO; PBS; SC; Mice; 1003D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (phospodiesterase IV); cardiovascular; ischemia; 0.01% DMSO; chimeric mice obtained via bone marrow transplantation.

6825 Pearse, D.D., Pereira, F.C., Marcillo, A.E., Bates, M.L., Berrocal, Y.A., Filbin, M.T., Bunge, M.B. cAMP and Schwann cells promote axonal growth and functional recovery after spinal cord injury. Nature Medicine 2004; 10(-6-):610-616. >>> Rolipram; DMSO; SC; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; both pumps replaced after 1 week; enzyme inhibitor (phosphodiesterase IV); multiple pumps per animal (2).

6426 Nikulina, E., Tidwell, J.L., Dai, H.N., Bregman, B.S., Filbin, M.T. The phosphodiesterase inhibitor rolipram delivered after a spinal cord lesion promotes axonal regeneration and functional recovery. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 2004; 101(-23-):8786-8790. >>> Rolipram; Saline; DMSO; SC; Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; dose-response (p. 8788, Fig 2A); 50% DMSO used in the 1,2,&3 day study; 16% used in the 10 day study; no pump model listed; transplantation.

6040 Wang, W.D., Li, C.L., Kwon, T.H., Knepper, M.A., Frokiaer, J., Nielsen, S. AQP3, p-AQP2, and AQP2 expression is reduced in polyuric rats with hypercalcemia: prevention by cAMP-PDE inhibitors. American Journal of Physiology-Renal Physiology 2002; 283(-6-):F1313-F1325. >>> Rolipram; milrinone; DMSO; Lactic acid; SC; IP; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by plasma levels; enzyme inhibitor (cAMP-phosphodiesterase); Rolipram (implanted SC) was dissolved in 50% DMSO&milrinone was dissolved in 30% lactic acid implanted IP; multiple pumps per animal (2).

5951 Tsuboi, Y., Shankland, S.J., Grande, J.P., Walker, H.J., Johnson, R.J., Dousa, T.P. Suppression of mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis development in rats by inhibitors of cAMP phosphodiesterase isozymes types III and IV. J Clin Invest 1996; 98(-2-):262-270. >>> Lixazinone; Rolipram; hydralazine; Ascorbic acid; DMSO; butanol, tert-; saline; IP; Rat; 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; agents plasma levels determined; enzyme inhibitor (isozyme cyclic-3,5-nucleotide phosphodiesterase); multiple pumps per animal (2); Lixazinone was dissolved in 10% ascorbic acid and tert-butanol; rolipram dissolved in 50% DMSO; hydralazine dissolved in saline.

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126. Roscovitine

11570 Rowe, J., Greenblatt, R.J., Liu, D.M., Moffat, J.F. Compounds that target host cell proteins prevent varicella-zoster virus replication in culture, ex vivo, and in SCID-Hu mice. Antiviral Research 2010; 86(-3-):276-285. >>> Phosphonoacetic acid; roscovitine; DMSO; SC; Mice (NSG); 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (SCID-Hu, 7-8 wks old); enzyme inhibitor (cyclin-dependent kinase); 50% DMSO used; bioluminescence (IVIS 200); antiviral.

11268 Chagniel, L., Robitaille, C., Lebel, M., Cyr, M. Striatal inhibition of calpains prevents levodopa-induced neurochemical changes and abnormal involuntary movements in the hemiparkinsonian rat model. NEUROBIOLOGY OF DISEASE 2012; 45(-1-):645-655. >>> Roscovitine; MDL28170; Saline; DMSO; cyclodextrin, hydroxypropyl beta; CSF/CNS (striatum); Rat; 2004; Animal info (adult, male, Sprague Dawley, 200-250g); ALZET brain infusion kit 2 used; neurodegenerative (Parkinson's disease).

11006 Crews, L., Patrick, C., Adame, A., Rockenstein, E., Masliah, E. Modulation of aberrant CDK5 signaling rescues impaired neurogenesis in models of Alzheimer's disease. Cell Death&Disease 2011; 2(-;-):U24-U36. >>> Roscovitine; CSF/CNS; Mice (transgenic); 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (8 mo old, non tg, APP tg); cyanoacrylate adhesive.

10605 Menn, B., Bach, S., Blevins, T.L., Campbell, M., Meijer, L., Timsit, S. Delayed Treatment with Systemic (S)-Roscovitine Provides Neuroprotection and Inhibits In Vivo CDK5 Activity Increase in Animal Stroke Models. PLoS One 2010; 5(-8-):U113-U123. >>> Roscovitine, S-; DMSO; Krebs-Ringer's solution; CSF/CNS; SC; Rat; mice; 1003D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (P60, male, C57B/6, 20-25 g; P60, male, Sprague Dawley, 280-320 g); ischemia (cerebral).

9974 Zhang, Q., Chen, C., Lue, J.G., Xie, M.J., Pan, D.J., Luo, X., Yu, Z.Y., Dong, Q., Wang, W. Cell Cycle Inhibition Attenuates Microglial Proliferation and Production of IL-1-beta, MIP-1-alpha, and NO After Focal Cerebral Ischemia in the Rat. Glia 2009; 57(-8-):908-920. >>> Roscovitine; DMSO; saline; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/vehicle; functionality of mp verified by"weighing the cassette before placement and after the experiment"pg. 909; enzyme inhibitor (cyclin dependant kinase); ALZET brain infusion kit used; ischemia (cerebral); animal info (adult, male, Sprague Dawley, 220-270 g); 0.2% DMSO used; MCAO.

7823 Kitazawa, M., Oddo, S., Yamasaki, T.R., Green, K.N., LaFerla, F.M. Lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation exacerbates tau pathology by a cyclin-dependent kinase 5-mediated pathway in a transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease. Journal of Neuroscience 2005; 25(-39-):8843-8853. >>> Roscovitine; DMSO; CSF/CNS; Mice; mice (transgenic); 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (cdK5); ALZET Brain Infusion Kit 3 used; neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's disease); animal info (3xTg-AD, WT, 4 month old, female); 50% DMSO.

7220 Wang, C.H., Lee, T.H., Tsai, Y.J., Liu, J.K., Chen, Y.J., Yang, L.C., Lu, C.Y. Intrathecal cdk5 inhibitor, roscovitine, attenuates morphine antinociceptive tolerance in rats1. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 2004; 25(-8-):1027-1030. >>> Roscovitine; morphine; DMSO; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 2001; Enzyme inhibitor (cyclin dependent kinase 5); tolerance.

7124 Zhang, M., Li, J., Chakrabarty, P., Bu, B.T., Vincent, I. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors attenuate protein hyperphosphorylation, cytoskeletal lesion formation, and motor defects in Niemann-Pick type C mice. American Journal of Pathology 2004; 165(-3-):843-853. >>> Roscovitine; olomoucine; iso-olomoucine; DMSO; CSF/CNS; Mice; 1002; Pumps replaced every 2 weeks for 4 week infusions; enzyme inhibitor (CDK); neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Niemann-Pick Type C disease); lynch coil used to accomodate 75% DMSO.

5814 Norrholm, S.D., Bibb, J.A., Nestler, E.J., Ouimet, C.C., Taylor, J.R., Greengard, P. Cocaine-induced proliferation of dendritic spines in nucleus accumbens is dependent on the activity of cyclin-dependent kinase-5. Neuroscience 2003; 116(-1-):19-22. >>> Roscovitine; Sodium phosphate; sodium chloride; DMSO; CSF/CNS (nucleus accumbens); Rat; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; tissue perfusion (nucleus accumbens); enzyme inhibitor (cyclin dependent kinase-5); roscovitine is a potent Cdk5 inhibitor; bilateral cannula used; 50% DMSO used; bilateral infusion;.

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127. SB203580

15993 Kiyomoto, M., Shinoda, M., Honda, K., Nakaya, Y., Dezawa, K., Katagiri, A., Kamakura, S., Inoue, T., Iwata, K. p38 phosphorylation in medullary microglia mediates ectopic orofacial inflammatory pain in rats. Mol Pain 2015; 11(--):48. >>> SB203580; DMSO; saline; CSF/CNS (cisterna magna); Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 210-260g); 10% DMSO used; used PE tubing; Dose (8 umol/day);.

15840 Shun-Guang Wei, Yang Yu, Robert M. Weiss, Robert B. Felder. Inhibition of Brain Mitogen-Activated Protein KinaseSignaling Reduces Central Endoplasmic Reticulum Stressand Inflammation and Sympathetic Nerve Activity in HeartFailure Rats. Hypertension 2016; 67(--):229-236. >>> PD98059; SB203580; SP600125; CSF, artificial; DMSO; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, adult, 275-325g); 5% DMSO used; cardiovascular;.

13578 Lin, L., Tang, C.Y., Xu, J.F., Ye, Y., Weng, L.Q., Wei, W., Ge, J.B., Liu, X.B., Zou, Y.Z. Mechanical Stress Triggers Cardiomyocyte Autophagy through Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor-Mediated p38MAP Kinase Independently of Angiotensin II. PLoS One 2014; 9(-2-):U1349-U1356. >>> SB203580; losartan; PBS; SC; Mice; 2002; Control animals received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (C57BL/6, male, 8-10 wks).

13270 Kobayashi, K., Yamanaka, H., Yanamoto, F., Okubo, M., Noguchi, K. Multiple P2Y subtypes in spinal microglia are involved in neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury. Glia 2012; 60(-10-):1529-1539. >>> MRS2578; MRS2211; SB203580; U0126; Saline; DMSO; CSF/CNS; Rat; 1003D; 2001; Dose-response (Fig 6A); behavioral testing (allodynia, hyperalgesia); animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 200-250g);.

13146 Dauch, J.R., Bender, D.E., Luna-Wong, L.A., Hsieh, W., Yanik, B.M., Kelly, Z.A., Cheng, H.T. Neurogenic factor-induced Langerhans cell activation in diabetic mice with mechanical allodynia. Journal of Neuroinflammation 2013; 10(-;-):U1-U10. >>> SB203580; DMSO; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); 1007D; Control animals received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (C57BLKS, male, db/db, 7 wks old); 10% DMSO used; enzyme inhibitor (p38 kinase); diabetes;.

11863 Romo, L.B., Tapia, R. VEGF protects spinal motor neurons against chronic excitotoxic degeneration in vivo by activation of PI3-K pathway and inhibition of p38MAPK. Journal of Neurochemistry 2010; 115(-5-):1090-1101. >>> Isoxazolepropionate, alpha amino-3-hydroxy-5-; vascular endothelial growth factor, recomb., 164; SU14980, tyrphostin; LY294002; wortmannin; PD-98059; SB203580; neurodegenerative (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis);; PBS; DMSO; CSF/CNS (intrathecal, spinal cord); Rat; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Wistar, male, 270-290 g, adult); alpha amino-3-hydroxy-5-isoxazolepropionate also known as AMPA; wound clips used; post op. care, pg 1091 (penicillin); good methods, pg 1091; multiple pumps used (2); multiple intrathecal catheters used; wound clips used; 2% DMSO used; enzyme inhibitor (p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, p38MAPK).

11264 Cheng, H.T., Dauch, J.R., Hayes, J.M., Yanik, B.M., Feldman, E.L. Nerve growth factor/p38 signaling increases intraepidermal nerve fiber densities in painful neuropathy of type 2 diabetes. NEUROBIOLOGY OF DISEASE 2012; 45(-1-):280-287. >>> SB203580; CSF, artificial; DMSO; CSF/CNS (intrathecal, spinal cord); Mice; 1007D; Animal info (C57BLKS db/db); 10% DMSO used.

10853 Gee, E., Milkiewicz, M., Haas, T.L. p38 MAPK Activity Is Stimulated by Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2 Activation and Is Essential for Shear Stress-Induced Angiogenesis. Journal of Cellular Physiology 2010; 222(-1-):120-126. >>> SB203580; Saline; IP; Rat; Controls received mp w/ SB202474; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 150-200 g).

10808 Brades, S., Svensson, C.I., Steinauer, J., Pothoulakis, C., Yaksh, T.L., Mayer, E.A. Role of Spinal Microglia in Visceral Hyperalgesia and NK1R Up-Regulation in a Rat Model of Chronic Stress. Gastroenterology 2009; 136(-4-):1339-1348. >>> SB203580; minocycline; Saline; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (adult, male, Wistar, 250-275 g); enzyme inhibitor (MAPK, mitogen-activated protein kinase); PE5 connected to PE10 tubing used; catheter position verified postmortem.

10426 Obata, K., Katsura, H., Mizushima, T., Yamanaka, H., Kobayashi, K., Dai, Y., Fukuoka, T., Tokunaga, A., Tominaga, M., Noguchi, K. TRPA1 induced in sensory neurons contributes to cold hyperalgesia after inflammation and nerve injury (vol 115, pg 2393, 2005). Journal of Clinical Investigation 2010; 120(-1-):394-394. >>> SB203580; antibody, anti-NGF; oligodeoxynucleotide, antisense; oligodeoxynucleotide, missense; oligodeoxynucleotide, FITC-, antisense; Saline; DMSO; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ missense oligo; animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 200-250 g, SNL); antisense (TRPA1); enzyme inhibitor (p38 MAP kinase); 50% DMSO; behavioral testing (basal pain hypersensitivity, paw withdrawal latency, mechanical withdrawal threshold).

