ALZET® Osmotic Pumps References:Injection-Infusion Comparisons

16349 Muller, F, Stookey, S, Cunningham, T, Pastan, I. Paclitaxel synergizes with exposure time adjusted CD22-targeting immunotoxins against B-cell malignancies. ONCOTARGET 2017; (--):1-12. >>> HA22- PE24 recombinant immunotoxin; Citrate buffer; IP; Mice; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (6-8-week-old NSG mice); JeKo-1 xenograft model; Citrate buffer: 32 mM citrate, 0.65% Tween80, 5 mM EDTA; comparison of 3 times IV bolus injections vs mp; cancer (Mantle Cell Lymphoma); half-life: 15 minutes in mice (p. 4); To enable continuous drug delivery in vivo, the rIT-formulation buffer was optimized to ensure protein stability. Stability for 7-days with citrate buffer verified using WST-8 cell proliferation assay;“Continuous infusion substantially increased efficacy of LR compared to bolus dose administration.” pg 4; “a well-tolerated total amount of 84Ǩg LR given by continuous infusion is substantially more active than the 120Ǩg LR given as three bolus doses QOD.” (P. 5); Because rITs have a short plasma half-life in mice and men, blood levels fall quickly after a bolus dose; Dose (1 mg/ml); Immunotoxin plasma concentration was on average 45 ng/ml, correlating with an AUC of 350 ng x day/mlPlasma. This steady state plasma concentration was higher than theIC50 of any of the MCL cell lines tested..

16343 Forkuo, G. S., Guthrie, M. L., Yuan, N. Y., Nieman, A. N., Kodali, R., Jahan, R., Stephen, M. R., Yocum, G. T., Treven, M., Poe, M. M., Li, G., Yu, O. B., Hartzler, B. D., Zahn, N. M., Ernst, M., Emala, C. W., Stafford, D. C., Cook, J. M., Arnold, L. A. Development of GABAA Receptor Subtype-Selective Imidazobenzodiazepines as Novel Asthma Treatments. Mol Pharm 2016; 13(-6-):2026-38. >>> XHE-III-74EE; SC; mice; 1007D; Dexamethasone used as positive control; animal info (Ova S/C Balb/c mice); functionality of mp verified by plasma level; comparison of injection vs mp (pg. 2035);“Pump delivery of XHE-III-74EE was effective in reducing AHR at low concentrations of methacholine” (pg 2032); “The response was more significant for a continuous release using implanted minipumps, which delivered blood concentration of 27.2 ng/mL of XHE-III-74EE compared to a cmax of 216 ng/mL with a twice daily i.p. injections” (pg. 2035); Reduces airway hyper-responsiveness in mice; Dose (20 mg/kg/day); Resultant plasma level (27.2±2.7 ng/g);.

16310 Futamura, G., Kawabata, S., Nonoguchi, N., Hiramatsu, R., Toho, T., Tanaka, H., Masunaga, S. I., Hattori, Y., Kirihata, M., Ono, K., Kuroiwa, T., Miyatake, S. I. Evaluation of a novel sodium borocaptate-containing unnatural amino acid as a boron delivery agent for neutron capture therapy of the F98 rat glioma. Radiat Oncol 2017; 12(-1-):26. >>> ACBC-BSH (Boron-10 derivative); CSF/CNS; Rat; 2001D; ALZET brain infusion kit used; comparison of IV injections vs mp; cancer (F98 glioma); brain tissue distribution;“we succeeded in achieving a high accumulation of boron in the tumors of rats in which ACBC-BSH was administered by CED, compared with ACBC-BSH administered intravenously” pg. 9 ; ACBC-BSH is a boron-10 containing sodium borocaptate derivative, 1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid; Dose(1.2 mg/kg);.

16270 Villapol, S., Balarezo, M. G., Affram, K., Saavedra, J. M., Symes, A. J. Neurorestoration after traumatic brain injury through angiotensin II receptor blockage. Brain 2015; 138(-Pt 11-):3299-315. >>> Candesartan; Saline, Physiological; SC; mice; 1004; Controls received IP injection; animal info (C57BL/6NCr male mice weighing 20-25g); comparison of injection vs mp; comparison of injection vs mp; Dose (pg. 3301);.

