References on Cerebral Ischemia (stroke) Research Using ALZET® Osmotic Pumps

16220 Okuyama, S., Morita, M., Kaji, M., Amakura, Y., Yoshimura, M., Shimamoto, K., Ookido, Y., Nakajima, M., Furukawa, Y. Auraptene Acts as an Anti-Inflammatory Agent in the Mouse Brain. Molecules 2015; 20(-11-):20230-9. >>> Auraptene; DMSO, Polyethylene Glycol; SC; mice; mice; Controls received mp w/ vehicle, sham operation; animal info (Nine-week-old male C57BL/6 mice); 10% DMSO used; ischemia (cerebral); brain tissue distribution; Dose (10 mg/kg/day, 25 mg/kg/day);.

16073 Xu, W. S., Sun, X., Song, C. G., Mu, X. P., Ma, W. P., Zhang, X. H., Zhao, C. S. Bumetanide promotes neural precursor cell regeneration and dendritic development in the hippocampal dentate gyrus in the chronic stage of cerebral ischemia. Neural Regen Res 2016; 11(-5-):745-51. >>> Bumetanide; Water, sterile; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2004; animal info (male, Wistar, 200-250g); ischemia (cerebral); behavioral testing (Morris water maze); pumps primed overnight in 37C saline; used dental cement; Dose (200 ug/kg/day); Brain coordinates (anteroposterior−0.9, mediolateral +1.5);.

16070 Xing, J., Lu, J. HIF-1alpha Activation Attenuates IL-6 and TNF-alpha Pathways in Hippocampus of Rats Following Transient Global Ischemia. Cell Physiol Biochem 2016; 39(-2-):511-20. >>> SC144; etanercept; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS; Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 200-300g); ALZET brain infusion kit used; ischemia (cerebral); used polycarbonate tubing; SC144 is a gp130 inhibitor; Brain coordinates (3.7 mm posterior to the bregma, 4.1 mm lateral to the midline, and 3.5 mm under the dura);.

16036 Rupal I. Mehta, MD, Cigdem Tosun, PhD, Svetlana Ivanova, PhD, Natalia Tsymbalyuk, MD,, Bolanle M. Famakin, MD, Min Seong Kwon, PhD, Rudy J. Castellani, MD,, Volodymyr Gerzanich, MD, PhD, and J. Marc Simard, MD, PhD  Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 2015; 74(-8-):835-849. >>> Glibenclamide; DMSO; SC; Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Wistar, 275-325g); ischemia (cerebral); Dose (200 ng/hr);.

16001 Liguz-Lecznar, M., Zakrzewska, R., Kossut, M. Inhibition of Tnf-alpha R1 signaling can rescue functional cortical plasticity impaired in early post-stroke period. Neurobiol Aging 2015; 36(-10-):2877-84. >>> Tumor necrosis factor-a receptor 1, soluble; CSF/CNS; Mice; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (female, C57BL6J, 1 year old); ALZET brain infusion kit 3 used; ischemia (cerebral); Dose (1 ug/day); brain coordinates;.

15817 Eduardo H. Sanchez-Mendoza, Jeismar Carballo, Marines Longart, Dirk M. Hermann, Thorsten R. Doeppner  Journal of Visualized Experiments 2016; 107(--):1-9. >>> Erythropoietin, recombinant human; CSF/CNS; Mice; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (C57BL6); good methods (Jove Video; picture of pump and implantation pg. 4); ischemia (cerebral); post op. care (Carprofen 4 mg/kg); behavioral testing (rotarod test; hand grip strength); cyanoacrylate adhesive;“In this work we have shown the method of implantation of minipumps with a cannula connected to the skull in order to deliver the plasticity promoting protein rhEpo directly into the ventricle, thus circumventing the BBB.” pg 8; Cannula placement verified via histologic analysis"The are no evident severe tissue alterations based on Nissl staining as compared to the corresponding contralateral area";.