10403 Cheng, H.T., Dauch, J.R., Oh, S.S., Hayes, J.M., Hong, Y., Feldman, E.L. p38 mediates mechanical allodynia in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes. Molecular Pain 2010; 6(-;-):U1-U14. >>> SB203580; CSF, artificial; DMSO; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Mice; 1007D; Animal info (db+, db/db, 8 wks old); 10% DMSO used; diabetes; PE cannula used to target the L5 region.

10191 Okubo, M., Yamanaka, H., Kobayashi, K., Noguchi, K. Leukotriene Synthases and the Receptors Induced by Peripheral Nerve Injury in the Spinal Cord Contribute to the Generation of Neuropathic Pain. Glia 2010; 58(-5-):599-610. >>> AA-861; U-75302; SB203580; pranlukast; U0126; Ethanol; saline; DMSO; CSF/CNS (intrathecal, subarachnoid space); Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ saline; enzyme inhibitor (5-lipoxygenase); animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 200-250 g); 0.02-0.2% ethanol used; 50% DMSO used; spinal nerve injury; behavioral testing (mechanical allodynia).

9701 Wei, S.G., Yu, Y., Zhang, Z.H., Felder, R.B. Angiotensin II upregulates hypothalamic AT1 receptor expression in rats via the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology 2009; 296(-5-):H1425-H1433. >>> Angiotensin II; losartan; PD-98059; SP-600125; SB-203580; Saline; DMSO; CSF, artificial; SC; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2002; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; pumps replaced after 2 weeks; enzyme inhibitor (MAP kinase, Jun N-terminal kinase, janus kinase); cardiovascular; peptides; multiple pumps per animal (2); animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 275-300 g.); cannula placement confirmed at end of study; 0.1%-0.5% DMSO used.

9537 Stirling, D.P., Liu, J., Plunet, W., Steeves, J.D., Tetzlaff, W. SB203580, a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor, fails to improve functional outcome following a moderate spinal cord injury in rat. Neuroscience 2008; 155(-1-):128-137. >>> SB203580; DMSO; streptomycin; penicillin; CSF/CNS (subarachnoid space); Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; dose-response (fig 5); enzyme inhibitor (p38 MAP Kinase); animal info (male, Wistar, adult, SCI); behavioral testing (locomotor activity); spinal cord injury.

9189 Li, J.H., Deane, J.A., Campanale, N.V., Bertram, J.F., Ricardo, S.D. Blockade of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and TGF-beta1/Smad signaling pathways rescues bone marrow-derived peritubular capillary endothelial cells in adriamycin-induced nephrosis. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 2006; 17(-10-):2799-2811. >>> SB203580; ALK5; DMSO; water; Mice; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; dose-response (p. 2801); enzyme inhibitor (p38 MAP Kinase); multiple pumps per animal (2); animal info (male, BALB/C, 6 wks old, 20-25 g.); TGF-B receptor I inhibitor.

9104 Terayama, R., Omura, S., Fujisawa, N., Yamaai, T., Ichikawa, H., Sugimoto, T. Activation of microglia and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in the dorsal column nucleus contributes to tactile allodynia following peripheral nerve injury. Neuroscience 2008; 153(-4-):1245-1255. >>> SB203580; Saline; CSF/CNS (intrathecal, cisterna magna); Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (p38 MAP kinase); animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 250-300g., spinal cord injury); PE10 tubing used; pump infusion schematic pg. 1246, Fig. 1.

8485 Li, J.H., Deane, J.A., Campanale, N.V., Bertram, J.F., Ricardo, S.D. The contribution of bone marrow-derived cells to the development of renal interstitial fibrosis. Stem Cells 2007; 25(-3-):697-706. >>> SB203580; alk5; Saline; Mice; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; replacement therapy (ADR-induced nephropathy); dose-response (pg. 698); enzyme inhibitor (p38 MAP kinase); animal info (male, BALB/C, bone marrow transplant, 20 wks old); ADR is adriamycin, TGF-B receptor I (ALK5) inhib.

8242 Yamanaka, H., Obata, K., Kobayashi, K., Dai, Y., Fukuoka, T., Noguchi, K. Alteration of the cell adhesion molecule L1 expression in a specific subset of primary afferent neurons contributes to neuropathic pain. European Journal of Neuroscience 2007; 25(-4-):1097-1111. >>> Immunoglobulin G, non-immune mouse; antibody, anti-L1-CAM; SB203580; Saline; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 2001; 2002; Animal info (Male, Sprague-Dawley, 200-250 grams); Silascon tubing, 0.64 mm O.D filled with 5.0 ul's of saline; inserted ~ 0.5 cm's into the intrathecal space; enzyme inhibitor (p38 MAP kinase).

8176 Di, Cristo G., Berardi, N., Cancedda, L., Pizzorusso, T., Putignano, E., Ratto, G.M., Maffei, L. Requirement of ERK activation for visual cortical plasticity. Science 2001; 292(-5525-):2337-2340. >>> U0126; PD-98059; SB203580; CSF/CNS (visual cortex); Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; stability verified by inhibition of ERK activation by picrotoxin; enzyme inhibitor (p38 MAP kinase); animal info (Dark-reared, P28); tissue perfusion (visual cortex).

8099 Li, J.H., Campanale, N.V., Liang, R.J., Deane, J.A., Bertram, J.F., Ricardo, S.D. Inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and transforming growth factor-beta 1/Smad signaling pathways modulates the development of fibrosis in adriamycin-induced nephropathy. American Journal of Pathology 2006; 169(-5-):1527-1540. >>> SB203580; ALK5 Inhibitor; DMSO; Mice; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; dose-response (pg. 1528); enzyme inhibitor (p38 MAP kinase, ALK5); animal info (male, BALB/C, 8 wk old, 25-30g.).

7454 Obata, K., Katsura, H., Mizushima, T., Yamanaka, H., Kobayashi, K., Dai, Y., Fukuoka, T., Tokunaga, A., Tominaga, M., Noguchi, K. TRPA1 induced in sensory neurons contributes to cold hyperalgesia after inflammation and nerve injury. Journal of Clinical Investigation 2005; 115(-9-):2393-2401. >>> SB203580; antibody, anti-nerve growth factor; oligodeoxynucleotide, antisense; oligodeoxynucleotide, FITC antisense; oligodeoxynucleotide, missense; DMSO; saline; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle, or sham surgery or mismatch ODN or contralateral no treatment; antisense (TRPA1); brain tissue distribution; 50% DMSO.

7232 Obata, K., Yamanaka, H., Kobayashi, K., Dai, Y., Mizushima, T., Katsura, H., Fukuoka, T., Tokunaga, A., Noguchi, K. Role of mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in injured and intact primary afferent neurons for mechanical and heat hypersensitivity after spinal nerve ligation. Journal of Neuroscience 2004; 24(-45-):10211-10222. >>> U0126; SB203580; FR167653; SP 600125; antibody, anti-NGF, sheep; DMSO, saline; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitors (MAPK kinase, p38, JNK, janus kinase); 50% DMSO used.

6988 Obata, K., Yamanaka, H., Dai, Y., Mizushima, T., Fukuoka, T., Tokunaga, A., Noguchi, K. Differential activation of MAPK in injured and uninjured DRG neurons following chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve in rats. European Journal of Neuroscience 2004; 20(-11-):2881-2895. >>> U0126; SB203580; DMSO; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 1003D; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (p38 MAP kinase); 50% DMSO used.

6484 Schafers, M., Svensson, C.I., Sommer, C., Sorkin, L.S. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha Induces Mechanical Allodynia after Spinal Nerve Ligation by Activation of p38 MAPK in Primary Sensory Neurons. The Journal of Neuroscience 2003; 23(-7-):2517-2521. >>> SB203580; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ saline; enzyme inhibitor (p38 MAP kinase).

6223 Horiuchi, D., Ogata, T., Morino, T., Chuai, M., Yamamoto, H. Continuous intrathecal infusion of SB203580, a selective inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, reduces the damage of hindlimb function after thoracic spinal cord injury in rat. NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH 2003; 47(-2-):209-217. >>> SB203580; Saline; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (p38 MAP kinase); pump infusion schematic (p. 210); spinal cord injury.

5897 Ji, Ru-Rong, Samad, Tarek A., Jin, Shan-Xue, Schmoll, Raymond, Woolf, Clifford J. MAPK activation by NGF in primary sensory neurons after inflammation increases TRPV1 levels and maintains heat hyperalgesia.. Neuron 2002; 36(-1-):57-68. >>> SB203580; Saline; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; Comparison of intrathecal injections vs. mp; SB203580 is an enzyme inhibitor (p38 MAP kinase).

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128. SC-37698

2078 Ye, C., Rabinovitch, M. Inhibition of elastolysis by SC-37698 reduces development and progression of monocrotaline pulmonary hypertension. Am. J. Physiol 1991; 261(-30-):H1255-H1267. >>> SC-37698; Ethanol; PEG 400; IV (jugular); rat; 2ML2; enzyme inhibitor (elastase); silastic 20'melded'to PE 60.

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129. SK&F 86002

3111 Fann, P.C., Hartman, D.F., Goode, R.L. Pharmacologic and surgical enhancement of composite graft survival. Arch Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg 1993; 119(--):313-319. >>> SK&F 86002; IM; rabbit; 2ML2; functionality of mp verified by explanting pump; stress/adverse reaction: (pg. 318) some scarring noted in area of implantation w/ small deposits of yellow crystals around catheter; enzyme inhibitor; SK&F 86002 is a dual cyclooxygenase (COX)/lipooxygenase inhibitor;"implantation of osmotic (Alzet) pumps prolonged anesthesia time by approximately 50%, possibly increasing the ischemic insult."; mp implanted beneath the superficial layer of the deep cervical fascia at time of ear surgery.

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130. SP600125

15840 Shun-Guang Wei, Yang Yu, Robert M. Weiss, Robert B. Felder. Inhibition of Brain Mitogen-Activated Protein KinaseSignaling Reduces Central Endoplasmic Reticulum Stressand Inflammation and Sympathetic Nerve Activity in HeartFailure Rats. Hypertension 2016; 67(--):229-236. >>> PD98059; SB203580; SP600125; CSF, artificial; DMSO; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, adult, 275-325g); 5% DMSO used; cardiovascular;.

12563 Yoshimura, K., Ueno, M., Lee, S., Nakamura, Y., Sato, A., Yoshimura, K., Kishima, H., Yoshimine, T., Yamashita, T. C-Jun N-terminal kinase induces axonal degeneration and limits motor recovery after spinal cord injury in mice. NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH 2011; 71(-3-):266-277. >>> SP600125; DMSO; water, distilled; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Mice; 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, 8 wks old, C57BL/6, Jnk 1-/-, Jnk 3-/-); 33% DMSO used; silicone tube used; behavioral testing (hindlimb locomotor performance, gridwalking test); enzyme inhibitor (JNK, c-jun-N terminal kinase).

11732 Wang, W., Mei, X.P., Wei, Y.Y., Zhang, M.M., Zhang, T., Wang, W., Xu, L.X., Wu, S.X., Li, Y.Q. Neuronal NR2B-containing NMDA receptor mediates spinal astrocytic c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation in a rat model of neuropathic pain. BRAIN BEHAVIOR AND IMMUNITY 2011; 25(-7-):1355-1366. >>> SP600125; DMSO; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 2001; animal info (male, Sprague–Dawley, 180–220 g); 1% DMSO used; enzyme inhibitor (JNK, janus kinase); neuropathic pain.

10086 Li, X.P., Du, Y.L., Fan, X.L., Yang, D.H., Luo, G.R., Le, W.D. c-Jun N-terminal kinase mediates lactacystin-induced dopamine neuron degeneration. Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 2008; 67(-10-):933-944. >>> SP600125; CSF, artificial; DMSO; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2004; Enzyme inhibitor (JNK, C-Jun-N-terminal); ALZET brain infusion kit 2 used; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 200-250 g.); 3% DMSO used; neurodegenerative (Parkinson's Disease); brain tissue distribution; enzyme inhibitor (JNK, janus kinase).

8638 Milkiewicz, M., Mohammadzadeh, F., Ispanovic, E., Gee, E., Haas, T.L. Static strain stimulates expression of matrix metal loproteinase-2 and VEGF in microvascular endothelium via JNK- and ERK-dependent pathways. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 2007; 100(-3-):750-761. >>> SP600125; PEG 400; saline; cremophor EL; polypropylene glycol; IM (Extensor digitorum longus); Rat; 1003D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (JNK, janus kinase); animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 300g., sustained EDL stretch); 5% EtOH; Fenestrated catheter provided drug delivery along the length of the EDL muscle.