15266 Grimm, M., Ling, H.Y., Willeford, A., Pereira, L., Gray, C.B.B., Erickson, J.R., Sarma, S., Respress, J.L., Wehrens, X.H.T., Bers, D.M., Brown, J.H., Brown, J.H. CaMKIIdelta mediates beta-adrenergic effects on RyR2 phosphorylation and SR Ca(2+) leak and the pathophysiological response to chronic beta-adrenergic stimulation. JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR CARDIOLOGY 2015; 85(--):282-291. >>> Isoproterenol; SC; Mice; 2004; Animal info (male, Black Swiss, 8-12 weeks old); comparison of injection vs mp; cardiovascular;.

15195 Benadiba, M., Costa, I.D., Santos, R.L.S.R., Serachi, F.O., Silva, D.D., Colquhoun, A., Colquhoun, A. Growth inhibitory effects of the Diruthenium-Ibuprofen compound, [Ru(2)Cl(Ibp)(4)], in human glioma cells in vitro and in the rat C6 orthotopic glioma in vivo1993. JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY 2014; 19(--):1025-1035. >>> Diruthenium-ibuprofen; Ethanol; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Rat; 2002; Animal info (female, Wistar, 250-350g); ALZET brain infusion kit used; 15% ethanol used; comparison of injection vs mp; cancer (glioma); tissue perfusion (intratumoral, glioma);“Using the orthotopic C6 model the effects of either chronic 14-day treatment by intra-peritoneal injection of chronic 14-day intra-tumour infusion by an Alzet osmotic pump attached to a brain infusion cannula were tested. Tumour growth was reduced by both routes of administration with the osmoticpump appearing to be the less harmful route in terms of haematological responses.” pg 1033; Diruthenium-Ibuprofen aka RuIbp;.

15155 Yan, T.T., Xiong, W.W., Huang, F.R., Zheng, F., Ying, H.F., Chen, J.F., Qu, J., Zhou, X.T., Zhou, X.T. Daily Injection But Not Continuous Infusion of Apomorphine Inhibits Form-Deprivation Myopia in Mice. INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY&VISUAL SCIENCE 2015; 56(--):2475-2485. >>> Apomorphine; SC; Mice; 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, C57Bl6, 4 weeks old); functionality of mp verified by residual volume; pumps replaced every 2 weeks; comparison of injection vs mp;.

15046 Morita, S., Furube, E., Mannari, T., Okuda, H., Tatsumi, K., Wanaka, A., Miyata, S., Miyata, S. Vascular endothelial growth factor-dependent angiogenesis and dynamic vascular plasticity in the sensory circumventricular organs of adult mouse brain. CELL AND TISSUE RESEARCH 2015; 359(--):865-884. >>> AraC; Saline; CSF/CNS; Mice; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, C57BL6J, adult, P70-P84); comparison of IP injection vs mp; cardiovascular;“This infusion method is effective for suppressing cell proliferation in the subventricular zone and minimizes surgery damage to brain tissues” pg 867;.

14458 Walser, M., Schioeler, L., Oscarsson, J., Aaberg, M.A.I., Svensson, J., Aaberg, N.D., Isgaard, J., Aaberg, N.D. Different modes of GH administration influence gene expression in the male rat brain. Journal of Endocrinology 2014; 222(--):181-190. >>> Growth hormone, recombinant bovine; PBS; glycerol; sodium azide; SC; Rat; 2004; Animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, hypophysectomized); 0.02% sodium azide used; 1.6% glycerol used; comparison of injection vs mp; replacement therapy (hypophysectomy);.

14441 Tilahun, A.Y., Chowdhary, V.R., David, C.S., Rajagopalan, G., Rajagopalan, G. Systemic Inflammatory Response Elicited by Superantigen Destabilizes T Regulatory Cells, Rendering Them Ineffective during Toxic Shock Syndrome. Journal of Immunology 2014; 193(--):2919-2930. >>> Interleukin-2, murine; antibody, anti-interleukin-2; PBS; SC; Mice (transgenic); Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (HLA-DR3); comparison of injection vs mp; immunology;.

