References on the Administration of Agents to the Eye Using ALZET® Osmotic Pumps

15977 Jury Kim and Min-Su Kim  Pakistan Veterinary Journal 2015; 35(-2-):239-241. >>> Dorzolamide; timolol; SC (Eye); Dog; 2004; Controls received no mp; Controls received no mp;"Osmotic pump, as one of the constant drug delivery systems, can be placed in the subcutaneous pocket with minimal surgical skills, and continuouslyadminister the wanted drugs into the target regions"pg 241; picture of implantation pg 240; Interesting (use of pump in veterinary application);.

14834 Bae, J.H., Plummer, C.E., Kim, J., Kim, S., Kim, N.S., Kim, N.S. Continuous ophthalmic treatment using an osmotic pump in a bull calf following surgical removal of an ocular dermoid: a case report. VETERINARNI MEDICINA 2015; 60(--):282-287. >>> Ciprofloxacin; Eye; Cattle (bull); Animal info (male, Hanwoo bull calf, 6 months old); functionality of mp verified by drug levels in aqueous humor and residual volume; good methods (pg. 284); no stress (see pg. 285);“As the owner could not apply topical medications regularly, a drug-filled osmotic pump (Alzet; Alza, Palo Alto, CA) was implanted subconjunctivally under the upper eyelid and connected to a catheter at the lateral limbus.” pg 282;"... it is clear that the osmotic infusion pump maintained the aqueous concentration of ciprofloxacin at a reasonable steady state until its removal four weeks after implantation. The amount of drug remaining in the pump was about 17Ǩg/ml after four weeks. This also demonstrates the reliability of the pump."pg. 286; picture of pump pg 283; pumps primed for 40 hours in 37C saline; pumps removed after 4 weeks;.

11227 Aktas, Z., Gurelik, G., Goecuen, P.U., Akyuerek, N., Oenol, M., Hasanreisoglu, B. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in retinal ganglion cell layer and effect of topically applied brimonidine tartrate 0.2% therapy on this expression in an endothelin-1-induced optic nerve ischemia model. International Ophthalmology 2010; 30(-3-):253-259. >>> Endothelin-1, human, porcine; Eye (optic nerve); Rabbit; 2002; Animal info (New Zealand, albino); vinyl tubing used; image of pump and tubing through the upper eyelid (Fig.1, Fig 2b);.

8158 Ambati, J., Gragoudas, E.S., Miller, J.W., You, T.T., Miyamoto, K., Delori, F.C., Adamis, A.P. Transscleral delivery of bioactive protein to the choroid and retina. Invest Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci 2000; 41(-5-):1186-1191. >>> Immunoglobulin G, FITC-, rabbit; antibody, monoclonal mouse anti-ICAM-1; immunoglobulin, mouse IgG2a; Eye (superotemporal scleral surface, transscleral); Rabbit; 2001D; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ control Ab; functionality of mp verified by fluorescence in occular tissues and plasma mAb levels; stability verified by efficacy experiments, FITC linkage timing; half-life (p. 1188), 3 days; ALZET brain infusion kit used; animal info (dutch-belted, pigmented);"We have developed a minimally invasive transscleral drug delivery modality that can deliver therapeutic concentrations of bioactive proteins to the choroid and retina without significant systemic absorption or tissue damage."(P. 1186-87).

7863 Okabe, K., Kimura, H., Okabe, J., Kato, A., Shimizu, H., Ueda, T., Shimada, S., Ogura, Y., Ogura, Y. Effect of benzalkonium chloride on transscleral drug delivery. INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY&VISUAL SCIENCE 2005; 46(--):703-708. >>> Betamethasone, phosphate 21-; benzalkonium chloride; Eye (intrasclera); Rabbit; 1002; Animal info (albino, 2.0-2.5 kg); diagram of pump position and cannulation (p.704); silicone tube used to connect mp.

6741 Chauhan, B.C., LeVatte, T.L., Jollimore, C.A., Yu, P.K., Reitsamer, H.A., Kelly, M.E.M., Yu, D.Y., Tremblay, F., Archibald, M.L. Model of endothelin-1 - Induced chronic optic neuropathy in rat. INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY&VISUAL SCIENCE 2004; 45(-1-):144-152. >>> Endothelin-1; Balanced salt solution; Eye (retrobulbar optic nerve); Rat; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle and fellow eye w/ no treatment; dose-response (fig.5); long-term study; pumps replaced every 28 days; peptides; post op. care (rentamicin, buprenex).