7123 Poulaki, V., Joussen, A.M., Mitsiades, N., Mitsiades, C.S., Iliaki, E.F., Adamis, A.P. Insulin-like growth factor-I plays a pathogenetic role in diabetic retinopathy. American Journal of Pathology 2004; 165(-2-):457-469. >>> Wortmannin; ly294002; antibody, monoclonal aLR-3; SP600125; SN50; geldanamycin; IP; Rat; 2002; Enzyme inhibitor (P1-3K, JNK, janus kinase); diabetes.

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131. Simvastatin

13583 Morishita, S., Oku, H., Horie, T., Tonari, M., Kida, T., Okubo, A., Sugiyama, T., Takai, S., Hara, H., Ikeda, T. Systemic Simvastatin Rescues Retinal Ganglion Cells from Optic Nerve Injury Possibly through Suppression of Astroglial NF-kappaB Activation. PLoS One 2014; 9(-1-):U528-U538. >>> Simvastatin; Polyethylene glycol; SC; Rat; Control animals received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (9 wks old, male, Wistar).

11014 Wei, P., Grimm, P.R., Settles, D.C., Balwanz, C.R., Padanilam, B.J., Sansom, S.C. Simvastatin Reverses Podocyte Injury but not Mesangial Expansion in Early Stage Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. RENAL FAILURE 2009; 31(-6-):503-513. >>> Simvastatin; Ethanol; SC; Mice; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (C57BL/6, male, 26 wks old); 60% ethanol used.

9412 Holmberg, E., Zhang, S.X., Sarmiere, P.D., Kluge, B.R., White, J.T., Doolen, S. Statins decrease chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan expression and acute astrocyte activation in central nervous system injury. Experimental Neurology 2008; 214(-1-):78-86. >>> Simvastatin; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2004; Comparison of PO gavage vs. mp; ALZET brain infusion kit used; post op. care (buprenorphine); animal info (female, Long Evans, adult, 200-22 g.); cannula placement confirmed by preparing cryosections of the brain at the lateral ventricle and verifying the presence of a cavity created by the cannula; spinal cord injury.

9259 Skoglund, B., Aspenberg, P. Locally applied Simvastatin improves fracture healing in mice. BMC MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS 2007; 8(-;-):U1-U6. >>> Simvastatin; PEG 400; SC; bone (femur); Mice; 1002; Comparison of SC injections vs. SC mp vs. localized delivery; half-life (p. 2 of 6)"about 2 hours in humans"; animal info (mature, male, Balb-C); tissue perfusion (femur); compound passed through sterile filter before filling in pumps; silcone tube used;"continuous systemic delivery resulted in a 160% larger force at failure.";"Continuous local delivery... resulted in a 170% larger force at failure as well as a twofold larger energy uptake.".

8130 Banes-Berceli, A.K., Shaw, S., Ma, G.C., Brands, M., Eaton, D.C., Stern, D.M., Fulton, D., Caldwell, R.W., Marrero, M.B. Effect of simvastatin on high glucose- and angiotensin II-induced activation of the JAK/STAT pathway in mesangial cells. American Journal of Physiology-Renal Physiology 2006; 291(-1-):F116-F121. >>> Simvastatin; Water, distilled; SC; Rat; Controls received no treatment; animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 225-250 g).

2082 Joles, J., Willekes-Koolschijn, N., Koomans, H., Van Tol, A., Geelhoed-Mieras, T., Crommelin, D., Van Bloois, L., Krajnc-Franken, M., Cohen, L., Griffioen, M., Erkelens, W. Subcutaneous administration of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors in hyperlipidaemic and normal rats. Lab. Anim 1992; 26(--):269-280. >>> Lovastatin; Pravastatin; Liposomes; Simvastatin; Propylene glycol; rat; 2ML4; comparison of injections and oral administration vs. mp; stress/adverse reaction: local cystic reaction to simvastatin and lovastatin (p. 271, 275); enzyme inhibitor (HMG-CoA reductase), sc injections of simvastatin also caused subcutaneous toxicity.

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132. Sorbinil

6351 Dobretsov, M., Hastings, S.L., Romanovsky, D., Stimers, J.R., Zhang, J.M. Mechanical hyperalgesia in rat models of systemic and local hyperglycemia. Brain Research 2003; 960(-1-2-):174-183. >>> Glucose; sorbinil; HEPES, buffered saline; CSF/CNS (sciatic nerve); Rat; 2002; Enzyme inhibitor (aldose reductase); post op. care (amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium 3 days).

1719 Lerman, S. Test models to determine potential ocular drug induced side effects. Lens Eye Toxic. Res 1989; 6(-1/2-):1-36. >>> 8-MOP; Chromophore; Sorbinil; Liposomes; Radio-isotopes; Eye (lens); rabbit; 2ML1; tissue perfusion (ocular lens); liposome-encapsulated agents.

15368 Megaw, J.M., Lerman, S. Application of miniosmotic pumps for liposomal drug delivery to the ocular lens. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci 1987; 28(--):1429-1433. >>> Methoxypsoralen, 8-; Radio-isotopes; Sorbinil; 3H tracer; Eye; rabbit; 2ML1; mp connected to PE 60 tubing in eye; tissue perfusion.

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133. Sphingosine

16106 Cheng, P., Chen, K., Yu, W., Gao, S., Hu, S., Sun, X., Huang, H. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activation promotes axonal growth and recovery in the CNS. J Neurol Sci 2015; 359(-1-2-):48-56. >>> Sphingosine, D-erythro; saline; SC; rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; sham operation; animal info: adult Sprague–Dawley (SD) male rats, 240 - 260 g; spinal cord injury; tissue perfusion (spinal cord); D-erythro-sphingosine aka DES; Dose: DES (200Ǩl 1Ǩg/ml solution).

14701 Contreras, C., Gonzalez-Garcia, I., Martinez-Sanchez, N., Seoane-Collazo, P., Jacas, J., Morgan, D.A., Serra, D., Gallego, R., Gonzalez, F., Casals, N., Nogueiras, R., Rahmouni, K., Dieguez, C., Lopez, M., Lopez, M. Central Ceramide-Induced Hypothalamic Lipotoxicity and ER Stress Regulate Energy Balance. CELL REPORT 2014; 9(--):366-377. >>> Sphingosine, N-hexanoyl-D-; Saline; DMSO; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 200-250g); 33% DMSO used; diabetes; N-hexanoyl-D-sphingosine aka C6 ceramide;.

13848 Li, F., Turan, V., Lierman, S., Cuvelier, C., De Sutter, P., Oktay, K. Sphingosine-1-phosphate prevents chemotherapy-induced human primordial follicle death. Human Reproduction 2014; 29(-1-):107-113. >>> Sphingosine-1-phosphate; Mice (SCID); Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (SCID, xenograph); cancer (ovarian);"Mini-osmotic pumps were used because of the very short plasma half-life of S1P."pg 108;.

11692 Zelinski, M.B., Murphy, M.K., Lawson, M.S., Jurisicova, A., Pau, K.Y.F., Toscano, N.P., Jacob, D.S., Fanton, J.K., Casper, R.F., Dertinger, S.D., Tilly, J.L. In vivo delivery of FTY720 prevents radiation-induced ovarian failure and infertility in adult female nonhuman primates. Fertility and Sterility 2011; 95(-4-):1440-U289. >>> Sphingosine-1-phosphate; FTY720; Polyethylene glycol; ethanol; Tween 20; Intraovarian; Monkey; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Adult, female, rhesus, 8-14 years old); good methods, pg 1445 e.1);"Using an intraovarian catheter-osmotic, miniature pump system, we showed that direct and controlled long-term delivery of S1P or FTY720 to the ovaries of adult female primates can be achieved successfully."pg 1444; FTY720 is a sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) mimetic.

11603 Soleimani, R., Heytens, E., Oktay, K. Enhancement of Neoangiogenesis and Follicle Survival by Sphingosine-1-Phosphate in Human Ovarian Tissue Xenotransplants. PLoS One 2011; 6(-4-):U2019-U2026. >>> Sphingosine-1-Phosphate; Saline; SC; Mice (SCID); 2001D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (SCID).

11151 Jang, S., Kim, D., Lee, Y., Moon, S., Oh, S. Modulation of Sphingosine 1-Phosphate and Tyrosine Hydroxylase in the Stress-Induced Anxiety. Neurochemical Research 2011; 36(-2-):258-267. >>> Sphingosine 1-phosphate; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (Sprague-Dawley, male, 260-280 g); pump connected to catheter following 1 week recovery period after cannulation; PE-60 tubing used.

8988 Zanin, M., Germinario, E., Libera, L.D., Sandona, D., Sabbadini, R.A., Betto, R., nieli-Betto, D. Trophic action of sphingosine 1-phosphate in denervated rat soleus muscle. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-CELL PHYSIOLOGY 2008; 294(-1-):C36-C46. >>> Sphingosine 1-phosphate; sphingosine, N,N-dimethyl-; Sphingosine; Saline, physiological; IM (soleus); Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; dos-response (Fig. 3); half-life (pg. C39, C43) S1P:"short"; enzyme inhibitor (Sph Kinase); animal info (male, Wistar, 2-3 months old, 280-300g, muscle denervation).

8646 Jang, S., Lee, J.H., Choi, K.R., Kim, D., Yoo, H.S., Oh, S. Cytochemical alterations in the rat retina by LPS administration. Neurochemical Research 2007; 32(-1-):1-10. >>> Endotoxin, LPS; sphingosine-1-phosphate; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ saline; cyanoacrylate adhesive; animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 260-280g).

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134. TOFA

14940 Gardner, J.K., Mamotte, C.D.S., Patel, P., Yeoh, T.L., Jackaman, C., Nelson, D.J., Nelson, D.J. Mesothelioma Tumor Cells Modulate Dendritic Cell Lipid Content, Phenotype and Function. PLoS One 2015; 10(--):U1192-U1220. >>> TOFA; DMSO; SC; Mice; 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, C57BL6J, 6-8 weeks old); cancer (mesothelioma); immunology; TOFA aka 5-tetradecycloxy-2-furoic acid;.

5795 Gilbert, M., Magnan, C., Turban, S., Andre, J., Guerre-Millo, M. Leptin receptor-deficient obese Zucker rats reduce their food intake in response to a systemic supply of calories from glucose. Diabetes 2003; 52(-2-):277-282. >>> TOFA; DMSO; CSF/CNS; Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (acetyl CoA carboxylase); TOFA is 5-(tetraderyloxy)-2-furoic acid..

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135. TY-51469

14425 Takai, S., Jin, D., Chen, H., Li, W., Yamamoto, H., Yamanishi, K., Miyazaki, M., Higashino, H., Yamanishi, H., Okamura, H., Takai, S. Chymase inhibition improves vascular dysfunction and survival in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. Journal of Hypertension 2014; 32(--):1637-1649. >>> TY-51469; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (male, Wistar-Kyoto or spontaneously hypertensive rats - stroke prone, 4 weeks old); pumps replaced every 4 weeks; long-term study; cardiovascular; enzyme inhibitor (chymase); bp measured using tail cuff;.

13037 Masubuchi, S., Takai, S., Jin, D., Tashiro, K., Komeda, K., Li, Z.L., Otsuki, Y., Okamura, H., Hayashi, M., Uchiyama, K. Chymase inhibitor ameliorates hepatic steatosis and fibrosis on established non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in hamsters fed a methionine- and choline-deficient diet. HEPATOLOGY RESEARCH 2013; 43(-9-):970-978. >>> TY-51469; SC; Hamster; 2ML4; Control animals received mp w/ saline; animal info (F1B, 8 wks old, male); long-term study.

11624 Tashiro, K., Takai, S., Jin, D., Yamamoto, H., Komeda, K., Hayashi, M., Tanaka, K., Tanigawa, N., Miyazaki, M. Chymase inhibitor prevents the nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in hamsters fed a methionine- and choline-deficient diet. HEPATOLOGY RESEARCH 2010; 40(-5-):514-523. >>> TY-51469; SC; Hamster; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (20 wks old); long-term study; enzyme inhibitor (chymase).

8868 Palaniyandi, S.S., Nagai, Y., Watanabe, K., Ma, M., Veeraveedu, P.T., Prakash, P., Kamal, F.A., Abe, Y., Yamaguchi, K., Tachikawa, H., Kodama, M., Aizawa, Y. Chymase inhibition reduces the progression to heart failure after autoimmune myocarditis in rats. EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE 2007; 232(-9-):1213-1221. >>> TY-51469; Phosphate buffer; NaOH; IV (jugular); Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; dose-response (fig. 2); stability verified by study in rat plasma at 40oC for 1 hour; enzyme inhibitor (chymase); cardiovascular; animal info (male, Lewis, 9 wks old).

