References on the Administration of Epinephrine Using ALZET® Osmotic Pumps

15756 MOHAN R. DASU, SANDRA R. RAMIREZ, THI DINH LA,, FARZAM GOROUHI, CHUONG NGUYEN, BENJAMIN R. LIN, CHELCY MASHBURN, HEATHER STEWART,, THOMAS R. PEAVY,, JAN A. NOLTA,, ROSLYN R. ISSEROFF  STEM CELLS TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE 2014; (-3-):745-759. >>> Epinephrine; macrophage-activating lipopeptide-2; ICI-118,551; SC; mice; 1002; animal info (Jax Mice, male, 8-10 weeks of age); peptides; macrophage-activating lipopeptide-2 aka MALP-2; Dose (7mg/kg body weight/day EPI; .7 mg/kg body weight/day ICI);.

15277 Mohan R Dasu,, Sandra R. Ramirez,, Thi Dinh La,, Farzam Gorouhi,, Chuong Nguyen,, Benjamin R. Lin,, Chelcy Mashburn,, Heather Stewart,, Thomas R. Peavy,, Jan A. Nolta,, Roslyn R. Isseroff  STEM CELLS TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE 2014; (-3-):745-759. >>> epinephrine, macrophage-activating lipopeptide-2; ICI-118,551; SC; mice; 1002; animal info (Jax Mice, male, 8-10 weeks of age); peptides; macrophage-activating lipopeptide-2 aka MALP-2; Dose (7mg/kg body weight/day EPI; .7 mg/kg body weight/day ICI);.

13534 Kim, M.H., Gorouhi, F., Ramirez, S., Granick, J.L., Byrne, B.A., Soulika, A.M., Simon, S.I., Isseroff, R.R. Catecholamine Stress Alters Neutrophil Trafficking and Impairs Wound Healing by beta(2)-Adrenergic Receptor-Mediated Upregulation of IL-6. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 2014; 134(-3-):809-817. >>> Epinephrine; antagonist, beta adrenergic receptor; Saline; SC; Mice (transgenic); 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, EGFP-lys); functionality of mp verified by plasma levels; dose-response (pg. 810); immunology;.

13160 Lin, Q., Wang, F.F., Yang, R., Zheng, X.M., Gao, H.B., Zhang, P. Effect of Chronic Restraint Stress on Human Colorectal Carcinoma Growth in Mice. PLoS One 2013; 8(-4-):U1127-U1137. >>> Epinephrine; atenolol; ICI 118,551; PBS; ascorbic acid; SC; Mice (nude); 1002; Controls received mp w/ PBS, PHE (2mg/kg/d) and PRO (2mg/kg/d), CRS PBS, CRS PHE (2mg/kg/d) and PRO (2mg/kg/d); animal info (nude); cancer (colorectal); dose-response (Fig.4, S5); ICI 118,551 is a specific B2-AR antagonist;"Considering the critical role of stress in regulating tumor growth and the fact that stress hormones and their antagonists could be quickly metabolized, we used microosmotic pumps instead of repeated injection to administer the stress hormones and antagonists to reduce the stress response as much as possible during manipulations of the animals."pg 9.

12030 Beasley, F.C., Marolda, C.L., Cheung, J., Buac, S., Heinrichs, D.E. Staphylococcus aureus Transporters Hts, Sir, and Sst Capture Iron Liberated from Human Transferrin by Staphyloferrin A, Staphyloferrin B, and Catecholamine Stress Hormones, Respectively, and Contribute to Virulence. Infection and Immunity 2011; 79(-6-):2345-2355. >>> Epinephrine; Saline, buffered; SC; Mice; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (BALB/c).

11026 Khasar, S.G., Dina, O.A., Green, P.G., Levine, J.D. Sound Stress-Induced Long-Term Enhancement of Mechanical Hyperalgesia in Rats Is Maintained by Sympathoadrenal Catecholamines. JOURNAL OF PAIN 2009; 10(-10-):1073-1077. >>> Epinephrine; SC; Rat; 2004; Animal info (adrenal medullectomy, adult, male, Sprague Dawley, 300-400 g); functionality of mp verified by plasma drug levels.

