References on the Administration of Glucocorticoids Using ALZET® Osmotic Pumps

1. Corticosterone

16302 Benlloch, M., Obrador, E., Valles, S. L., Rodriguez, M. L., Sirerol, J. A., Alcacer, J., Pellicer, J. A., Salvador, R., Cerda, C., Saez, G. T., Estrela, J. M. Pterostilbene Decreases the Antioxidant Defenses of Aggressive Cancer Cells In Vivo: A Physiological Glucocorticoids- and Nrf2-Dependent Mechanism. Antioxid Redox Signal 2016; 24(-17-):974-90. >>> Pterostilbene, Corticosterone; DMSO, Ethanol; PEG400; IV (jugular); mice; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info Female nu/nu nude mice (6–8 weeks); functionality of mp verified by plasma levels, pg 979; functionality of mp verified by plasma levels, pg 979; Pterostilbene is a natural dimethoxylated analog of resveratrol; Mice xenograft models; Dose (50 mg/ml Pter; 0.3 ug/hr corticosterone); Resultant plasma level (pg. 979);.

15990 Maayan, R., Hirsh, L., Yadid, G., Weizman, A. Dehydroepiandrosterone Attenuates Cocaine-Seeking Behaviour Independently of Corticosterone Fluctuations. J Neuroendocrinol 2015; 27(-11-):819-26. >>> Corticosterone; DMSO; SC; Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 250-350g); functionality of mp verified by plasma levels; behavioral testing (lever pressing); dependence; Dose (15 mg/kg);.

15205 Claflin, D.I., Greenfield, L.R., Hennessy, M.B. Modest elevation of corticosterone in preweanling rats impairs subsequent trace eyeblink conditioning during the juvenile period. BEHAVIOURAL BRAIN RESEARCH 2014; 258(-;-):19-26. >>> Corticosterone; PEG 400; SC; Rat; 1003D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Long-Evans, PND15); functionality of mp verified by plasma levels pg22; no stress"Animals recovered quickly..."(see pg.20); post op. care (antibiotic ointment on wound, buprenorphine (0.052 mg/kg, heating pad until responsive and then returned to dam);“The corticosterone pellet was designed to produce a low, constant release of hormoneover a 21-day period, but plasma assays showed otherwise. There was a large supraphysiological increase in circulating corticoste-rone levels (to ∼80 ug/dl) for about three days after implantationand a return tonormal levels by the time testing occurred...In the present study, we administered cor-ticosterone using an alternative, more reliable method that yielded the low level (within a normal physiological range) and constantrate of delivery we had originally expected. Furthermore, since the∼3-day period of elevation in the previous study was sufficient toproduce lasting effects on behavior, we chose to use an osmotic mini-pump that was designed to deliver corticosterone at a lowand constant rate over a 3-day period only. ” pg 20; pumps primed for 24 hours in sterile saline;.

15940 Morris, D. J., Latif, S. A., Brem, A. S. An alternative explanation of hypertension associated with 17alpha-hydroxylase deficiency syndrome. Steroids 2014; 79(--):44-8. >>> corticosterone; progesterone, hydroxy-; Propylene glycol; sc; rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info: adrenally intact rats; functionality of mp verified by measuring systolic blood pressure pg 46; replacement therapy (the agents infused); Dose: 5 ug/hr of both agents.

14902 Cuffe, J.S.M., Steane, S., Moritz, K.M., Paravicini, T.M., Paravicini, T.M. Differential mRNA Expression and Glucocorticoid-Mediated Regulation of TRPM6 and TRPM7 in the Heart and Kidney throughout Murine Pregnancy and Development. PLoS One 2015; 10(--):U1394-U1410. >>> Dexamethasone sodium phosphate; corticosterone; Saline; SC; Mice (pregnant); 1003D; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (female, E12.5, C57Bl6J, 8-10 weeks old); teratology; cardiovascular;.

14319 Nelson, B.F., Daunt, F., Monaghan, P., Wanless, S., Butler, A., Heidinger, B.J., Newell, M., Dawson, A., Dawson, A. Protracted treatment with corticosterone reduces breeding success in a long-lived bird. General and Comparative Endocrinology 2015; 210(--):38-45. >>> Corticosterone; PEG 400; SC; Bird (kittiwake); 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (late incubation, 380g); functionality of mp verified by serum levels; Multiple pumps per animal (2);.

14630 Callaghan, B.L., Richardson, R., Callaghan, B.L. Early Emergence of Adult-Like Fear Renewal in the Developing Rat After Chronic Corticosterone Treatment of the Dam or the Pups. Behavioral Neuroscience 2014; 128(--):594-602. >>> Corticosterone; Water, deionized; SC; Rat (neonate); 1007D; Control animals received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (naive, Sprague Dawley, P7). no stress pg 595-596."The entire surgery took less than 5 min and the rats recovered well. The dorsal placement of the micropump was chosen because it does not interfere with the feeding position of pups."pg 595."...dams in the current studies tolerated the pups well after both surgeries and there were no instances of cannibalism or obvious abuse (e.g., bite marks)"pg 596; pumps removed after 1 week;.