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136. Temocaprilat

8841 Ito, N., Ohishi, M., Yamamoto, K., Tatara, Y., Shiota, A., Hayashi, N., Komai, N., Yanagitani, Y., Rakugi, H., Ogihara, T. Renin-angiotensin inhibition reverses advanced cardiac remodeling in aging spontaneously hypertensive rats. Am. J. Hypertens 2007; 20(-7-):792-799. >>> Temocaprilat; olmesartan; hydralazine; IV (vena cava); Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ saline; enzyme inhibitor (ACE); cardiovascular; antihypertensive; animal info (male, SHR, 50 weeks old, male, Wistar-Kyoto, 10 weeks old).

7525 Emoto, N., Raharjo, S.B., Isaka, D., Masuda, S., Adiarto, S., Jeng, A.Y., Yokoyama, M. Dual ECE/NEP inhibition on cardiac and neurohumoral function during the transition from hypertrophy to heart failure in rats. Hypertension 2005; 45(-6-):1145-1152. >>> CGS-24592; CGS-26303; temocapril; NaHCO3; SC; Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (ACE, Neutral endopeptidase, ECE); antihypertensive.

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137. Thiazoloquinazoline, Compound 54

P7807 Jung,F.H., Pasquet,G., Lambert-van der Brempt,C., Lohmann,J.J.M., Warin,N., Renaud,F., Germain,H., De Savi,C., Roberts,N., Johnson,T., Dousson,C., Hill,G.B., Mortlock,A.A., Heron,N., Wilkinson,R.W., Wedge,S.R., Heaton,S.P., Odedra,R., Keen,N.J., Green,S., Brown,E., Thompson,K., Brightwell,S. Discovery of novel and potent thiazoloquinazolines as selective Aurora A and B kinase inhibitors. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 2006; 49(-3-):955-970. >>> Thiazoloquinazoline, compound 54; Tris buffer; SC; Mice (nude); 2001D; 48 hours; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; half-life (pg. 963) 0.7 hours in mouse plasma; enzyme inhibitor (aurora A/B kinase); cancer (colorectal carcinoma); animal info (Swiss nu/nu, male, 8-10 wk old).

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138. Thiazoloquinazoline, Compound 54

8023 Jung, F.H., Pasquet, G., Lambert-van der Brempt, C., Lohmann, J.J.M., Warin, N., Renaud, F., Germain, H., De Savi, C., Roberts, N., Johnson, T., Dousson, C., Hill, G.B., Mortlock, A.A., Heron, N., Wilkinson, R.W., Wedge, S.R., Heaton, S.P., Odedra, R., Keen, N.J., Green, S., Brown, E., Thompson, K., Brightwell, S. Discovery of novel and potent thiazoloquinazolines as selective Aurora A and B kinase inhibitors. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 2006; 49(-3-):955-970. >>> Thiazoloquinazoline, compound 54; Tris buffer; SC; Mice (nude); 2001D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; half-life (pg. 963) 0.7 hours in mouse plasma; enzyme inhibitor (aurora A/B kinase); cancer (colorectal carcinoma); animal info (Swiss nu/nu, male, 8-10 wk old).

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139. Thiorphan

14806 Roksnoer, L.C.W., Van Veghel, R., de Vries, R., Garrelds, I.M., Bhaggoe, U.M., Friesema, E.C.H., Leijten, F.P.J., Poglitsch, M., Domenig, O., Clahsen-van Groningen, M.C., Hoorn, E.J., Danser, A.H.J., Batenburg, W.W., Danser, A.H.J. Optimum AT(1) receptor-neprilysin inhibition has superior cardioprotective effects compared with AT(1) receptor blockade alone in hypertensive rats. KIDNEY INTERNATIONAL 2015; 88(--):109-120. >>> Thiorphan; irbesartan; DMSO; saline; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (heterozygous Ren2, 10 weeks old); dose-response (pg110); cardiovascular; antihypertensive;.

11406 Inbar, D., Belinson, H., Rosenman, H., Michaelson, D.M. Possible Role of Tau in Mediating Pathological Effects of apoE4 in vivo prior to and following Activation of the Amyloid Cascade. Neurodegenerative Diseases 2010; 7(-1-3-):16-23. >>> Thiorphan; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS; Mice; Controls received sham treatment; animal info (ApoE, 3-4 mo old).

10707 Belinson, H., Michaelson, D.M. ApoE4-dependent A-beta-mediated neurodegeneration is associated with inflammatory activation in the hippocampus but not the septum. Journal of Neural Transmission 2009; 116(-11-):1427-1434. >>> Thiorphan; CSF, artificial; ascorbic acid; CSF/CNS; Mice; Animal info (ApoE, 3-4 months old, male); neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's disease).

10676 Li, W.D., Wu, Y., Min, F.G., Li, Z., Huang, J.Y., Huang, R. A nonhuman primate model of Alzheimer's disease generated by intracranial injection of amyloid-beta42 and thiorphan. METABOLIC BRAIN DISEASE 2010; 25(-3-):277-284. >>> Thiorphan; Saline; ascorbic acid; CSF/CNS (basal ganglia); Monkey; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/saline; animal info (middle aged, rhesus, male, 16-17 years old); neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's disease).

9479 Amantini, C., Mosca, M., Lucciarini, R., Perfumi, M.C., Santoni, G. Thiorphan-induced survival and proliferation of rat thymocytes by activation of Akt/survivin pathway and inhibition of caspase-3 activity. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 2008; 327(-1-):215-225. >>> Thiorphan; SR140333; substance P; Ethanol; water, distilled; SC; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle or no treatment; no stress (see pg. 216); enzyme inhibitor (peptidase (NEP/CD10)); immunology; animal info (male, Wistar, 21 days old); 10% EtOH used;"We chose to delivery SP, SR140333, and Thiorphan by a continuous route of administration, because this modality closely mimics the pathophysiological state observed in immune-mediated diseases."(p. 216).

9183 Dolev, I., Michaelson, D.M. The nucleation growth and reversibility of Amyloid-beta deposition in vivo. JOURNAL OF ALZHEIMERS DISEASE 2006; 10(-2-3-):291-301. >>> Thiorphan, DL-; CSF, artificial; ascorbic acid; CSF/CNS; Mice (transgenic); 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (neprilysin); animal info (male, C57BL/6, ApoE3 tg, ApoE4 tg, wt, 5 months old); neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's disease).

8020 Zou, L.B., Mouri, A., Iwata, N., Saido, T.C., Wang, D.Y., Wang, M.W., Mizoguchi, H., Noda, Y., Nabeshima, T. Inhibition of neprilysin by infusion of thiorphan into the hippocampus causes an accumulation of amyloid beta and impairment of learning and memory. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 2006; 317(-1-):334-340. >>> Thiorphan; Saline; ascorbic acid; CSF/CNS (hippocampus); Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme ihibitor (neprilysin); neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's disease); animal info (male, Wistar, 8 wk old, 260-300g.).

7935 Mouri, A., Zou, L.B., Iwata, N., Saido, T.C., Wang, D.Y., Wang, M.W., Noda, Y., Nabeshima, T. Inhibition of neprilysin by thiorphan (i.c.v.) causes an accumulation of amyloid beta and impairment of learning and memory. Behavioural Brain Research 2006; 168(-1-):83-91. >>> Thiorphan; Saline; NaOH; ascorbic acid; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (neprilysin (aka enkephalinase)); neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's disease); animal info (male, wistar, 8 wk. old, 260-300g.); memory; learning.

7081 Dolev, I., Michaelson, D.M. A nontransgenic mouse model shows inducible amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide deposition and elucidates the role of apolipoprotein E in the amyloid cascade. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 2004; 101(-38-):13909-13914. >>> Thiorphan; CSF, artificial; ascorbic acid; CSF/CNS; Mice; mice (transgenic); 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (neprilysin); ALZET brain infusion kit used; cyanoacrylate adhesive (Loctite 454); post op. care (oxytetracycline); neurodegenerative disease (Alzheimer's).

6531 Newell, A.J., Sue, L.I., Scott, S., Rauschkolb, P.K., Walker, D.G., Potter, P.E., Beach, T.G. Thiorphan-induced neprilysin inhibition raises amyloid beta levels in rabbit cortex and cerebrospinal fluid. Neuroscience Letters 2003; 350(-3-):178-180. >>> Thiorphan; Ethanol, absolute; water, distilled; DMSO; CSF/CNS; Rabbit; 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (Neprilysin, an endopeptidase); 50% DMSO.

6467 Marr, R.A., Guan, H.J., Rockenstein, E., Kindy, M., Gage, F.H., Verma, I., Masliah, E., Hersh, L.B. Neprilysin regulates amyloid beta peptide levels. Journal of Molecular Neuroscience 2003; 22(-1-2-):5-11. >>> Phosphoramidon; thiorphan; CSF/CNS; Mice (transgenic); Neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's disease); pump model not listed; neurotoxicity; agents are enzyme inhibitors (neprilysin).

5174 Hauss-Wegrzyniak, B., Wenk, G.L. Beta-amyloid deposition in the brains of rats chronically infused with thiorphan or lipopolysaccharide: the role of ascorbic acid in the vehicle. Neurosci. Lett 2002; 322(--):75-78. >>> Endotoxin, LPS; Thiorphan, DL-; CSF, artificial; Ascorbic acid; CSF/CNS (fourth ventricle); rat; 2004; controls received mp w/ vehicle; neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's disease); ascorbic acid in vehicle examined; some controls received vehicle without ascorbic acid.

500 Bean, A.J. Physical dependence produced by chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of (D-Arg)kyotorphin or thiorphan to rats. Eur. J. Pharmacol 1984; 105(--):333-337. >>> Kyotorphin, D-arg-; Morphine; Thiorphan; Ethanol; Water; CSF/CNS; rat; 2001; 2ML2; comparison of agents effects; peptides.

482 Schulz, R., Wuster, M., Herz, A. Receptor preference of dynorphin A fragments in the mouse vas deferens determined by different techniques. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther 1984; 230(-1-):200-204. >>> Dynorphin A(1-8); Bestatin; Captopril; Dynorphin A; Enkephalin agonist DADL; Fentanyl; Thiorphan; Saline; SC; vas deferens; Mice; 2001; 2ML1; Comparison of agents effects; 2ML1 pump used w/ captopril, thiorphan, and bestatin; DADL&FEN admin. sc; peptides; antihypertensive.

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140. Topotecan

13291 Lin, F., Marchetti, S., Pluim, D., Iusuf, D., Mazzanti, R., Schellens, J.H.M., Beijnen, J.H., van Tellingen, O. Abcc4 Together with Abcb1 and Abcg2 Form a Robust Cooperative Drug Efflux System That Restricts the Brain Entry of Camptothecin Analogues. Clinical Cancer Research 2013; 19(-8-):2084-2095. >>> Topotecan; Glucose; SC; Mice; 1003D; Animal info (WT, Abcg2-/-, Abcb1a/b-/-, Abcc4-/-, 8-14 wks old); Camptothecins brain distribution (Fig. 5).

12498 Aljuffali, I.A., Mock, J.N., Costyn, L.J., Nguyen, H., Nagy, T., Cummings, B.S., Arnold, R.D. Enhanced antitumor activity of low-dose continuous administration schedules of topotecan in prostate cancer. CANCER BIOLOGY&THERAPY 2011; 12(-5-):407-420. >>> Topotecan; Saline; SC; Mice (nude); Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (NCr, male); cancer (prostate).

12152 Huang, H.S., Allen, J.A., Mabb, A.M., King, I.F., Miriyala, J., Taylor-Blake, B., Sciaky, N., Dutton, JW Jr, Lee, H.M., Chen, X., Jin, J., Bridges, A.S., Zylka, M.J., Roth, B.L., Philpot, B.D. Topoisomerase inhibitors unsilence the dormant allele of Ube3a in neurons. Nature 2012; 481(-7380-):185-U90. >>> Topotecan; Tartaric acid; saline; CSF/CNS; Mice; 2001; 2002; Animal info (Ube3a m+/pYfP); cyanoacrylate adhesive used; schematic of cannula insertion (Fig 3a).

11994 Lopez, K.A., Tannenbaum, A.M., Assanah, M.C., Linskey, K., Yun, J., Kangarlu, A., Gil, O.D., Canoll, P., Bruce, J.N. Convection-Enhanced Delivery of Topotecan into a PDGF-Driven Model of Glioblastoma Prolongs Survival and Ablates Both Tumor-Initiating Cells and Recruited Glial Progenitors. Cancer Research 2011; 71(-11-):3963-3971. >>> Topotecan hydrochloride; CSF/CNS (frontal subcortical white matter); Rat; 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ PBS; ALZET brain infusion kit II used; cyanoacrylate adhesive used; cancer (glioma); convection enhanced delivery.