14397 Shah, A., Frazer, A., Shah, A. Influence of acute or chronic administration of ovarian hormones on the effects of desipramine in the forced swim test in female rats. Psychopharmacology 2014; 231(--):3685-3694. >>> Desipramine hydrochloride; Water, distilled; IP; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, Sprague Dawley, 250-350g, ovariectomized); functionality of mp verified by serum levels; comparison of injection vs mp; dose-response (pg 3690); post op. care (penicillin and saline injection; atipamezol 1 mg/kg); behavioral testing (forced swimming test; locomotor activity); replacement therapy (estradiol pellets); solutions filtered through 0.9 um nitrocellulose filters; pumps primed at room temperature saline; used sutures;.

14370 Roche, B., Vanden-Bossche, A., Malaval, L., Normand, M., Jannot, M., Chaux, R., Vico, L., Lafage-Proust, M.H., Lafage-Proust, M.H. Parathyroid Hormone 1-84 Targets Bone Vascular Structure and Perfusion in Mice: Impacts of Its Administration Regimen and of Ovariectomy. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 2014; 29(--):1608-1618. >>> Parathyroid hormone (1-84); SC; Mice; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, C57BL6, 4 months old, ovariectomized); comparison of injection vs mp; cardiovascular;.

14337 Pabba, M., Wong, A.Y.C., Ahlskog, N., Hristova, E., Biscaro, D., Nassrallah, W., Ngsee, J.K., Snyder, M., Beique, J.C., Bergeron, R., Bergeron, R. NMDA Receptors Are Upregulated and Trafficked to the Plasma Membrane after Sigma-1 Receptor Activation in the Rat Hippocampus. Journal of Neuroscience 2014; 34(--):11325-11338. >>> BD1047; BD1063; PBS; SC; Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 4-6 weeks); comparison of injection vs mp;.

14333 O'Sullivan, M.C., Durham, T.B., Valdes, H.E., Dauer, K.L., Karney, N.J., Forrestel, A.C., Bacchi, C.J., Baker, J.F., O'Sullivan, M.C. Dibenzosuberyl substituted polyamines and analogs of clomipramine as effective inhibitors of trypanothione reductase; molecular docking, and assessment of trypanocidal activities. BIOORGANIC&MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY 2015; 23(--):996-1010. >>> Compound 7; Mice; Animal info (female, Swiss-Webster); comparison of injection vs mp; toxicology;.

14265 Lee, R., Reese, C., Bonner, M., Tourkina, E., Hajdu, Z., Riemer, E.C., Silver, R.M., Visconti, R.P., Hoffman, S., Hoffman, S. Bleomycin delivery by osmotic minipump: similarity to human scleroderma interstitial lung disease. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-LUNG CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR PHYSIOLOGY 2014; 306(--):L736-L748. >>> Bleomycin; Saline; SC; Mice; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, CD1, 10 weeks old); comparison of injection vs mp; immunology;"the pump model provides additional major benefits compared with the direct model. Much less weight loss and mortality is observed in the pump model than in the direct model. Therefore, besides the fact that the pump model is more humane, it also benefits the researcher because it allows the number of surviving animals in treatment groups to be accurately predicted, thereby making analyses of biochemical and cell biological parameters at the end of an experiment more meaningful."pg L747; pumps removed after 10 days; human scleroderma interstitital lung disease model;.