13996 Wosiski-Kuhn, M., Erion, J.R., Gomez-Sanchez, E.P., Gomez-Sanchez, C.E., Stranahan, A.M., Stranahan, A.M. Glucocorticoid receptor activation impairs hippocampal plasticity by suppressing BDNF expression in obese mice. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2014; 42(--):165-177. >>> Corticosterone; Cyclodextrin, 2-hydroxypropyl-B;; CSF/CNS (hippocampus); Mice; Controls received mp w/ vehicle and aCSF; animal info (male, C57BL6J or db/db, 5 weeks old); functionality of mp verified by hippocampal corticosterone levels; Multiple pumps per animal (2); behavioral testing (y-maze apparatus); tissue perfusion (bilateral hippocampi); immunology; Cannula placement verified via histology; used Plastics One bilateral cannula; bilateral infusion;.

13873 Mueller, A.D., Parfyonov, M., Pavlovski, I., Marchant, E.G., Mistlberger, R.E. The inhibitory effect of sleep deprivation on cell proliferation in the hippocampus of adult mice is eliminated by corticosterone clamp combined with interleukin-1 receptor 1 knockout. BRAIN BEHAVIOR AND IMMUNITY 2014; 35(-;-):182-188. >>> Corticosterone; PEG 400; ethanol; SC; Mice; 1002; Animal info (male, homozygous IL1RI null, 7-8 weeks old); 5% ethanol used; post op. care (buprenorphine 0.1 mg/kg, metacam 1 mg/kg SQ, ADX rats given saline in water bottles); replacement therapy (adrenalectomy); immunology; sleep deprivation study;.

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2. Cortisol

13371 Feng, X.D., Reini, S.A., Richards, E., Wood, C.E., Keller-Wood, M. Cortisol stimulates proliferation and apoptosis in the late gestation fetal heart: differential effects of mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 2013; 305(-4-):R343-R350. >>> Cortisol; potassium canrenoate; mifepristone; Saline; SC; Sheep (ewe); 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, singleton pregnancies); teratology; cardiovascular; impact of maternal stress during late gestation.

13264 Kleppe, L., Karlsen, O., Edvardsen, R.B., Norberg, B., Andersson, E., Taranger, G.L., Wargelius, A. Cortisol treatment of prespawning female cod affects cytogenesis related factors in eggs and embryos. General and Comparative Endocrinology 2013; 189(-;-):84-95. >>> Cortisol; propranediol; Hydrocortisone; IP; Fish; Controls received mp w/ 80% 1.2-propanediol; animal info (cod, 1.8kg, female); 2ML pump used.

12869 Dorniak, P., Welsh, TH Jr, Bazer, F.W., Spencer, T.E. Cortisol and Interferon Tau Regulation of Endometrial Function and Conceptus Development in Female Sheep. Endocrinology 2013; 154(-2-):931-941. >>> Cortisol; PF915275; meloxicam; interferon, tau, recomb. ovine; Ethanol; Intrauterine (uterine horn); Sheep (ewe); 2ML1; Control animals received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (mature, rambouillet, female, ewe); 2% ethanol used; vinyl catheter used (0007760);"Our previous studies found that infusion of that amount of IFNT in the uterine lumen each day mimics effects of the conceptus on endometrial expression of hormone receptors and IFNT-stimulated genes during early pregnancy in ewes"pg 932.

7336 Martinez, A.S., Cutler, C.P., Wilson, G.D., Phillips, C., Hazon, N., Cramb, G. Regulation of expression of two aquaporin homologs in the intestine of the European eel: effects of seawater acclimation and cortisol treatment. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 2005; 288(-6-):R1733-R1743. >>> Cortisol; Cyclodextrin, beta; IP; Fish (eel); 1003D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; cortisol plasma levels; yellow/silver eels with an ambient temp. of 5-14 degrees celsius, 30 degrees celsius Cyclodextrin used; pumps implanted IP; per contact with author; 30% cyclodextrin used.

7339 Martinez, A.S., Cutler, C.P., Wilson, G.D., Phillips, C., Hazon, N., Cramb, G. Cloning and expression of three aquaporin homologues from the European eel (Anguilla anguilla): effects of seawater acclimation and cortisol treatment on renal expression. Biology of the Cell 2005; 97(-8-):615-627. >>> Cortisol; Cyclodextrin, beta; IP; Fish (eel); 1003D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by cortisol plasma levels; pumps implanted IP per contact with author; 30% cyclodextrin used.

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What researchers are saying ...

“We found recently that 21 d of treatment of rats with SSRIs, at clinically relevant and stable serum concentrations (achieved by the use of osmotic minipumps), caused robust downregulation of the SERT.”... “Studies on the effects of chronic antidepressants on the SERT have resulted in inconsistent reports (Owens and Nemeroff, 1998). Among the factors that may contribute to such inconsistency is the route of drug administration. In most studies of chronic administration of Ads to rats, the drugs are given intraperitoneally or subcutaneously, either once or twice daily. As rats metabolize these drugs more rapidly than humans, such dosage schedules can result in appreciable fluctuations in the serum concentration of drug throughout the day. For certain pharmacologic effects, sustained drug action may be needed” Benmansour et al. The Journal of Neuroscience 2002; 22(15):6766-6772.