15789 Chun Li, Hong Sun, Denise M. Arrick, William G. Mayhan  J Appl. Physiol 2016; 120(--):328-333. >>> Nicotine; Saline; SC; Rat; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 250-300g); ischemia (cerebral);“The subcutaneous osmotic minipump releases nicotine at a constant rate, which resulted in stable plasma nicotine and cotinine levels that match the chronic smokers. The doses of nicotine used in the present study have been reported to result in stable plasma nicotine levels corresponding reasonably well with plasma levels in habitual light (0.5–1 pack/day) and moderate (2 packs/day) smokers” pg 331; traumatic brain injury; Dose (2 or 4 mg/kg/day);.

15259 Kazanis, I., Gorenkova, N., Zhao, J.W., Franklin, R.J.M., Modo, M., ffrench-Constant, C. The late response of rat subependymal zone stem and progenitor cells to stroke is restricted to directly affected areas of their niche. EXPERIMENTAL NEUROLOGY 2013; 248(-;-):387-397. >>> AraC; Saline; CSF/CNS; Rat; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley); ALZET brain infusion kit 2 used; ischemia (cerebral);.

15261 Trotman, M., Vermehren, P., Gibson, C.L., Fern, R., Fern, R. The dichotomy of memantine treatment for ischemic stroke: dose-dependent protective and detrimental effects. JOURNAL OF CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW AND METABOLISM 2015; 35(--):230-239. >>> Memantine; DMSO; saline; SC; Mice; 1003D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, C57BL6, 22-32g); 10% DMSO used; dose-response (237); ischemia (cerebral); memantine is a NMDA Glur antagonist;.

15953 Lv, W., Li, W. Y., Xu, X. Y., Jiang, H., Bang, O. Y. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells transplantation promotes the release of endogenous erythropoietin after ischemic stroke. Neural Regen Res 2015; 10(-8-):1265-70. >>> sEPOR; PBS; BSA; CSF/CNS; Rat; 1007D; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 2 monght sold, 250-300g); 0.1% BSA used; ischemia (cerebral); behavioral testing (somatosensory test; balance, motor tesing); pumps primed in 37C sterile saline overnight; Dose (3 ug/day);.

15260 der Guenne, W.S.A., Zhao, Y., Hedderich, J., Gohlke, P., Culman, J., Culman, J. Omapatrilat: penetration across the blood-brain barrier and effects on ischaemic stroke in rats. NAUNYN-SCHMIEDEBERGS ARCHIVES OF PHARMACOLOGY 2015; 388(--):939-951. >>> Omapatrilat; Saline; NaOH; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Wistar, 300-320g); ischemia (cerebral); cardiovascular;.

15258 Lin, R.H., Cai, J.L., Nathan, C., Wei, X.T., Schleidt, S., Rosenwasser, R., Iacovitti, L., Iacovitti, L. Neurogenesis is enhanced by stroke in multiple new stem cell niches along the ventricular system at sites of high BBB permeability. NEUROBIOLOGY OF DISEASE 2015; 74(--):229-239. >>> Basic fibroblast growth factor, recominant human; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS; Rat; Animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, adult, 275-300g, MCAO); ischemia (cerebral); cardiovascular;.

14983 Jiang, Y., Li, L.L., Tan, X.D., Liu, B., Zhang, Y.H., Li, C.Q., Li, C.Q. miR-210 mediates vagus nerve stimulation-induced antioxidant stress and anti-apoptosis reactions following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. JOURNAL OF NEUROCHEMISTRY 2015; 134(--):173-181. >>> miR-210 antagomir; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS; Rat; Controls received mp w/ antagomir control; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 250-300g); ALZET brain infusion kit used; ischemia (cerebral); behavioral testing (neurological deficit);.