10831 Carcaboso, A.M., Elmeliegy, M.A., Shen, J., Juel, S.J., Zhang, Z.W.M., Calabrese, C., Tracey, L., Waters, C.M., Stewart, C.F. Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Gefitinib Enhances Topotecan Penetration of Gliomas. Cancer Research 2010; 70(-11-):4499-4508. >>> Topotecan; Water, sterile; SC; Mice (nude); 2001D; Animal info (CD1, nude); cancer (glioma).

9846 Shah, D.K., Shin, B.S., Veith, J., Toth, K., Bernacki, R.J., Balthasar, J.P. Use of an Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Antibody in a Pharmacokinetic Strategy to Increase the Efficacy of Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 2009; 329(-2-):580-591. >>> Topotecan; SC; IP; Mice; 1003D; Cancer (peritoneal).

9344 Ng, B., Kramer, E., Liebes, L., Wasserheit, C., Hochster, H., Blank, E., Ceriani, R., Furmanski, P. Radiosensitization of tumor-targeted radioimmunotherapy with prolonged topotecan infusion in human breast cancer xenografts. Cancer Res 2001; 61(-7-):2996-3001. >>> Antibody, monoclonal, BrE3; topotecan; SC; Mice (nude); 1007D; Controls received no treatment; dose-response (fig. 3, pg. 2999); enzyme inhibitor (topoisomerase-1); cancer (breast); animal info (athymic, female, Swiss, 8-10 wks old); BrE3 antibody is a murine IgG1 monoclonal antibody.

8929 Chen, J., Lu, Q., Balthasar, J.P. Mathematical modeling of topotecan pharmacokinetics and toxicodynamics in mice. JOURNAL OF PHARMACOKINETICS AND PHARMACODYNAMICS 2007; 34(-6-):829-847. >>> Topotecan HCl; KH2PO4 buffer; IP; Mice; 1003D; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; dose-response (fig. 4); comparison of IV, IP injections vs. mp; enzyme inhibitor (topoisomerase); cancer (ovarian); animal info (male, Swiss Webster, 20-30g).

4383 Pollina, J., Plunkett, R.J., Ciesielski, M.J., Lis, A., Barone, T.A., Greenberg, S.J., Fenstermaker, R.A. Intratumoral infusion of topotecan prolongs survival in the nude rat intracranial U87 human glioma model. Journal of Neuro-oncology 1998; 39(--):217-225. >>> Topotecan;; Saline;; CSF/CNS (glioma);; rat (nude);; 1003D;; controls received mp w/ vehicle or no treatment; tissue perfusion (tumor); functionality of mp verified by examining pumps to see if they were empty; no stress (p. 220); cancer; peptides; topotecan is a DNA topoisomerase I inhibitor;.

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141. U0126

14264 Lee, J., Stanley, J.A., McCracken, J.A., Banu, S.K., Arosh, J.A., Arosh, J.A. Intrauterine Coadministration of ERK1/2 Inhibitor U0126 Inhibits Interferon TAU Action in the Endometrium and Restores Luteolytic PGF(2alpha) Pulses in Sheep. Biology of Reproduction 2014; 91(--):U177-U185. >>> U0126; serum protein, ovine; interferon tau, recombinant ovine; DMSO; Intrauterine (uterine horn); Sheep (ewe); 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, Suffolk Ovis aries); 3% DMSO used; tissue perfusion (uterine horn); cyanoacrylate adhesive; used cyanoacrylate glue to anchor pump; interferon tau aka IFNT;.

14255 Lannoy, M., Slove, S., Louedec, L., Choqueux, C., Journe, C., Michel, J.B., Jacob, M.P., Lannoy, M. Inhibition of ERK1/2 Phosphorylation: A New Strategy to Stimulate Elastogenesis in the Aorta. Hypertension 2014; 64(--):423-+. >>> U0126; DMSO; IP; Rat; 1004; 2006; Animal info (Brown Norway, 3 weeks old); pumps replaced after 4 weeks infusion with 6 week pump; long-term infusion; cardiovascular; bp measured using tail cuff;.

13657 Perez-Asensio, F.J., Perpina, U., Planas, A.M., Pozas, E. Interleukin-10 regulates progenitor differentiation and modulates neurogenesis in adult brain. Journal of Cell Science 2013; 126(-18-):4208-4219. >>> Interleukin-10; U0126; Saline; SC; Mice; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (IL-10 KO); immunology;.

13270 Kobayashi, K., Yamanaka, H., Yanamoto, F., Okubo, M., Noguchi, K. Multiple P2Y subtypes in spinal microglia are involved in neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury. Glia 2012; 60(-10-):1529-1539. >>> MRS2578; MRS2211; SB203580; U0126; Saline; DMSO; CSF/CNS; Rat; 1003D; 2001; Dose-response (Fig 6A); behavioral testing (allodynia, hyperalgesia); animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 200-250g);.

10191 Okubo, M., Yamanaka, H., Kobayashi, K., Noguchi, K. Leukotriene Synthases and the Receptors Induced by Peripheral Nerve Injury in the Spinal Cord Contribute to the Generation of Neuropathic Pain. Glia 2010; 58(-5-):599-610. >>> AA-861; U-75302; SB203580; pranlukast; U0126; Ethanol; saline; DMSO; CSF/CNS (intrathecal, subarachnoid space); Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ saline; enzyme inhibitor (5-lipoxygenase); animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 200-250 g); 0.02-0.2% ethanol used; 50% DMSO used; spinal nerve injury; behavioral testing (mechanical allodynia).

9384 Han, Y.J., Hu, W.Y., Piano, M., de Lanerolle, P. Regulation of myosin by angiotensin II in light chain kinase expression hypertension. American Journal of Hypertension 2008; 21(-8-):860-865. >>> U0126; ML-7; DMSO; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (smMLCK or MEK or MAP kinase); animal info (male, SHR, WKY, 16 wks old); 50% DMSO used.

8636 Putignano, E., Lonetti, G., Cancedda, L., Ratto, G., Costa, M., Maffei, L., Pizzorusso, T. Developmental Downregulation of histone post translational modifications regulates visual cortical plasticity. Neuron 2007; 53(-5-):747-759. >>> U0126; DMSO; saline; CSF/CNS (visual cortex); Mice; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (MEK); animal info (C57BL6/J, 4 wks old, 12-14 wks old); 0.5% DMSO.

8351 Han, Y.J., Hu, W.Y., Chernaya, O., Antic, N., Gu, L.Z., Gupta, M., Piano, M., de Lanerolle, P. Increased myosin light chain kinase expression in hypertension: Regulation by serum response factor via an insertion mutation in the promoterD. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF THE CELL 2006; 17(-9-):4039-4050. >>> U0126; ML-7; DMSO; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (myosin light chain kinase); cardiovascular; animal info (SHR, Wistar-Kyoto, 1, 16 wks old); 50% DMSO.

8176 Di, Cristo G., Berardi, N., Cancedda, L., Pizzorusso, T., Putignano, E., Ratto, G.M., Maffei, L. Requirement of ERK activation for visual cortical plasticity. Science 2001; 292(-5525-):2337-2340. >>> U0126; PD-98059; SB203580; CSF/CNS (visual cortex); Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; stability verified by inhibition of ERK activation by picrotoxin; enzyme inhibitor (p38 MAP kinase); animal info (Dark-reared, P28); tissue perfusion (visual cortex).

7232 Obata, K., Yamanaka, H., Kobayashi, K., Dai, Y., Mizushima, T., Katsura, H., Fukuoka, T., Tokunaga, A., Noguchi, K. Role of mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in injured and intact primary afferent neurons for mechanical and heat hypersensitivity after spinal nerve ligation. Journal of Neuroscience 2004; 24(-45-):10211-10222. >>> U0126; SB203580; FR167653; SP 600125; antibody, anti-NGF, sheep; DMSO, saline; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitors (MAPK kinase, p38, JNK, janus kinase); 50% DMSO used.

6988 Obata, K., Yamanaka, H., Dai, Y., Mizushima, T., Fukuoka, T., Tokunaga, A., Noguchi, K. Differential activation of MAPK in injured and uninjured DRG neurons following chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve in rats. European Journal of Neuroscience 2004; 20(-11-):2881-2895. >>> U0126; SB203580; DMSO; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 1003D; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (p38 MAP kinase); 50% DMSO used.

6287 Cancedda, L., Putignano, E., Impey, S., Maffei, L., Ratto, G.M., Pizzorusso, T. Patterned vision causes CRE-mediated gene expression in the visual cortex through PKA and ERK. Journal of Neuroscience 2003; 23(-18-):7012-7020. >>> U0126; Rp-8-cl-cAMPS; DMSO; CSF/CNS; Rat; mice (transgenic); 1007D; Enzyme inhibitor (PKA and extracellular singal-regulated kinase); U0126 (ERK inhibitor) and Rp-8-cl-cAMPS (PKA inhibitor) were dissolved in 1% DMSO.

5765 Obata, K., Yamanaka, H., Dai, Y., Tachibana, T., Fukuoka, T., Tokunaga, A., Yoshikawa, H., Noguchi, K. Differential activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase in primary afferent neurons regulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression after peripheral inflammation and nerve injury. Journal of Neuroscience 2003; 23(-10-):4117-4126. >>> U0126; DMSO; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 1003D; 2001; Controls received mp/w vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)); 50% DMSO vehicle used; U0126 is a mitogen-activated protein kinase 1/2 inhibitor..

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142. UCN-01

10112 Khan, N., Mupparaju, S.P., Hou, H., Lariviere, J.P., Demidenko, E., Swartz, H., Eastman, A. Radiotherapy in Conjunction with 7-Hydroxystaurosporine: A Multimodal Approach with Tumor pO2 as a Potential Marker of Therapeutic Response. RADIATION RESEARCH 2009; 172(--):592-597. >>> UCN-01; Sodium acetate; SC; Mice; 1003D; Functionality of mp verified by plasma UCN-01 concentrations; cancer (radiation therapy); animal info (female, C3H/HEJ, 18-20 g.).

3882 Tsuchida, E., Urano, M. The effect of UCN-01 (7-hydroxystaurosporine), a potent inhibitor of protein kinase C, on fractionated radiotherapy or daily chemotherapy of a murine fibrosarcoma. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys 1997; 39(-5-):1153-1161. >>> UCN-01; Citric acid; intratumoral; mice; 2001; tissue perfusion (tumor); cancer; enzyme inhibitor.

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143. Vardenifil

10415 Sahara, M., Sata, M., Morita, T., Nakajima, T., Hirata, Y., Nagai, R. A Phosphodiesterase-5 Inhibitor Vardenafil Enhances Angiogenesis Through a Protein Kinase G-Dependent Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1/Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Pathway. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2010; 30(--):1315-1324. >>> Vardenifil; PBS; SC; Mice; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (PDE5, phosphodiesterase-5); ischemia (hind limb); animal info (C57BL/6, C3H/He, 12-16 wks old, eNose -/-).

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144. Vigabatrin

8744 Loescher, W. The pharmacokinetics of antiepileptic drugs in rats: Consequences for maintaining effective drug levels during prolonged drug administration in rat models of epilepsy. Epilepsia 2007; 48(-7-):1245-1258. >>> Levetiracetam; phenobarbital; phenytoin; valproic acid; vigabatrin; Water, distilled; PEG 300; glycerol; PEG 400; propylene glycol; SC; IP; Rat; mice; gerbils; 2ML1; 2ML2; Comparison of IV, IP injections vs. food or water delivery vs mp; pumps replaced (every week in one set of experiments); stress/adverse reaction: (see pg. 1255); peritoneal irritation, peritonitis in some of the IP experiments); half-life (p. 1247) table 1 (18 compounds); animal info (epileptic, Sprague-Dawley, Wistar); review; see p. 1254-1255; see table 4 for advantages + disadvantages of different application routes.

5682 Pitkanen, A. Efficacy of current antiepileptics neurodegeneration in epilepsy to prevent models. Epilepsy Research 2002; 50(-1-2-):141-160. >>> Vigabatrin; Tiagabine; SC; Rat; Neuroprotection; pump use mentioned on p. 147 and 155; long-term study.

5015 Halonen, T., Nissinen, J., Pitkanen, A. Chronic elevation of brain GABA levels beginning two days after status epilepticus does not prevent epileptogenesis in rats. Neuropharmacology 2001; 40(--):536-550. >>> Vigabatrin; Saline; SC; rat; 2ML2; controls received mp w/ vehicle; long-term study, pumps replaced every 2 weeks for 10 weeks; epilepsy; seizures..

4445 Pitkanen, A., Nissinen, J., Jolkkonen, E., Tuunanen, J., Halonen, T. Effects of vigabatrin treatment on status epilepticus-induced neuronal damage and mossy fiber sprouting in the rat hippocampus. Epilepsy Research 1999; 33(--):67-85. >>> Vigabatrin;; Saline;; SC;; rat;; 2ML1;; controls received mp with vehicle; functionality of mp verified by plasma levels and residual volume; long-term study, pumps replaced every 2 weeks; enzyme inhibitor;.