14262 Lee, R., Perry, B., Heywood, J., Reese, C., Bonner, M., Hatfield, C.M., Silver, R.M., Visconti, R.P., Hoffman, S., Tourkina, E., Tourkina, E. Caveolin-1 regulates chemokine receptor 5-mediated contribution of bone marrow-derived cells to dermal fibrosis. FRONTIERS IN PHARMACOLOGY 2014; 5(--):U1-U14. >>> Bleomycin; Saline; SC; Mice; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, CD1, 10 weeks old); comparison of injection vs mp;"Recently, we found that systemic bleomycin delivery using subcutaneously implanted osmotic minipumps can produce a very useful mouse model for SSc in which fibrosis is observed in the skin, lungs, and a variety of other internal organs"pg 2;"We recently compared two methods of delivering bleomycin [Direct Model (directly into the lungs) and Pump Model (systemic delivery using implanted osmotic minipumps)]and found that the lung disease induced in the Pump Model was distinct from the disease induced in the Direct Model and more similar to the lung disease observed in SSc patients"pg 4; pumps removed after 10 days;.

14207 Furman, B.D., Mangiapani, D.S., Zeitler, E., Bailey, K.N., Horne, P.H., Huebner, J.L., Kraus, V.B., Guilak, F., Olson, S.A., Olson, S.A. Targeting pro-inflammatory cytokines following joint injury: acute intra-articular inhibition of interleukin-1 following knee injury prevents post-traumatic arthritis. ARTHRITIS RESEARCH&THERAPY 2014; 16(--):U305-U319. >>> Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist; Saline; SC; Mice; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, C57BL6, 8 weeks old); functionality of mp verified by serum levels; comparison of injection vs mp; stress/adverse reaction: (see pg. 4); post op. care (buprenorphine);" significant differences were detected for any of the outcome measures in mice receiving systemic saline via osmotic pump or IP injections.."pg 4; pumps removed after 28 days;.

14740 Gao, J., Li, M., Li, M. Differential effects of intermittent versus continuous haloperidol treatment throughout adolescence on haloperidol sensitization and social behavior in adulthood. PROGRESS IN NEURO-PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY&BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY 2014; 54(--):67-75. >>> Haloperidol; Water, sterile; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, PND44-71); comparison of injection vs mp; post op. care (incision cleaned with 75% ethanol); behavioral testing (two-way avoidance conditioning apparatus; locomotor activity monitoring apparatus; avoidance training); dependence; used 9mm wound clips; pumps wiped with 75% ethanol; pumps removed after 28 days;.

13889 Ojima, A., Matsui, T., Maeda, S., Takeuchi, M., Inoue, H., Higashimoto, Y., Yamagishi, S. DNA aptamer raised against advanced glycation end products inhibits melanoma growth in nude mice. LABORATORY INVESTIGATION 2014; 94(-4-):422-429. >>> AGE-aptamer; IP; Mice (nude); 1004; Controls received mp w/ control aptamer; animal info (female, nude, athymic, 6 weeks old); comparison of IP injection vs mp; cancer (G361 melanoma); gene therapy; AGE-aptamer aka advanced glycation end products;.

13807 Hsiao, H.Y., Chiu, F.L., Chen, C.M., Wu, Y.R., Chen, H.M., Chen, Y.C., Kuo, H.C., Chern, Y., Chern, Y. Inhibition of soluble tumor necrosis factor is therapeutic in Huntington's disease. Human Molecular Genetics 2014; 23(--):4328-4344. >>> XPro1595; CSF/CNS; Mice; 2004; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (WT or R62, 7.5-11.5 weeks old); ALZET brain infusion kit 3 used; comparison of IP injections vs mp ICV infusion; neurodegenerative (Huntington's disease); behavioral testing (rotarod performance, beam walking, foot clasping, t-maze);"Our data also showed that an i.p. injection of XPro1595 further decreased theBW of R6/2 mice, whereas an i.c.v. infusion of a dominant negative inhibitor of soluble TNF-a (XPro1595) did not affect the BW... i.c.v. delivery of XPro1595 appeared to be safer and more effective for treating HD."pg 4334; XPro1595 is a selective inhibitor of solTNF;.