15698 Chang, C.Z., Wu, S.C., Lin, C.L., Kwan, A.L., Chang, C.Z. Valproic acid attenuates intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and E-selectin through a chemokine ligand 5 dependent mechanism and subarachnoid hemorrhage induced vasospasm in a rat model. Journal of Inflammation-London 2015; 12(--):U1-U11. >>> Valproic acid; PBS; Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dalwey, 300-400g); dose-response (4); ischemia (cerebral); behavioral testing (modified limb-placing test); immunology;.

14886 Cheyuo, C., Aziz, M., Yang, W.L., Jacob, A., Zhou, M., Wang, P., Wang, P. Milk Fat Globule-EGF Factor VIII Attenuates CNS Injury by Promoting Neural Stem Cell Proliferation and Migration after Cerebral Ischemia. PLoS One 2015; 10(--):U1788-U1804. >>> Milk fat globule-EGF factor 8, recombinant human; Tris buffer; CSF/CNS; Mice; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Mfge8 -/- or WT); ALZET brain infusion kit used; ischemia (cerebral); behavioral testing (neurological function); cyanoacrylate adhesive; Cannula placement verified via Evan's blue dye postmortem; pumps primed in normal saline for 40 hours;.

14872 Chang, C.Z., Wu, S.C., Lin, C.L., Kwan, A.L., Chang, C.Z. Valproic acid attenuates intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and E-selectin through a chemokine ligand 5 dependent mechanism and subarachnoid hemorrhage induced vasospasm in a rat model. Journal of Inflammation-London 2015; 12(--):U1-U11. >>> Valproic acid; PBS; Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 300-400g); ischemia (cerebral); dose-response (pg 4-6); behavioral testing (modified limb-placing test); cardiovascular; bp measured using tail cuff;.

14842 Bihl, J.C., Zhang, C., Zhao, Y.H., Xiao, X., Ma, X.T., Chen, Y.S., Chen, S.Z., Zhao, B., Chen, Y.F., Bihl, J.C. Angiotensin-(1-7) counteracts the effects of Ang II on vascular smooth muscle cells, vascular remodeling and hemorrhagic stroke: Role of the NFkappaB inflammatory pathway. VASCULAR PHARMACOLOGY 2015; 73(--):115-123. >>> Angiotensin II; angiotensin (1-7); A-779; IP; Mice; 1004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (C57BL6, 8-10 weeks old, 25-32g); ischemia (cerebral); behavioral testing (gait, circling/climbing behavior, body and front limb symmetry, compulsory circling); cardiovascular; peptides; bp measured using radiotelemetry (DSI); pumps primed for 48h at 37C sterile isotonic saline; used IP catheter;.

14778 Zille, M., Riabinska, A., Terzi, M.Y., Balkaya, M., Prinz, V., Schmerl, B., Nieminen-Kelhae, M., Endres, M., Vajkoczy, P., Pina, A.L., Pina, A.L. Influence of Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor on Outcome after Striatal Cerebral Ischemia in the Mouse. PLoS One 2014; 9(--):U2334-U2353. >>> Pigment epithelium-derived factor; CSF/CNS; Mice; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, C57BL6/N, 8-11 weeks old,19-24g, MCAO); ischemia (cerebral); post op. care (lidocane gel; 0.5 ml ringer lactate solution; 37C warm bead for 2 hours); behavioral testing (open field testing, pole test, rotarod testing, morris water maze); cardiovascular; cyanoacrylate adhesive;“In our study, we decided to use infusion via osmotic pumps because we wanted to directly influence the neurogenic zone. Osmotic pump infusion was previously used successfully for delivery of various trophic factors” pg 16; pumps removed after 7 days;.