4351 Golombek, D.A., Ralph, M.R. Inhibition of GABA transaminase enhances light-induced circadian phase delays but not advances. J. Biol. Rhythms 1994; 9(-3-4-):251-261. >>> Vigabatrin; Saline; IP; hamster; 2002; controls received mp w/saline or no treatment; comparison of injections vs. mp; GABA transaminase inhibitor.

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145. Wortmannin

11863 Romo, L.B., Tapia, R. VEGF protects spinal motor neurons against chronic excitotoxic degeneration in vivo by activation of PI3-K pathway and inhibition of p38MAPK. Journal of Neurochemistry 2010; 115(-5-):1090-1101. >>> Isoxazolepropionate, alpha amino-3-hydroxy-5-; vascular endothelial growth factor, recomb., 164; SU14980, tyrphostin; LY294002; wortmannin; PD-98059; SB203580; neurodegenerative (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis);; PBS; DMSO; CSF/CNS (intrathecal, spinal cord); Rat; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Wistar, male, 270-290 g, adult); alpha amino-3-hydroxy-5-isoxazolepropionate also known as AMPA; wound clips used; post op. care, pg 1091 (penicillin); good methods, pg 1091; multiple pumps used (2); multiple intrathecal catheters used; wound clips used; 2% DMSO used; enzyme inhibitor (p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, p38MAPK).

11712 Peart, J.N., Hoe, L.E.S., Gross, G.J., Headrick, J.P. Sustained Ligand-Activated Preconditioning via delta-Opioid Receptors. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 2011; 336(-1-):274-281. >>> Naloxone; BW373U86; U50,488H; morphine-6-glucuronide; morphine-3-glucuronide; wortmannin; PKI-(14-22)-amide; SC; Mice; 1007D; Animal info (7-12 wks old, C57/BL6, male);BW373U86 also known as ()-4-[(R)--[(2S,5R)-4-allyl-2,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl]-3-hydroxy-hydroxybenzyl]-N,N-diethylbenzamide is a delta opioid receptor selective agonist; U50,488H also known as trans-()-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-(2-(1-pyrrolidin)cyclohexyl)-benzeneacetamide methane sulfonate hydrate is a kappa opioid selective receptor agonist.

10869 Pinkenburg, O., Pfosser, A., Hinkel, R., Boettcher, M., Dinges, C., Lebherz, C., Sultana, S., Enssle, J., El-Aouni, C., Buening, H., Boekstegers, P., Bals, R., Kupatt, C. Recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus-Based Gene Transfer of Cathelicidin Induces Therapeutic Neovascularization Preferentially via Potent Collateral Growth. Human Gene Therapy 2009; 20(-2-):159-167. >>> Wortmannin; SC; Rabbit; Animal info (New Zealand, white, 3.5 kg); enzyme inhibitor (PI3K, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase).

9662 Kobayashi, N., Takeshima, H., Fukushima, H., Koguchi, W., Mamada, Y., Hirata, H., Machida, Y., Shinoda, M., Suzuki, N., Yokotsuka, F., Tabei, K., Matsuoka, H. Cardioprotective Effects of Pitavastatin on Cardiac Performance and Remodeling in Failing Rat Hearts. American Journal of Hypertension 2009; 22(-2-):176-182. >>> Pitavastatin; Wortmannin; Y-27632; DMSO; saline; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; long-term study; pumps replaced; enzyme inhibitor (phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase, Rho kinase); cardiovascular; multiple pumps per animal (2); animal info (male, Dahl S, Dahl R, 11 wks old); 8% DMSO used.

8033 Dell, S., Peters, S., Muether, P., Kociok, N., Joussen, A.M. The role of PDGF receptor inhibitors and PI3-kinase signaling in the pathogenesis of corneal neovascularization. INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY&VISUAL SCIENCE 2006; 47(-5-):1928-1937. >>> AG-1296; wortmannin; LY294002; PBS; IP; Mice; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; dose-response (fig. 6); enzyme inhibitor (PDGF receptor kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase); animal info (male, C57BL/6,7-10wk old 20g.).

7123 Poulaki, V., Joussen, A.M., Mitsiades, N., Mitsiades, C.S., Iliaki, E.F., Adamis, A.P. Insulin-like growth factor-I plays a pathogenetic role in diabetic retinopathy. American Journal of Pathology 2004; 165(-2-):457-469. >>> Wortmannin; ly294002; antibody, monoclonal aLR-3; SP600125; SN50; geldanamycin; IP; Rat; 2002; Enzyme inhibitor (P1-3K, JNK, janus kinase); diabetes.

6355 Mizuno, M., Yamada, K., Takei, N., Tran, M.H., He, J., Nakajima, A., Nawa, H., Nabeshima, T. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase: a molecule mediating BDNF-dependent spatial memory formation. Molecular Psychiatry 2003; 8(-2-):217-224. >>> Oligonucleotide, antisense; oligonucleotide, sense; wortmannin; Saline, pyrogen-free; DMSO; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2004; Enzyme inhibitor (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase); sense and antisense (BDNF).

6211 Kobayashi, N., Mita, S., Yoshida, K., Honda, T., Kobayashi, T., Hara, K., Nakano, S., Tsubokou, Y., Matsuoka, H. Celiprolol activates eNOS through the PI3K-Akt pathway and inhibits VCAM-1 via NF-kappa B induced by oxidative stress. Hypertension 2003; 42(-5-):1004-1013. >>> Wortmannin; DMSO; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Wortmannin (P13K inhibitor) was dissolved in 8% DMSO.

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146. Y-27632

15984 Ko, A. R., Hyun, H. W., Min, S. J., Kim, J. E., Kang, T. C. Endothelin-1 induces LIMK2-mediated programmed necrotic neuronal death independent of NOS activity. Mol Brain 2015; 8(--):58. >>> BQ-788; Cav-1 peptide; Y-27632; CSF/CNS; Rat; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley); ALZET brain infusion kit 1 used; peptides; brain coordinates;.

14822 leaume-Butaux, A., Nicot, S., Pietri, M., Baudry, A., Dakowski, C., Tixador, P., rdila-Osorio, H., Haeberle, A.M., Bailly, Y., Peyrin, J.M., Launay, J.M., Kellermann, O., Schneider, B., leaume-Butaux, A. Double-Edge Sword of Sustained ROCK Activation in Prion Diseases through Neuritogenesis Defects and Prion Accumulation. PLoS Pathogens 2015; 11(--):U248-U272. >>> Y-27632; dimethylfasudil; DMSO; saline; IP; Mice; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (C57BL6J, adult); pumps replaced every 4 weeks; behavioral testing (statiic rod test); enzyme inhibitor (Rho-associated protein kinase; ROCK);.

11511 Monceau, V., Pasinetti, N., Schupp, C., Pouzoulet, F., Opolon, P., Vozenin, M.C. Modulation of the Rho/ROCK Pathway in Heart and Lung after Thorax Irradiation Reveals Targets to Improve Normal Tissue Toxicity. CURRENT DRUG TARGETS 2010; 11(-11-):1395-1404Pravastatin; Y-27632. >>> Pravastatin; Y-27632; DMSO; SC; Mice; 1002; Animal info (female, C57BL6); enzyme inhibitor (ROCK, Rho-associated protein kinase); 10% DMSO used.

11027 Sawada, N., Itoh, H., Miyashita, K., Tsujimoto, H., Sone, M., Yamahara, K., Arany, Z.P., Hofmann, F., Nakao, K. Cyclic GMP Kinase and RhoA Ser188 Phosphorylation Integrate Pro- and Antifibrotic Signals in Blood Vessels. MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR BIOLOGY 2009; 29(-22-):6018-6032. >>> Angiotensin II; Y-27632; SC; Mice (transgenic); 1002; Animal info (2-5 mo old, cGK I null, BNP-Tg); peptides; BP measured on day 10, 14.

10509 Zulauf, L., Coste, O., Marian, C., Moeser, C., Brenneis, C., Niederberger, E. Cofilin phosphorylation is involved in nitric oxide/cGMP-mediated nociception. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 2009; 390(-4-):1408-1413. >>> Y-27632; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 2001; Enzyme inhibitor (ROCK); behavioral testing (paw withdrawal latency).

9662 Kobayashi, N., Takeshima, H., Fukushima, H., Koguchi, W., Mamada, Y., Hirata, H., Machida, Y., Shinoda, M., Suzuki, N., Yokotsuka, F., Tabei, K., Matsuoka, H. Cardioprotective Effects of Pitavastatin on Cardiac Performance and Remodeling in Failing Rat Hearts. American Journal of Hypertension 2009; 22(-2-):176-182. >>> Pitavastatin; Wortmannin; Y-27632; DMSO; saline; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; long-term study; pumps replaced; enzyme inhibitor (phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase, Rho kinase); cardiovascular; multiple pumps per animal (2); animal info (male, Dahl S, Dahl R, 11 wks old); 8% DMSO used.

9492 Xue, F., Takahara, T., Yata, Y., Xia, Q., Nonome, K., Shinno, E., Kanayama, M., Takahara, S., Sugiyama, T. Blockade of Rho/Rho-associated coiled coil-forming kinase signaling can prevent progression of hepatocellular carcinoma in matrix metalloproteinase-dependent manner. HEPATOLOGY RESEARCH 2008; 38(-8-):810-817. >>> Y-27632; PBS; SC; Mice; 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; pumps replaced after 2 weeks; enzyme inhibitor (Rho/ROCK); cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma); animal info (female, B6C3F1).

9232 Sagara, Y., Hirooka, Y., Nozoe, M., Ito, K., Kimura, Y., Sunagawa, K. Pressor response induced by central angiotensin II is mediated by activation of Rho/Rho-kinase pathway via AT1 receptors. Journal of Hypertension 2007; 25(-2-):399-406. >>> Angiotensin II; phenylephrine; Y-27632; valsartan; CSF, artificial; SC; CSF/CNS; Rat; 1002; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (Rho-kinase); antihypertensive; peptides; animal info (male, Wistar-Kyoto, SHR, 280-340 g.); catheter tip placement and connection confirmed.

8996 Kobayashi, N., Ohno, T., Yoshida, K., Fukushima, H., Mamada, Y., Nomura, M., Hirata, H., Machida, Y., Shinoda, M., Suzi, N., Matsuoka, H. Cardioprotective mechanism of telmisartan via PPAR-gamma-eNOS pathway in Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats. American Journal of Hypertension 2008; 21(-5-):576-581. >>> Y-27632; Saline; SC; Rat; 2ML2; Enzyme inhibitor (Rho Kinase); cardiovasculcar; animal info (male, Dahl salt-sens., Dahl salt-resistant, 6 wks old).

8600 Chan, C.C.M., Wong, A.K., Liu, J., Steeves, J.D., Tetzlaff, W. ROCK inhibition with Y27632 activates astrocytes and increases their expression of neurite growth-inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. Glia 2007; 55(-4-):369-384. >>> Y-27632; Saline; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; dose-response (fig. 1); enzyme inhibitor (Rho kinase); animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley, dorsal column transection).

7973 Winaver, J., Ovcharenko, E., Rubinstein, I., Gurbanov, K., Pollesello, P., Bishara, B., Hoffman, A., Abassi, Z. Involvement of Rho kinase pathway in the mechanism of renal vasoconstriction and cardiac hypertrophy in rats with experimental heart failure. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology 2006; 290(-5-):H2007-H2014. >>> Y-27632; Saline; IP; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; stability verified by assesment in saline and plasma at 37celsius for up to 500 min.; enzyme inhibitor (Rho Kinase); cardiovascular; animal info (male, Wistar, 280-350g., CHF).

7766 Chan, C.C.M., Khodarahmi, K., Liu, J., Sutherland, D., Oschipok, L.W., Steeves, J.D., Tetzlaff, W. Dose-dependent beneficial and detrimental effects of ROCK inhibitor Y27632 on axonal sprouting and functional recovery after rat spinal cord injury. Experimental Neurology 2005; 196(-2-):352-364. >>> Y-27632; streptomycin; PBS, sterile; penicillin; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by ROCK inhibitory activity in CSF; dose-response (fig. 3); stability of Y27632 verified by ROCK inhibitory activity after 13 days in mp at 37 C; enzyme inhibitor (RHO Kinase); animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley); cervical 4/5 dorsal column transection; spinal cord injury.

7567 Nakagawa, H., Yoshioka, K., Miyahara, E., Fukushima, Y., Tamura, M., Itoh, K. Intrathecal administration of Y-27632, a specific Rho-associated kinase inhibitor, for rat neoplastic meningitis. MOLECULAR CANCER RESEARCH 2005; 3(-8-):425-433. >>> Y-27632; uridine, fluorodeoxy-; PBS; CSF/CNS (Intrathecal, cisterna magna); Rat; 2002; Cancer (breast); enzyme inhibitor (rho-associated kinase inhibitor).