13633 Cao, X., Li, L.P., Wang, Q., Wu, Q., Hu, H.H., Zhang, M., Fang, Y.Y., Zhang, J., Li, S.J., Xiong, W.C., Yan, H.C., Gao, Y.B., Liu, J.H., Li, X.W., Sun, L.R., Zeng, Y.N., Zhu, X.H., Gao, T.M. Astrocyte-derived ATP modulates depressive-like behaviors. Nature Medicine 2007; 8(-;-):773-U160. >>> Adenosine Triphosphate Gamma S, adenosine triphosphate, FLRF alpha; Cerebrospinal fluid, artificial; CSF/CNS; Mice; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, C57BL/6J); comparison of injection vs mp"Similar to the results that were observed for the i.c.v. ATP infusion, an i.p. ATP injection of 125 mg per kg body weight, which could increase ATP abundance in the brain, decreased the duration of immobility without affecting locomotor activity in adult C57BL6/J mice"pg 774; behavioral testing (social avoidance, forced swimming, open field, sucrose preference, elevated plus maze); adenosine triphosphate gamma s aka ATP g S; Plastics One cannula.

13554 Ng, O.T.W., Chen, L.W., Chan, Y.S., Yung, K.K.L. Small Interfering RNA Specific for N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor 2B Offers Neuroprotection to Dopamine Neurons through Activation of MAP Kinase. NEUROSIGNALS 2013; 21(-1-2-):42-54. >>> RNA, small interfering; Saline, SilentFect; CSF/CNS (striatum); Rat; 2001; Animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 200-250g); ALZET brain infusion kit 2 used; comparison of single injection vs mp"In summary, single injection of siRNA into PD models showed no significant effect in ameliorating the motor syndrome and protection in TH-positive neurons. However, continuous infusion of NR2B-specific siRNA can effectively ameliorate the motor symptoms, attenuate the dopaminergic cell loss in the striatum and SN regions, and promote the ERK1/2 signaling pathway in parkinsonian models."pg53; neurodegenerative (Parkinson's disease);"Moreover, by using the osmotic minipump connecting with canals, this method can be easily transplanted into patients, and allow the siRNA to be infused to the target site directly at a steady and slow rate. The direct delivery has the advantages of reducing any undesired systemic side effects and lowering the dose requirement for efficacy"pg 53 ; Primed at 37C saline overnight.

13376 Gentle, M.E., Shi, S.L., Daehn, I., Zhang, T.R., Qi, H.Y., Yu, L.P., D'Agati, V.D., Schlondorff, D.O., Bottinger, E.P. Epithelial Cell TGFbeta Signaling Induces Acute Tubular Injury and Interstitial Inflammation. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 2013; 24(-5-):787-799. >>> MitoTEMPO; Saline; SC; Mice; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Pax8-rtTA/TetO-TBRI(ADD) hybrid); comparison of subcutaneous injection vs mp"Similar results were seen with mini-pumps and subcutaneous injection."pg 796; immunology;.

13197 Fifel, K., Dkhissi-Benyahya, O., Cooper, H.M. Lack of long-term changes in circadian, locomotor, and cognitive functions in acute and chronic MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) mouse models of parkinson's disease. Chronobiology International 2013; 30(-6-):741-755. >>> MPTP; SC; Mice; 1004; Animal Info (MPTP mouse model of parkinsonism, 26g, 152 days old); comparison of injection vs mp. (Pg. 7); good methods (pg. 2); Neurodegenerative (Parkinson's disease); behavioral testing (radial arm water maze, spatial learning and memory); no stress/adverse effects (pg.743).

13164 Zhidkov, N., De Souza, R., Ghassemi, A.H., Allen, C., Piquette-Miller, M. Continuous Intraperitoneal Carboplatin Delivery for the Treatment of Late-Stage Ovarian Cancer. MOLECULAR PHARMACEUTICS 2013; 10(-9-):3315-3322. >>> Carboplatin; PBS; IP; Mice (SCID); 1002; Controls received mp w/ saline; toxicology; animal info (6-8 week old female SCID); comparison of bolus injection vs mp; cancer (ovarian).