14481 Wong, R., Gibson, C.L., Kendall, D.A., Bath, P.M.W., Gibson, C.L. Evaluating the translational potential of progesterone treatment following transient cerebral ischaemia in male mice. BMC NEUROSCIENCE 2014; 15(--):U1-U10. >>> Progesterone; DMSO; SC; Mice; 1003D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, C57BL6 or BPH2/2, 15-25 weeks old, 25.9-41.2g)); 100% DMSO used; ischemia (cerebral); behavioral testing (Foot fault test, t-maze test);"...mini-pump delivery could offer a more suitable dosing method with the advantages of reducing peaks and troughs in drug levels, the stress associated with repeated injections, and diminishing levels of release over time as seen with pellet implants. Infusion methods are commonly used clinically to maintain drug concentrations and osmotic mini-pump release of agents at a constant rate mimics this approach."pg 2;"Our previous pharmacokinetic study demonstrated that progesterone delivered via i.p. injection has a very short half-life in both plasma and brain but high progesterone concentrations in the brain can be achieved via mini pump infusion."pg 6; pumps primed overnight in 37C saline;.

14392 Scott, E.L., Zhang, Q.G., Dong, Y., Han, D., Wang, R.M., Vadlamudi, R.K., Brann, D.W., Brann, D.W. Surgical menopause enhances hippocampal amyloidogenesis following global cerebral ischemia. JOURNAL OF SPORT AND HEALTH SCIENCE 2014; 3(--):206-216. >>> Estradiol, 17B-; Cyclodextrin, B-; SC; Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, ovariectomized); 20% cyclodextrin used; ischemia (cerebral); replacement therapy (estradiol infusion); cardiovascular;.

14378 Sachewsky, N., Hunt, J., Cooke, M.J., Azimi, A., Zarin, T., Miu, C., Shoichet, M.S., Morshead, C.M., Morshead, C.M. Cyclosporin A enhances neural precursor cell survival in mice through a calcineurin-independent pathway. Disease Models&Mechanisms 2014; 7(--):953-961. >>> Cyclosporin; FK506; NIM811; Saline; SC; Mice; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, C57BL6J, 6-8 weeks old, 25-30g); pumps replaced every 2 weeks; ischemia (cerebral); post op. care (SC injection of warmed saline); behavioral testing (foot fault task);.

14305 Miyamoto, K., Tsumuraya, T., Ohtaki, H., Dohi, K., Satoh, K., Xu, Z.F., Tanaka, S., Murai, N., Watanabe, J., Sugiyama, K., Aruga, T., Shioda, S., Shioda, S. PACAP38 Suppresses Cortical Damage in Mice with Traumatic Brain Injury by Enhancing Antioxidant Activity. Journal of Molecular Neuroscience 2014; 54(--):370-379. >>> PACAP38; Saline; BSA; IV (femoral); Mice; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, C57BL6J, 10-12 weeks old, 21-26g); 0.1% BSA used; ischemia (cerebral); cardiovascular; peptides; used PE-10;.

13918 Sachewsky, N., Leeder, R., Xu, W., Rose, K.L., Yu, F., van der Kooy, D., Morshead, C.M., Morshead, C.M. Primitive Neural Stem Cells in the Adult Mammalian Brain Give Rise to GFAP-Expressing Neural Stem Cells. STEM CELL REPORTS 2014; 2(--):810-824. >>> Ganciclovir; AraC; PBS; saline; CSF/CNS; Mice (transgenic); 1007D; Animal info (GFAP-TK); ischemia (cerebral); 2% AraC; 200uM GCV;.

13909 Rahman, M., Muhammad, S., Khan, M.A., Chen, H., Ridder, D.A., Mueller-Fielitz, H., Pokorna, B., Vollbrandt, T., Stoelting, I., Nadrowitz, R., Okun, J.G., Offermanns, S., Schwaninger, M., Schwaninger, M. The beta-hydroxybutyrate receptor HCA(2) activates a neuroprotective subset of macrophages. Nature Communications 2014; 5(--):U16-U26. >>> Hydroxybutyrate, B-; Saline; SC; Mice; 2001D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, HCA2 or C57BL6, 8-15 weeks old, MCAO); ischemia (cerebral); behavioral testing (sensorimotor testing, latency-to-move, sticky-tape removal); cardiovascular;"we administered BHB by implanting subcutaneous pumps because of its short half-life"pg 2; B-hydroxybutyrate aka BHB; BHB is a ligand of HCA2 receptors;.