6445 Leamey, C.A., Ho-Pao, C.L., Sur, M. Disruption of Retinogeniculate Pattern Formation by Inhibition of Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase. The Journal of Neuroscience 2004; 21(-11-):3871-3880. >>> KT5823; Oxadiazolo quinoxalin-1-one, 1H-[1,2,4], [4,3-a]; DMSO; saline; Eye; Ferret; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; dose-response (p.3875); enzyme inhibitor (guanylyl cyclase; protein Kinase G); DMSO at 50%; OD1; KT5832 added to vehicle control.

4653 Sretavan, D.W, Shatz, C.J., Stryker, M.P. Modification of retinal ganglion cell axon morphology by prenatal infusion of tetrodotoxin.. Nature 1988; 336(-1-):468-471. >>> Tetrodotoxin;; Citrate buffer;; Eye;; cat (fetus);; 2002;; teratology;.

4360 Clarke, D.B., Bray, G.M., Aguayo, A.J. Prolonged administration of NT-4/5 fails to rescue most axotomized retinal ganglion cells in adult rats. Vision Research 1998; 38(--):1517-1524. >>> NT-4/5; PBS; Eye (vitreous chamber); rat; 2002; controls received mp w/vehicle; comparison of injections vs. mp; peptides.

3591 Sawai, H., Clarke, D.B., Kittlerova, P., Bray, G.M., Aguayo, A.J. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-4/5 stimulate growth of axonal branches from regenerating retinal ganglion cells. J. Neurosci 1996; 16(-12-):3887-3894. >>> NT-4/5; PBS; Eye (vitreous chamber); rat; 2002; comparison of intraocular injections vs. mp.

2953 Sakamoto, T., Soriano, D., Nassaralla, J., Murphy, T.L., Oganesian, A., Spec, C., Hinton, D.R., Ryan, S.J. Effect of intravitreal administration of indomethacin on experimental subretinal neovascularization in the subhuman primate. Arch Ophthalmol 1995; 113(--):222-226. >>> Indomethacin; GBR buffer; Cyclodextrin, B-; Eye (vitreous); monkey; 2ML2; control eyes received mp with vehicles; enzyme inhibitor; indomethacin is a cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor; detailed description of vitreal cannula implantation; empty pump implanted at time of cannula implantation to allow 1-month recovery period; beta-cyclodextrin used as a carrier molecule; some monkeys served both as control and drug treatment group (different treatment in each eye); a vitreous opacity appeared in some eyes during infusion but disappeared after the pump was disconnected.

2578 Colasanti, B.K. A comparison of the ocular and central effects of delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabigerol. J. Ocular Pharmacol 1990; 6(-4-):259-269. >>> Cannabinol, delta-9-tetrahydro-; Cannabigerol; PEG 400; Eye (cornea); cat; controls received mp w/ vehicle; dose-response (p.262); unilateral delivery.

2577 Soubrane, G., Cohen, S.Y., Delayre, T., Tassin, J., Hartmann, M.-P., Coscas, G.J., Courtois, Y., Jeanny, J.-C. Basic fibroblast growth factor experimentally induced choroidal angiogenesis in the minipig. Curr. Eye Res 1994; 13(--):183-195. >>> Fibroblast growth factor; PBS; Eye (suprachoroidal space); mini-pig; 2001; stability verified by biological activity assay (p 185-6) after 4 days; peptides; spatial distribution of exogenous FGF examined (p 188); basic FGF used.

1974 Lerman, S., Megaw, J. Miniosmotic pumps for liposomal drug delivery. Liposome Technol 1993; 1(--):429-438. >>> Liposomes; Eye (lens); rabbit; 2ML1; pulsed delivery described; detailed surgical methods.

1719 Lerman, S. Test models to determine potential ocular drug induced side effects. Lens Eye Toxic. Res 1989; 6(-1/2-):1-36. >>> 8-MOP; Chromophore; Sorbinil; Liposomes; Radio-isotopes; Eye (lens); rabbit; 2ML1; tissue perfusion (ocular lens); liposome-encapsulated agents.

1549 Linser, P.J., Plunkett, J.A. A role for carbonic anhydrase in early eye morphogenesis. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci 1989; 30(-4-):783-785. >>> Methazolamide; Tyrode's solution; Eye; in vitro (egg, eye); Bird (chicken embryo); 2001; comparison of topical dosing vs. mp infusion; tissue perfusion.

1509 Colasanti, B.K. Intraocular pressure, ocular toxicity and neurotoxicity in response to 11-hydroxy-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and 1-nantradol. J. Ocular Pharmacol 1985; 1(-2-):123-135. >>> Cannabinol, tetrahydro-; Nantradol, 1-; PEG 400; Eye; cat; 2001; topical application; tissue perfusion.