12863 Kagan, L., Mager, D.E. Mechanisms of Subcutaneous Absorption of Rituximab in Rats. Drug Metabolism and Disposition 2013; 41(-1-):248-255. >>> Rituximab; SC; Rat; Animal info (Wistar, male, wks old, 350-375 g); PK study; The pharmacokinetic simulation for a s.c. infusion of a 40 mg/kg dose over a 10-day period using parameters obtained for rituximab administered alone predicted that serum concentrations should be comparable with or higher than those after bolus injection after approximately 6 days of the infusion... Interestingly, the observed enhancement of absorption was greater than that predicted by the model."pg 253; comparison of IP injections vs mp; pk study.

12445 Rissman, R.A., Staup, M.A., Lee, A.R., Justice, N.J., Rice, K.C., Vale, W., Sawchenko, P.E. Corticotropin-releasing factor receptor-dependent effects of repeated stress on tau phosphorylation, solubility, and aggregation. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 2012; 109(-16-):6277-6282. >>> R121919; Ethanol; cremaphor EL; Mice; Animal info (CRFR KO, male, 15-22 wks old); antalarmin is a CRFR1 selective antagonist; comparison of IP injections vs mp;"Minipump delivery was the most effective technique"pg 6278; neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's disease); behavioral testing (restraint test).

12023 Soltysinska, E., Olesen, S.P., Osadchii, O.E. Myocardial structural, contractile and electrophysiological changes in the guinea-pig heart failure model induced by chronic sympathetic activation. Experimental Physiology 2011; 96(-7-):647-663. >>> Isoprenaline hydrochloride; Saline; ascorbic acid; SC; Guinea pig; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Dunkin-Hartley, 300-350 g); comparison of SC injections vs mp.

12019 Weiss, L., Bernstein, S., Jones, R., Amunugama, R., Krizman, D., JeBailey, L., Hazan, O., Yachtin, J., Shiner, R., Reibstein, I., Triche, E., Slavin, S., Or, R., Barnea, E.R. Preimplantation factor (PIF) analog prevents type I diabetes mellitus (TIDM) development by preserving pancreatic function in NOD mice. Endocrine 2011; 40(-1-):41-54. >>> Preimplantation factor, synthetic analog; SC; Mice (NOD); Controls received mp w/ PBS; animal info (female, diabetic, NOD, 6-7 wks old); peptides; comparison of injections vs mp.

11913 Griggs, R., Weir, C., Wayman, W., Koeltzow, T.E. Intermittent methylphenidate during adolescent development produces locomotor hyperactivity and an enhanced response to cocaine compared to continuous treatment in rats. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 2010; 96(-2-):166-174. >>> Methylphenidate; Saline, physiological, sterile; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Animal info (Sprague Dawley, male, 100-124 g, PND 32-35); comparison of injections vs mp; pharmacokinetic. PK study;"rats in the continuous MPH condition did not exhibit these effects. Collectively, these data indicate that sustained release formulations of MPH used in the treatment of ADHD may yield fewer problematic effects compared to the immediate release formulations."pg 173.

11862 Hua, Y.M., Sahashi, K., Hung, G.N., Rigo, F., Passini, M.A., Bennett, C.F., Krainer, A.R. Antisense correction of SMN2 splicing in the CNS rescues necrosis in a type III SMA mouse model. GENES&DEVELOPMENT 2010; 24(-15-):1634-1644. >>> Oligonucleotide, antisense; Saline; CSF/CNS; Mice; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info ( SMA Type III, adult, 3-4 mo old); antisense (10-27);"Although the inability of ASOs to cross the BBB limits the utility of systemic administration, well-established implantable catheters and pump technology can overcome this obstacle."pg 1641 ; comparison of injections vs mp.

11807 Ansel, L., Bentsen, A.H., Ancel, C., Bolborea, M., Klosen, P., Mikkelsen, J.D., Simonneaux, V. Peripheral kisspeptin reverses short photoperiod-induced gonadal regression in Syrian hamsters by promoting GNRH release. REPRODUCTION 2011; 142(-3-):417-425. >>> Kisspeptin 54; Ringer's solution; SC; Hamster; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Syrian, Siberian, SD, 8-10 wks old); peptides; comparison of injections vs mp.