9393 Dina, O.A., Khasar, S.G., essandri-Haber, N., Bogen, O., Chen, X.J., Green, P.G., Reichling, D.B., Messing, R.O., Levine, J.D. Neurotoxic catecholamine metabolite in nociceptors contributes to painful peripheral neuropathy. European Journal of Neuroscience 2008; 28(-6-):1180-1190. >>> Epinephrine; Saline; ascorbic acid; Rat; Animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 270-450 g.).

9088 von Montfort, C., Beier, J.I., Guo, L.P., Kaiser, J.P., Arteel, G.E. Contribution of the sympathetic hormone epinephrine to the sensitizing effect of ethanol on LPS-induced liver damage in mice. American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 2008; 294(-5-):G1227-G1234. >>> Epinephrine; Saline; SC; Mice; Half-life (p. G1227)"very short"; animal info (male, C57BL/6, 4-6 wks old);"Owing to the very short half-life of epinephrine, the hormone was infused instead of injected to maintain a low-grade elevated plasma level over a prolonged period which better mimcs the effect of ethanol."pg. G1227.

9063 Dina, O.A., Khasar, S.G., essandri-Haber, N., Green, P.G., Messing, R.O., Levine, J.D. Alcohol-induced stress in painful alcoholic neuropathy. European Journal of Neuroscience 2008; 27(-1-):83-92. >>> Epinephrine; Saline; ascorbic acid; SC; Rat; 2004; Replacement therapy (adrenal medullectomy); animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 250-450g.).

7802 Khasar, S.G., Green, P.G., Levine, J.D. Repeated sound stress enhances inflammatory pain in the rat. Pain 2005; 116(-1-2-):79-86. >>> Epinephrine bitartrate; Saline; ascorbic acid; SC; Rat; 1007D; Controls received no treatment; animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley 250-380 g); pain.

7463 Khasar, S.G., Dina, O.A., Green, P.G., Levine, J.D. Estrogen regulates adrenal medullary function producing sexual dimorphism in nociceptive threshold and beta2-adrenergic receptor-mediated hyperalgesia in the rat. European Journal of Neuroscience 2005; 21(-12-):3379-3386. >>> Epinephrine; Saline; ascorbic acid; SC; Rat; 1007D; 2002; Functionality of mp verified by plasma epinephrine levels; replacement therapy (adrenal medullectomy, adrenal gland denervation); dose-response (Fig 3).

6140 Kitano, Y., von Allmen, D., Kanai, M., Adzick, N.S., Flake, A.W. Epinephrine inhibits tracheal occlusion induced lung growth in fetal sheep. Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy 2003; 18(-5-):333-337. >>> Epinephrine; Saline; ascorbic acid; SC; Sheep (fetus); 2ML1; Teratology.

5895 Born, G.V.R., Medina, R., Shafi, S., Cardona-Sanclemente, L.E. Factors influencing the uptake of atherogenic plasma proteins by artery walls. Biorheology 2003; 40(-1-3-):13-22. >>> Epinephrine; Angiotensin II; SC; Rat; Controls received mp w/ saline; plasma levels reported; cardiovascular; pump rate 0.5 ul hr (p.15).

5861 Khasar, S.G., Green, P.G., Miao, F.J.P., Levine, J.D. Vagal modulation of nociception is mediated by adrenomedullary epinephrine in the rat. European Journal of Neuroscience 2003; 17(-4-):909-915. >>> ICI 118,551; epinephrine; Saline; ascorbic acid; ethanol; SC; Rat; 1007D; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; dose-response (p. 911); ICI-118, 55 dissolved in ethanol and saline and infused for 7 days via 1007D pumps; epinephrine dissolved in saline and ascorbic acid and delivered for 3, 7, or 14 days via 2004 pumps..

5103 Juhn, S.K., Li, W.M., Kim, J.Y., Javel, E., Levine, S., Odland, R.M. Effect of stress-related hormones on inner ear fluid homeostasis and function. American Journal of Otology 1999; 20(--):800-806. >>> Epinephrine; Saline; SC; Chinchilla; controls received mp w/ vehicle;.

3813 Sainio, E.-L. The role of adrenal hormones in the activation of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase by nicotinic acid in rat liver. Meth. Find Exp. Clin. Pharmacol 1997; 19(-7-):465-470. >>> Epinephrine; Corticosterone; Ethanol; NaCl; SC; rat; 2ML1; controls received mp w/vehicle; replacement therapy (adrenalectomy).