15368 Megaw, J.M., Lerman, S. Application of miniosmotic pumps for liposomal drug delivery to the ocular lens. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci 1987; 28(--):1429-1433. >>> Methoxypsoralen, 8-; Radio-isotopes; Sorbinil; 3H tracer; Eye; rabbit; 2ML1; mp connected to PE 60 tubing in eye; tissue perfusion.

691 Maurice, D.M., Singh, T. The absence of corneal toxicity with low-level topical anesthesia. Am. J. Ophthalmol 1985; 93(-6-):691-696. >>> Proparacaine; Eye (corneal stroma); rabbit; 1701; tissue perfusion (central stroma of cornea); comparison of intermittent admin of eye drops vs. mp infusion - analagous to injection/ infusion comparison; mp primed overnight in saline.

665 Miki, K., Patterson, R., Ryan, S.J. An indwelling cannula system for the primate eye. J. Neurosci. Methods 1985; 13(-3/4-):267-279. >>> Leucine; Radio-isotopes; 3H tracer; Balanced salt solution; Eye (vitreous); monkey; 2001; comparison of 3H-Leucine injec vs. mp infusion; stress/no stress p. 276; surgical methods; tissue perfusion.

652 Colasanti, B.K., Brown, R.E., Craig, C.R. Ocular hypotension, ocular toxicity, and neurotoxicity in response to marihuana extract and cannabidiol. Gen. Pharmacol 1984; 15(-6-):479-484. >>> Cannabidiol; Marihuana extract; Cannabinol, delta-9-tetrahydro-; PEG; Eye (cornea); cat; mp model not stated; comparison of acute topical admin/ injec vs. mp infusion; comparison of agents effects; agents admin. topically to cat corneas; tissue perfusion.

644 Miki, K., Patterson, R., Ryan, S.J. Intraocular cannula for continuous, chronic drug delivery: histopathologic observations and function. Arch. Ophthalmol 1985; 103(-5-):712-717. >>> Fluorescein sodium; Leucine; Radio-isotopes; 3H tracer; Eye (vitreous); rabbit; 2001; agents admin. in combination; tissue perfusion.

577 Colasanti, B.K., Craig, C.R., Allara, R.D. Intraocular pressure, ocular toxicity and neurotoxicity after administration of cannabinol or cannabigerol. Exp. Eye Res 1984; 39(-3-):251-259. >>> Cannabigerol; Cannabinol; PEG 400; Eye; cat; mp model not stated; comparison of agents effects; intermittent eye drop admin. vs. mp infusion; tissue perfusion.

561 Miki, K., Ohkuma, H., Ryan, S.J. A method for chronic drug infusion into the eye. Jpn. J. Ophthalmol 1984; 28(-2-):140-146. >>> Fluorescein sodium; Saline; Eye; rabbit; 2001; 2002; detailed account of materials, surgical procedures&complications; stress/adverse reaction (infection at implantation site) see p. 144-145; tissue perfusion.

466 Colasanti, B.K., Powell, S.R., Craig, C.R. Intraocular pressure, ocular toxicity and neurotoxicity after administration of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol or cannabichromene. Exp. Eye Res 1984; 38(--):63-71. >>> Cannabichromene; Cannabinol, delta-9-tetrahydro-; PEG 400; Eye (cornea); cat; 2001; comparison of agents effects; pump implanted sc and connected via sc tubing to cornea; tissue perfusion.

44 Eliason, J.A., Maurice, D.M. An ocular perfusion system. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci 1980; 19(-1-):102-105. >>> Fluorescein sodium; Saline; Eye (cornea); rabbit; tissue perfusion (cornea).

32 Michelson, J.B., Nozik, R.A. Experimental endophthalmitis treated with an implantable osmotic minipump. Arch. Ophthalmol 1979; 97(-7-):1345-1346. >>> Gentamicin sulfate; Eye (vitreous); rabbit; mp model not stated; comparison of intravitreal injection vs. infusion; antibiotic; tissue perfusion.

15294 Falcon, M.G., Jones, B.R. Antivirals for the therapy of herpetic eye disease. Trans. Ophthal. Soc. UK 1977; 97(--):330-332. >>> Ara-AMP; Eye; Rabbit; Ara-AMP (Adenine arabinoside 5'monophospate) is an antiviral.


Since 1977, scientist around the world have used ALZET pumps to conduct their research, publishing their results in high-impact journals. The ALZET bibliography now contains over 16,000 publications! We can perform a custom search for references relevant to your research.

Request your ALZET bibliography search!


Order the ALZET SurgicalImplantation Video

What researchers are saying...

“Unlike injected nicotine, the infusion of nicotine via osmotic minipumps does not cause any overt signs of hypoxia/ischemia, such as blanching of the skin or cyanosis.” Xu et al., Brain Research 2002; 951:280-292.