7332 Kobayashi, N., Hara, K., Tojo, A., Onozato, M.L., Honda, T., Yoshida, K., Mita, S., Nakano, S., Tsubokou, Y., Matsuoka, H. Eplerenone shows renoprotective effect by reducing LOX-1-mediated adhesion molecule, PKCepsilon-MAPK-p90RSK, and rho-kinase pathway. Hypertension 2005; 45(-4-):538-544. >>> Y-27632; Saline; Rat; 2ML2; Controls received no treatment; enzyme inhibitor (Rho-kinase); cardiovascular.

7235 Ramer, L.M., Borisoff, J.F., Ramer, M.S. Rho-kinase inhibition enhances axonal plasticity and attenuates cold hyperalgesia after dorsal rhizotomy. Journal of Neuroscience 2004; 24(-48-):10796-10805. >>> Y-27632; Saline, sterile; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (Rho kinase).

7017 Fagan, K.A., Oka, M., Bauer, N.R., Gebb, S.A., Ivy, D.D., Morris, K.G., McMurtry, I.F. Attenuation of acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and hypoxic pulmonary hypertension in mice by inhibition of Rho-kinase. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-LUNG CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR PHYSIOLOGY 2004; 287(-4-):L656-L664. >>> Y-27632; Saline; SC; Mice; 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; no stress (see pg. L657); enzyme inhibitor (Rho Kinase);"There were no complications of insertions of the pumps, including bleeding, infection, or deaths, in the 30 mg/kg Y-27632 or vehicle treated animals."(p. L657).

6976 Tanaka, H., Yamashita, T., Yachi, K., Fujiwara, T., Yoshikawa, H., Tohyama, M. Cytoplasmic p21Cip1/WAF1 enhances axonal regeneration and functional recovery after spinal cord injury in rats. Neuroscience 2004; 127(-1-):155-164. >>> p21-Cip1/WAF-1, TAT fusion protein, cytoplasmic-; Y-27632; HA-1077; PBS; CSF/CNS (spinal cord, intrathecal); Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle or control protein; functionality of mp verified by BDA-labeled fibers; dose-response (Fig.2); enzyme inhibitor (Rho kinase); peptides; spinal cord injury.

6725 Ito, K., Hirooka, Y., Kishi, T., Kimura, Y., Kaibuchi, K., Shimokawa, H., Takeshita, A. Rho/Rho-kinase pathway in the brainstem contributes to hypertension caused by chronic nitric oxide synthase inhibition. Hypertension 2004; 43(-2-):156-162. >>> Y-27632; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS (cisterna); Rat; 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (Rho-kinase); cardiovascular.

6431 Harper, J.M., Krishnan, C., Darman, J.S., Deshpande, D.M., Peck, S., Shats, I., Backovic, S., Rothstein, J.D., Kerr, D.A. Axonal growth of embryonic stem cell-derived motoneurons in vitro and in motoneuron-injured adult rats. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 2004; 101(-18-):7123-7128. >>> PBS; Y-27632; dcbAMP; CSF; CSF/CNS (intrathecal, lumbar); Rat; 1007D; Transplantation of cells.

6256 Murata, T., Arii, S., Mori, A., Imamura, M. Therapeutic significance of Y-27632, a Rho-kinase inhibitor, on the established liver fibrosis. Journal of Surgical Research 2003; 114(-1-):64-71. >>> Y-27632; Saline; IP; Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; pumps replaced every two weeks; enzyme inhibitor (rho-kinase).

5748 Fournier, A.E., Takizawa, B.T., Strittmatter, S.M. Rho kinase inhibition enhances axonal regeneration in the injured CNS. Journal of Neuroscience 2003; 23(-4-):1416-1423. >>> C3 Transferase; Glutathione S-transferase; Y-27632; PBS; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 2002; Enzyme inhibitor (protein kinase); peptides; spinal cord injury; Y-27632 is a Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) inhibitor.

5596 Kobayashi, N., Horinaka, S., Mita, S., Nakano, S., Honda, T., Yoshida, K., Kobayashi, T., Matsuoka, H. Critical role of Rho-kinase pathway for cardiac performance and remode ling in failing rat hearts. Cardiovascular Research 2002; 55(-4-):757-767. >>> Y-27632; Saline; Rat; 2ML4; Enzyme inhibitor (specific Rho-kinase).

5357 Kobayashi, N., Nakano, S., Mita, S., Kobayashi, T., Honda, T., Tsubokou, Y., Matsuoka, H. Involvement of Rho-kinase pathway for angiotensin II-induced plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene expression and cardiovascular remodeling in hypertensive rats. J Pharmacol Exp. Ther 2002; 301(-2-):459-466. >>> Angiotensin II; Y-27632; Saline; SC; Rat; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; cardiovascular; peptides; Y-27632 is a specific Rho-kinase inhibitor.

4403 Itoh, K., Yoshioka, K., Akedo, H., Uehata, M., Ishizaki, T., Narumiya, S. An essential part for Rho-associated kinase in the transcellular invasion of tumor cells. Nature Medicine 1999; 5(-2-):221-225. >>> Y-27632; IP;; rat;; cancer; 2 pumps were implanted in each animal; Y-27632 is a specific ROCK inhibitor; enzyme inhibitor;.

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147. YVAD-CMK, Ac-

8884 Gemma, C., Bachstetter, A.D., Cole, M.J., Fister, M., Hudson, C., Bickford, P.C. Blockade of caspase-1 increases neurogenesis in the aged hippocampus. European Journal of Neuroscience 2007; 26(-10-):2795-2803. >>> YVAD-CMK, Ac-; DMSO; saline; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by mp weight (not suggested by manufacturer); enzyme inhibitor (caspase-1); animal info (male, Fischer 344; 4 and 22 months old); 0.6% DMSO.

7797 Gemma, C., Fister, M., Hudson, C., Bickford, P.C. Improvement of memory for context by inhibition of caspase-1 in aged rats. European Journal of Neuroscience 2005; 22(-7-):1751-1756. >>> YVAD-CMK, Ac-; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2004; Controls received mp w/ 0.6% DMSO in saline; functionality of mp verified by mp weight (not suggested by manufacturer); enzyme inhibitor (caspase -1); immunology; animal info (young, aged, make, Fischer 344 g); mp primed 48 hr in 37 C sterile saline.

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148. Z-DEVD-FMK

14257 Larson, T.A., Thatra, N.M., Lee, B.H., Brenowitz, E.A., Brenowitz, E.A. Reactive Neurogenesis in Response to Naturally Occurring Apoptosis in an Adult Brain. Journal of Neuroscience 2014; 34(--):13066-13076. >>> Z-VAD-FMK; Z-DEVD-FMK; Z-LEHD-FMK; DMSO; CSF/CNS (HVC); Bird (sparrow); 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Gambel's white-crowned sparrows, adult); 1% DMSO used; behavioral testing (song behavior); tissue perfusion (control nucleus HVC); Cannula placement verified via histologic analysis;"We placed osmotic pumps into sealed microcentrifuge tubes filled with saline and mounted the tubes into custom-made"backpacks"that allowed the birds to fly freely."pg 13067; enzyme inhibitor (caspase-3, caspase-9, pan-caspase); bilateral infusion; used dental cement;.

14696 Chu, J., Li, J.G., Joshi, Y.B., Giannopoulos, P.F., Hoffman, N.E., Madesh, M., Pratico, D., Pratico, D. Gamma Secretase-Activating Protein Is a Substrate for Caspase-3: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease. Biological Psychiatry 2015; 77(--):720-728. >>> Z-DEVD-FMK; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Mice (transgenic); 1007D; Animal info (Tg2576, 15 months old; 3Tg, 10 months old); neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's disease); z-DEVD-fmk is a caspase-3 inhibitor;.

10289 Kishi, T., Hirooka, Y., Konno, S., Ogawa, K., Sunagawa, K. Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor-Activated Caspase-3 Through Ras/Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase/Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase in the Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla Is Involved in Sympathoexcitation in Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats. Hypertension 2010; 55(-2-):291-297. >>> S-Farnesylthiosalicylic acid; Z-DEVD-FMK; candesartan; DMSO; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS; Rat; 1003D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (WYKO, 14-16 wks old).

9989 Thompson, C.K., Brenowitz, E.A. Neurogenesis in an Adult Avian Song Nucleus Is Reduced by Decreasing Caspase-Mediated Apoptosis. Journal of Neuroscience 2009; 29(-14-):4586-4591. >>> Z-VAD-FMK; Z-DEVD-FMK; Z-LEHD-FMK; DMSO; CSF/CNS (telencephalon); Bird (sparrow); 1002; Negative controls received mp w/ Z-FA-FMK; enzyme inhibitor (caspase); animal info (10 months old, male, Gambels white crowned); 1% DMSO used; pumps externalized, used"custom-made backpacks", pg 4587; pumps replaced after 11 days; brain tissue distribution.

9987 Tang, H.D., Wang, Y.M., Xie, L., Mao, X.O., Won, S.J., Galvan, V., Jin, K.L. Effect of neural precursor proliferation level on neurogenesis in rat brain during aging and after focal ischemia. NEUROBIOLOGY OF AGING 2009; 30(-2-):299-308. >>> Z-DEVD-FMK; DMSO; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS; Rat; 1003D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (peptide methylketone caspase-3); animal info (5 days old, 3, 11, 24, months old, Fischer 344); brain tissue distribution.

10071 Thompson, C.K., Brenowitz, E.A. Caspase inhibitor infusion protects an avian song control circuit from seasonal-like neurodegeneration. Journal of Neuroscience 2008; 28(-28-):7130-7136. >>> Z-VAD; Z-DEVD-FMK; Z-LEHD; Z-FA-FMK; DMSO; CSF/CNS (telencephalon); Bird (sparrow); Negative controls received mp w/ Z-FA-FMK; good methods (pg 3); animal info (white-crowned, male); 1% DMSO used; pumps externalized via backpack; brain tissue distribution.

9694 Teschendorf, P., Vogel, P., Wippel, A., Krumnikl, J.J., Spoehr, F., Boettiger, B.W., Popp, E. The effect of intracerebroventricular application of the caspase-3 inhibitor zDEVD-FMK on neurological outcome and neuronal cell death after global cerebral ischaemia due to cardiac arrest in rats. RESUSCITATION 2008; 78(-1-):85-91. >>> Z-DEVD-FMK; CSF/CNS; Rat; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ artificial CSF; no stress (see pg. 87); enzyme inhibitor (caspase-3); cardiovascular; ischemia (cardiac, cerebral); animal info (male, Wistar, 350-450 g., cardiac arrest); Z-DEVD-FMK also known as N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Asp(OMe)-Glu(OMe)-Val-Asp(OMe)-fluoromethylketone.

7278 Jing, W., Ladrech, S., Pujol, R., Brabet, P., Van de Water, T.R., Puel, J.L. Caspase inhibitors, but not c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase inhibitor treatment, prevent cisplatin-induced hearing loss. Cancer Research 2004; 64(-24-):9217-9224. >>> z-DEVD-fmk; z-IETD-fmk; z-LEHD-fmk; z-FA-fmk; JNKI-1, D-; Perilymph, artificial; Ear (cochlea); Guinea-pig; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (caspases (-3,-8,-9), cathepsinB, JNK); peptides; tissue perfusion (cochlea).

6300 Mao, J.R., Sung, B.K., Ji, R.R., Lim, G. Neuronal apoptosis associated with morphine tolerance: Evidence for an opioid-induced neurotoxic mechanism. Journal of Neuroscience 2002; 22(-17-):7650-7661. >>> Morphine; MK-801; zVAD-fmk; AC-DEVD-CHO; Saline; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; good methods p. 7651; enzyme inhibitor (pan caspase); tolerance; analgesic; AC-DEVD-CHO and zVAD-fmk are caspase inhibitors.

5920 Clark, R.S.B., Kochanek, P.M., Watkins, S.C., Chen, M, Dixon, C.E., Seidberg, N.A., Melick, J., Loeffert, J.E., Nathaniel, P.D., Jin, K.L., Graham, S.T. Caspase-3 mediated neuronal death after traumatic brain injury in rats.. J Neurochem 2000; 74(-2-):740-753. >>> Z-DEVD-FMK; DMSO; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS (hippocampus); Rat; 1003D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (caspase-3); ALZET brain infusion kit used; 0.2%DMSO used; ischemia (cerebral).

5385 Gillardon, F., Kiprianova, I., Sandkuhler, J., Hossmann, K.A., Spranger, M. Inhibition of caspases prevents cell death of hippocampal CA1 neurons, but not impairment of hippocampal long-term potentiation following global ischemia. Neuroscience 1999; 93(-4-):1219-1222. >>> Z-DEVD-FMK; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS; Rat; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (caspase inhibitor); ischemia (cerebral); neuroprotection.