11495 Ma, X.W., Song, Y., Chen, C., Fu, Y.N., Shen, Q., Li, Z.J., Zhang, Y.Y. Distinct actions of intermittent and sustained beta-adrenoceptor stimulation on cardiac remodeling. Science China-Life Sciences 2011; 54(-6-):493-501. >>> Isoproterenol; Ascorbic acid; SC; Mice; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (10 wks old, BALB/c); comparison of sc injections vs mp.

11298 la Santina, L., Bouly, M., Asta, A., Demontis, G.C., Cervetto, L., Gargini, C. Effect of HCN Channel Inhibition on Retinal Morphology and Function in Normal and Dystrophic Rodents. INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY&VISUAL SCIENCE 2010; 51(-2-):1016-1023. >>> Ivabradine; Saline; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (adult, Long Evans); functionality of mp verified by residual volume; comparison of acute injections vs mp;"This instance is the first in which the effects of acute and long-term delivery of an HCN-inhibitor have been compared, showing that the consequences of the two different dosing approaches are similar and always reversible."pg 1022.

11153 Bedard, A.M., Maheux, J., Levesque, D., Samaha, A.N. Continuous, but not Intermittent, Antipsychotic Drug Delivery Intensifies the Pursuit of Reward Cues. Neuropsychopharmacology 2011; 36(-6-):1248-1259. >>> Haloperidol; Acetic acid, glacial; water; SC; Rat; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 200-225 g); comparison of injections vs mp.

11111 Masunaga, S.I., Tano, K., Nakamura, J., Watanabe, M., Kashino, G., Suzuki, M., Kinashi, Y., Ono, K. Adverse effect of mild temperature hyperthermia combined with hexamethylenetetramine compared to its effect combined with tirapazamine in the treatment of solid tumors. EXPERIMENTAL AND THERAPEUTIC MEDICINE 2010; 1(-1-):169-174. >>> Uridine, 2-bromodeoxy 5-; tirapazamine; hexamethylenetetramine; Saline, physiological; SC; IP; Mice; Animal info (syngeneic female C3H/He, 8-11 wks old); comparison of IP injections vs mp; cancer;"Continuous administration of HMTA and TPZ resulted in higher radio- and cisplatin-sensitizing effects than intraperitoneal single administration."pg 169.

11106 Kondo, H., Togari, A. Continuous Treatment with a Low-Dose beta-Agonist Reduces Bone Mass by Increasing Bone Resorption Without Suppressing Bone Formation. Calcified Tissue International 2011; 88(-1-):23-32. >>> Isoprenaline; SC; Mice; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (C57BL/6J, 10 wks old); comparison of injections vs mp;"concentrations produced by continuous administration and intermittent administration are quite different as the blood concentration of isoprenaline increased within an hour and decreased within a few hours after intermittent intraperitoneal"Even if the same doses are administered each day, the blood administration, whereas the blood concentration of isoprenaline remained stable during continuous intrasubcutaneous treatment using the Alzet model 2002 at 0.5 lL/ h."pg 28.

10724 Ma, H., Lu, Y., Li, H., Campbell-Thompson, M., Parker, M., Wasserfall, C., Haller, M., Brantly, M., Schatz, D., Atkinson, M., Song, S. Intradermal alpha 1-antitrypsin therapy avoids fatal anaphylaxis, prevents type 1 diabetes and reverses hyperglycaemia in the NOD mouse model of the disease. Diabetologia 2010; 53(-10-):2198-2204. >>> Antitrypsin, human, alpha-1; SC; Mice (NOD); Animal info (8 wks old, female, NOD); comparison of IP, SC injections vs mp; diabetes; hAAT also known as Prolastin;"...repeated administration of hAAT may lead to fatal anaphylaxis in NOD mice... Delivery of AAT by an osmotic pump resulted in a twofold increase of the AUC 0-7days suggesting a possible clinical application in large animals and in humans."pg 2202.


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“Angiostatin was administered through continuous infusion...the continuous administration of angiogenesis inhibitors has greater therapeutic efficacy than the more commonly used twice-daily injections.” (p. 80) Reijneveld et al., European Journal of Clinical Investigation 2003;33:76-81.