3803 Brandao, F., Paiva, M.Q., Albino-Teixeira, A., Serrao, P., Guimaraes, S. Homogeneous or heterogeneous distribution of systemically administered adrenaline: organ dependence. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Arch. Pharmacol 1996; 353(--):579-583. >>> Epinephrine; Water, distilled; IP; rat; comparison of short-term iv infusion vs. mp.

3638 Cardona-Sanclemente, L.E., Born, G.V.R. Increase by adrenaline or angiotensin II of the accumulation of low density lipoprotein and fibrinogen by aortic walls in unrestrained conscious rats. Br. J. Pharmacol 1996; 117(--):1089-1094. >>> Epinephrine; Angiotensin II; Ascorbic acid; SC; IA (carotid); rat; 2ML4; 1007D; controls received saline infusion; functionality of mp verified by plasma levels; stability verified by analyzing residual solution.

3330 Jablonskis, L.T., Howe, P.R.C. Lack of influence of circulating adrenaline on blood pressure in normotensive and hypertensive rats. Blood Pressure 1994; 3(--):112-119. >>> Epinephrine bitartrate; Saline; Ascorbic acid; SC; rat; 2002; long-term study, pumps replaced every 2 weeks; mp implanted in flank region.

2728 Birnbaum, S.C., Kien, N., Martucci, R.W., Gelzleichter, T.R., Witschi, H., Hendrickx, A.G., Last, J.A. Nicotine- or epinephrine-induced uteroplacental vasoconstriction and fetal growth in the rat. Toxicology 1994; 94(--):69-80. >>> Nicotine free base; Epinephrine acid tartrate; Saline; Ascorbic acid; Water, distilled; SC; rat (pregnant); 2ML1; controls received mp w/ saline; toxicology; teratology.

2486 Sadeghi, H.M., Eikenburg, D.C. Chronic epinephrine treatment fails to alter prejunctional adrenoceptor modulation of sympathetic neurotransmission in the rat mesentery. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther 1992; 261(-3-):924-930. >>> Epinephrine; Saline; Ascorbic acid; SC; rat; no comment posted.

2452 Deisher, T.A., Narita, H., Zera, P., Ginsburg, R., Bristow, M.R., Billingham, M.E., Fowler, M.B., Hoffman, B.B. Protective effect of clentiazem against epinephrine-induced cardiac injury in rats. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther 1993; 266(-1-):262-269. >>> Epinephrine bitartrate; Clentiazem; Saline; Ethanol; DMSO; SC; rat; 2ML2; no comment posted.

1975 Dehner, R., Ikeda, K., Yamori, Y., Grobecker, H. Adrenaline in cardiovascular diseases - effect of B-adrenoceptor antagonists. Z. Kardiol 1990; 79(-3-):79-88. >>> Epinephrine; Ascorbic acid; rat; 2001; English with German summary.

1581 Terres, W., Becker, B.F., Schrodl, W., Gerlach, E. Effects of chronic treatment with adrenaline or propranolol on platelet function and c-AMP levels in the rat. Cardiovasc. Res 1989; 23(--):112-116. >>> Epinephrine; Ascorbic acid; Saline; SC; rat; 2002; long-term study, pump replaced every 14 days.

1551 Deighton, N.M., Hamilton, C.A., Jones, C.R., Reid, J.L. The effects of chronic administration of adrenaline on the function and number of adrenoceptors in the rabbit. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol 1988; 12(--):332-337. >>> Epinephrine; Ascorbic acid; Water; IV (femoral); rabbit; 2002; dose-response; pump embedded in thigh muscle; functionality of mp verified by plasma levels.

1485 Trend, S.G., Bruce, N.W. Resistance of the rat embryo to elevated maternal epinephrine concentrations. Am. J Obstet. Gynecol 1989; 160(--):498-501. >>> Epinephrine; Ascorbic acid; Saline; Water; IV (jugular); rat; 2001; dose-response; functionality of mp verified by plasma levels; no stress.

1412 Becker, B.F., Terres, W., Kratzer, M., Gerlach, E. Blood platelet function after chronic treatment of rats and guinea pigs with nicotine. Klin. Wochenschr 1988; 66(-11-):28-36. >>> Nicotine base; Epinephrine bitartrate; Ascorbic acid; Saline; Water; SC; guinea-pig; rat; 2002; dose-response; functionality of mp verified by plasma levels; long-term study; pump replaced every 2 weeks.