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149. ZD9331

4942 Aherne, G.W., Hardcastle, A., Ward, E., Dobinson, D., Crompton, T., Valenti, M., Brunton, L., Jackman, A.L. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic study of ZD9331, a nonpolyglutamatable inhibitor of thymidylate synthase, in a murine model following two curative administration schedules. Clinical Cancer Research 2001; 7(--):2923-2930. >>> ZD9331; Sodium bicarbonate; SC; Mice; 2001D; Cancer; enzyme inhibitor; ZD9331 is a thymidylate synthase inhibibitor;"As expected for a compound that is unable to be polyglutamated, significant antitumor activity in mouse models was achieved when ZD9331 was administered by continuous infusion; Thus, a 3mg/kg sc infusion of ZD9331 over 24h (delivered via osmotic minipumps) was curative..."p. 2923;.

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150. Other

13661 Spilman, P., Descamps, O., Gorostiza, O., Peters-Libeu, C., Poksay, K.S., Matalis, A., Campagna, J., Patent, A., Rao, R., John, V., Bredesen, D.E. The multi-functional drug tropisetron binds APP and normalizes cognition in a murine Alzheimer's model. Brain Research 2014; 1551(-;-):25-44. >>> Tropisetron hydrochloride; donepezil; metamine; DMSO; saline; SC; Mice (transgenic); 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (J20, 16-19 weeks old); functionality of mp verified by serum plasma; pumps replaced every 28 days; 25% DMSO used; comparison of oral delivery vs mp (fig.16, fig.17); neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's); stress/adverse reaction: (see pg.40); behavioral testing (Morris water maze;);"Brain levels were similar after pump and oral delivery. However, it is noteworthy that pump delivery is continuous, whereas the oral delivery was daily..."pg36;.

11844 Bitner, R.S., Bunnelle, W.H., Decker, M.W., Drescher, K.U., Kohlhaas, K.L., Markosyan, S., Marsh, K.C., Nikkel, A.L., Browman, K., Radek, R., Anderson, D.J., Buccafusco, J., Gopalakrishnan, M. In Vivo Pharmacological Characterization of a Novel Selective alpha-7 Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Agonist ABT-107: Preclinical Considerations in Alzheimer's Disease. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 2010; 334(-3-):875-886. >>> ABT-107; donepezil; SC; Rat; mice; 1002; 2ML2; animal info (Sprague Dawley, male, 275-400 g; male CD1, female tau P301L, 20-30 g); post op. care (flunixin meglumine); wound clips used; neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's disease).

10289 Kishi, T., Hirooka, Y., Konno, S., Ogawa, K., Sunagawa, K. Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor-Activated Caspase-3 Through Ras/Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase/Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase in the Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla Is Involved in Sympathoexcitation in Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats. Hypertension 2010; 55(-2-):291-297. >>> S-Farnesylthiosalicylic acid; Z-DEVD-FMK; candesartan; DMSO; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS; Rat; 1003D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (WYKO, 14-16 wks old).

9614 Chenu, F., El Mansari, M., Blier, P. Long-term administration of monoamine oxidase inhibitors alters the firing rate and pattern of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY 2009; 12(-4-):475-485. >>> Clorgyline; phenelzine; deprenyl; SC; Rat; Controls received mp w/ saline; enzyme inhibitor (MAO, monoamine oxidase); animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 250-300 g.).

9027 Van Dam, D., Coen, K., De Deyn, P.P. Cognitive evaluation of disease-modifying efficacy of donepezil in the APP23 mouse model for Alzheimer's disease. Psychopharmacology 2008; 197(-1-):37-43. >>> Donepezil, HCL; Saline; IP; Mice (transgenic); 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; pumps replaced after 4 weeks; good methods (pg. 39); enzyme inhibitor (acetyl cholinesterase); animal info (transgenic APP23); neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's disease); long-term study.

8589 Potier, B., Jouvenceau, A., Epelbaum, J., Dutar, P. Age-related alterations of GABAergic input to CA1 pyramidal neurons and its control by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in rat hippocampus. Neuroscience 2006; 142(-1-):187-201. >>> Donepezil; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ saline; enzyme inhibitor (cholinesterase); animal info (Sprague-Dawley, 3-4 or 25-28 months old).

5573 Mejia, J.M., Ervin, F.R., Baker, G.B., Palmour, R.M. Monoamine oxidase inhibition during brain development induces pathological aggressive behavior in mice. Biological Psychiatry 2002; 52(-8-):811-822. >>> Chlorgyline; Deprenyl; Saline; SC; Mice (pregnant); 2002; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; teratology; enzyme inhibitors (monoamine oxidase inhibitors); 2002 pumps were replaced w/ 2004 pumps after 2 weeks to complete a 6 week infusion; agents infused singly or concommitant in the same pump.

5516 Lobell, R.B., Liu, D.M., Buser, C.A., Davide, J.P., DePuy, E., Hamilton, K., Koblan, K.S., Lee, Y., Mosser, S., Motzel, S.L., Abbruzzese, J.L., Fuchs, C.S., Rowinsky, E.K., Rubin, E.H., Sharma, S., Deutsch, P.J., Mazina, K.E., Morrison, B.W., Wildonger, L., Yao, S.L., Kohl, N.E. Preclinical and clinical pharmacodynamic assessment of L-778,123, a dual inhibitor of farnesyl : protein transferase and geranylgeranyl : protein transferase type-1. MOLECULAR CANCER THERAPEUTICS 2002; 1(-9-):747-758. >>> Farnesyl:protein transferase inhibitor-I; DMSO; SC; Mice (nude); 2ML2; Enzyme inhibitor; cancer.

5504 Takahashi, M., Fukami, S., Iwata, N., Inoue, K., Itohara, S., Itoh, H., Haraoka, J., Saido, T.C. In vivo glioma growth requires host-derived matrix metalloproteinase 2 for maintenance of angioarchitecture. Pharmacological Research 2002; 46(-2-):155-163. >>> TIMP-1; TIMP-2; PBS; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; tissue perfusion (tumor); functionality of mp verified by immunohistochemistry of agents; cancer; enzyme inhibitor; ALZET brain infusion kit used; MMP inhibitors (tissue inhibitors of metalloprotease = TIMP); rat glioma model.

5489 Luine, V.N., Mohan, G., Tu, Z., Efange, S.M.N. Chromaproline and Chromaperidine, nicotine agonists, and Donepezil, cholinesterase inhibitor, enhance performance of memory tasks in ovariectomized rats. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 2002; 74(-1-):213-220. >>> Donepezil; chromaproline; chromaperidine; SC; Rat; 2002; Controls received empty gelatin capsules similar size and shape as pumps from Lilly; pumps replaced after 2 wks; enzyme inhibitor; chromaproline and chromaperidine are nicotinic agonists; donepezil is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor; behavioral testing.

4839 Culver, K.E., Rosenfeld, J.M, Szechtman, H. A switch mechanism between locomotion and mouthing implicated in sensitization to quinpirole in rats.. Psychopharmacology 2000; 151(--):202-210. >>> Chlorgyline hydrochloride; Moclobemide hydrochloride;; Saline, physiological; DMSO; Acetic acid;; SC;; rat;; 2ML4;; Controls received mp w/ muclobemide vehicle; enzyme inhibitor; Chlorglyine dissolved in saline; Moclobemide was dissolved in 50% saline, 45% DMSO, 5% acetic acid solution; Chlorgyline and Moclobemide are monoamine oxidase inhibitors..

4330 Loscher, W., Lehmann, H. Anticonvulsant efficacy of L-deprenyl (selegiline) during chronic treatment in mice: continuous versus discontinuous administration. Neuropharmacology 1998; 37(--):1587-1593. >>> Deprenyl, L-; Water, distilled; SC; mice; 2002; 2004; controls received mp w/saline; functionality of mp verified by residual volume; comparison of daily i.p. injections vs. mp; good methods (p. 1588); anticonvulsant; also called selegiline.

3507 Carrillo, M.C., Kanai, S., Sato, Y., Nokubo, M., Ivy, G.O., Kitani, K. The optimal dosage of (-) deprenyl for increasing superoxide dismutase activities in several brain regions decreases with age in male Fischer 344 rats. Life Sci 1993; 52(--):1925-1934. >>> Deprenyl; Saline; SC; rat; controls received mp w/saline; dose-response.

3175 Mousseau, D.D., McManus, D.J., Baker, G.B., Juorio, A.V., Dewhurst, W.G., Greenshaw, A.J. Effects of age and chronic antidepressant treatment on [3H]tryptamine and [3H]dihydroalprenolol binding to rat cortical membranes. Cell. Molec. Neuro 1993; 13(-1-):3-13. >>> Imipramine HCl; Desipramine HCl; Clomipramine HCl; Tranylcypromine HCl; Phenelzine sulfate; Clorgyline HCl; Deprenyl HCl; SC; rat; 2002; 2ML4; antidepressant; controls received mp with vehicle; drug concentrations determined from Greenshaw program.

3077 Sherry-McKenna, R.L., Wong, J.T.F., Paetsch, P.R., Baker, G.B., Mousseau, D.D., McKenna, K.F., Coutts, R.T., Greenshaw, A.J. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors: effects on tryptophan concentrations in the rat brain. J. Neural Transm 1994; 41(--):155-163. >>> Phenelzine; Tranylcypromine, 4-methoxy-; Acetylphenelzine, N2-; Tranylcypromine, 4-fluoro-; Tranylcypromine; Deprenyl; SC; IP; rat; antidepressant; controls received mp with vehicle; comparison of TCP and PLZ ip injections vs. mp.

2800 de Yebenes, J.G., Fahn, S., Lovelle, S., Jackson-Lewis, V., Jorge, P., Mena, M.A., Reiriz, J., Bustos, J.C., Magarinos, C., Martinez, A. Continuous intracerebroventricular infusion of dopamine and dopamine agonists through a totally implanted drug delivery system in animal models of Parkinson's disease. Movement Disorders 1987; 2(-3-):143-158. >>> Dopamine; Pargyline; Deprenyl; Lisuride; Pergolide; HCl; Sodium metabisulfate; CSF/CNS; rat; 2001; controls received mp with vehicles; replacement therapy (lesion in dopamine pathway); stability verified for 1 week by measuring dopamine concentrations and its metabolites at varying time intervals with HPLC; concomitant dopamine infusion w/ pargyline and w/ deprenyl; antihypertensive; neurodegenerative (Parkinson's disease).

2583 Paetsch, P.R., Greenshaw, A.J. Down-regulation of b-adrenergic and dopaminergic receptors induced by 2-phenylethylamine. Cell. Molec. Neuro 1993; 13(-3-):203-215. >>> Phenylethylamine HCl, 2-; Deprenyl HCl; SC; Rat; 2002; 2ML2; Pumps replaced after 14 days; multiple pumps per animal (2); antidepressant.

2468 Paetsch, P.R., Baker, G.B., Greenshaw, A.J. Induction of functional down-regulation of beta-adrenoceptors in rats by 2-phenylethylamine. J. Pharm. Pharmacol 1993; 82(-1-):22-24. >>> Phenelzine sulfate; Phenylethylamine HCl, 2-; Deprenyl HCl; Saline; SC; Rat; 2002; 2ML2; Antidepressant; controls received mp w/ vehicle; multiple pumps per animal (2).

1313 de Yebenes, J.G., Fahn, S., Jackson-Lewis, V., Jorge, P., Mena, M.A., Reiriz, J. Continuous intracerebroventricular infusion of dopamine and dopamine agonists through a totally implanted drug delivery system in animal models of Parkinson's disease. J. Neural Transm 1988; 27(--):141-160. >>> Deprenyl; Dopamine; Lisuride; Pargyline; Pergolide; HCl; Sodium metabisulfite; Water; CSF/CNS; rat; 2001; mp connected to cannula; stability of DA verified in several vehicles, p 146; concomitant DA infusion with pargyline; DA infusion with deprenyl; replacement therapy (dopamine deficiency); stability verified in vitro; antihypertensive; neurodegenerative (Parkinson's disease).

1096 O'Regan, D., Kwok, R.P.S., Yu, P.H., Bailey, B.A., Greenshaw, A.J., Boulton, A.A. A behavioural and neurochemical analysis of chronic and selective monoamine oxidase inhibition. Psychopharmacology 1987; 92(--):42-47. >>> Deprenyl HCl; Clonidine HCl; Clorgyline HCl; Saline; SC; rat; 2002; controls received mp w/vehicle; hypothalmic electrodes implanted for self-stimulation to further access agents effects; antihypertensive.

211 Cohen, R.M., Campbell, I.C., Yamaguchi, I., Pickar, D., Kopin, I.J., Murphy, D.L. Cardiovascular changes in response to selective monoamine oxidase inhibition in the rat. Eur. J. Pharmacol 1982; 80(--):155-160. >>> Deprenyl, 1-; Clorgyline; Saline; SC; rat; mp model not stated; comparison of ip injection vs. infusion.

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“Nicotine was chronically administered subcutaneously to rats via osmotic mini-pumps. This model was proved to be a convenient and efficacious alternative to multiple injections to mimic the chronic intake of smokers.” Cormier et al., Neuropharmacology 2003;44:642-652.