1176 Schwartz, D.D., Eikenburg, D.C. Enhanced endogenous neurotransmitter overflow in the isolated perfused rat kidney after chronic epinephrine administration: lack of a prejunctional beta adrenoceptor influence. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther 1988; 244(-1-):11-18. >>> Epinephrine; Ascorbic acid; Saline; SC; rat; 2001; controls received mp w/ vehicle; propranolol used to examine influence of beta adrenoceptors and phentolamine for alpha adrenoceptors.

1064 Battista, P.J., Poff, J.P., Deaver, D.R., Condon, W.A. Biogenic amine regulation of bovine luteal progesterone production in vivo. J. Reprod. Fertil 1987; 80(-2-):517-522. >>> Epinephrine, l-; Norepinephrine, l-; Serotonin; Saline; SC; cattle; Pump model not stated; concomitant infusion of agents; comparison of agents effects.

950 Yamori, Y., Mano, M., Nara, Y., Horie, R. Catecholamine-induced polyploidization in vascular smooth muscle cells. Circulation 1987; (-1-):1-92. >>> Epinephrine; Norepinephrine; IV (jugular); rat; 1701; pumps replaced after 6 days; mp connected to rubber tube in jugular vein; functionality of mp verified.

861 Schwartz, D.D., Eikenburg, D.C. Cardiovascular responsiveness to sympathetic activation after chronic epinephrine administration. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther 1986; 238(-1-):148-154. >>> Epinephrine bitartrate; Ascorbic acid; Saline; SC; rat; 2001; controls received mp w/vehicle; hypertension.

685 Snavely, M.D., Ziegler, M.G., Insel, P.A. Subtype-selective down-regulation of rat renal cortical a- and B-adrenergic receptors by catecholamines. Endocrinology 1985; 117(-5-):2182-2189. >>> Epinephrine; Norepinephrine; Isoproterenol;; HCl; SC; rat; mp model not stated; comparison of agents effects.

651 Tsujimoto, G., Hoffman, B.B. Desensitization of B-adrenergic receptor-mediated vascular smooth muscle relaxation. Mol. Pharmacol 1985; 27(-2-):210-217. >>> Epinephrine HCl, l-; HCl; Saline; SC; rat; 2001; states in error that mp will deliver up to 10 days; mp primed 3 hr prior to implant; bioavailability of EPI determined by plasma level increase.

607 Jeffries, W.B., Orzechowski, R.F. Withdrawal syndrome follows abrupt cessation of intracerebroventricular infusion of epinephrine in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Life Sci 1985; 36(-14-):1331-1337. >>> Epinephrine bitartrate; Ascorbic acid; Saline; CSF/CNS; rat; 2001; 2 day delay of mp Epi achieved by filling connecting tubing with vehicle; some tubing externalized to allow immediate cutoff of infusion; dose-response data; delayed delivery;.

600 Kumano, K., Khairallah, P.A. Adenylate cyclase activity in rat myocardium following chronic infusions of angiotensin II and epinephrine. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol 1984; 6(-5-):756-761. >>> Angiotensin II; Epinephrine, l-; Ascorbic acid; HCl; Saline; SC; rat; 2001; 2002; comparison of agents effects; 2002 mp replaced after 2 weeks; saline used as vehicle w/ AngII, HCl&ascorbic acid w/Epi; controls received vehicle; mp primed in saline before use; peptides.

335 Sugden, D., Klein, D.C. B-Adrenergic receptor control of rat pineal hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase. Endocrinology 1983; 113(-1-):348-353. >>> Isoproterenol, d-; Methoxamine; Phenylephrine, l-; ST-587; Clonidine; Epinephrine, l-; Isoproterenol, dl-; Isoproterenol, l-; Prazosin; Propranolol, dl-; Terbutaline; Ascorbic acid; DMSO; Saline; SC; rat; 2001; 2ML1; comparison of agents effects; saline vehicle used w/ agents 1-8, saline and ascorbic acid used w/ agents 9-11, DMSO and saline used w/ agent 12; ST-587 is an adrenergic agonist; antihypertensive.


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“All the rats survived for the length of the experiments. The intratracheal pump was well tolerated and the procedure produced no overt complications.” (p. 123) Svetlecic et al., Lung 2004;182:119-134.