13890 Okuyama, S., Morita, M., Miyoshi, K., Nishigawa, Y., Kaji, M., Sawamoto, A., Terugo, T., Toyoda, N., Makihata, N., Amakura, Y., Yoshimura, M., Nakajima, M., Furukawa, Y., Okuyama, S. 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-Heptamethoxyflavone, a citrus flavonoid, on protection against memory impairment and neuronal cell death in a global cerebral ischemia mouse model. NEUROCHEMISTRY INTERNATIONAL 2014; 70(--):30-38. >>> Heptamethoxyflavone, 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-; DMSO; PEG 300; SC; Mice; 1003D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, C57BL6, 9 weeks old); dose-response (pg31); ischemia (cerebral); behavioral testing (y maze); cardiovascular; immunology; Heptamethoxyflavone aka HMF; HMF is a citrus flavonoid;.

13862 McCarthy, C.A., Vinh, A., Miller, A.A., Hallberg, A., Alterman, M., Callaway, J.K., Widdop, R.E., McCarthy, C.A. Direct Angiotensin AT2 Receptor Stimulation Using a Novel AT2 Receptor Agonist, Compound 21, Evokes Neuroprotection in Conscious Hypertensive Rats. PLoS One 2014; 9(--):U1238-U1247. >>> Compound 21; PD123319; Saline; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, spontaneously hypertensive, 330-350g); ischemia (cerebral); cardiovascular; Compound 21 aka C21 aka M024; C21 is a nonpeptide AT2R agonist.

13853 Lyden, P., Pereira, B., Chen, B., Zhao, L.F., Lamb, J., Lei, I.F., Rajput, P. Direct Thrombin Inhibitor Argatroban Reduces Stroke Damage in 2 Different Models. Stroke 2014; 45(-3-):896-899. >>> Argatroban; Saline; IV; Rat; 2001D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 290-310g); ischemia (cerebral); behavioral testing (morris water maze, barnes maze task, spatial probe task);.

13851 Loh, K.P., Ng, G., Yu, C.Y., Fhu, C., Yu, D.J., Vennekens, R., Nilius, B., Soong, T.W., Liao, P. TRPM4 inhibition promotes angiogenesis after ischemic stroke. PFLUGERS ARCHIV-EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY 2014; 466(-3-):563-576. >>> RNA, small interfering TRPM inhibiting; IV (jugular); Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Wistar, 300g); ischemia (cerebral); behavioral testing (rotarod apparatus); gene therapy; cardiovascular; TRPM4 aka transient receptor potential melastatin 4;.

13824 Joseph, J.P., Mecca, A.P., Regenhardt, R.W., Bennion, D.M., Rodriguez, V., Desland, F., Patel, N.A., Pioquinto, D.J., Unger, T., Katovich, M.J., Steckelings, U.M., Sumners, C., Sumners, C. The angiotensin type 2 receptor agonist Compound 21 elicits cerebroprotection in endothelin-1 induced ischemic stroke. Neuropharmacology 2014; 81(--):134-141. >>> Compound 21; PD123319; Cerebrospinal fluid, artificial; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 8 weeks old, 250-275g, MCAO); ALZET brain infusion kit 1 used; ischemia (cerebral); post op. care (buprenorphine 0.05 mg/kg SC); cannula implanted 7 days prior to pump implantation;.

13818 Jeffers, M.S., Hoyles, A., Morshead, C., Corbett, D., Corbett, D. Epidermal Growth Factor and Erythropoietin Infusion Accelerate Functional Recovery in Combination With Rehabilitation. Stroke 2014; 45(--):185-+. >>> Epidermal Growth Factor; erythropoietin; Cerebrospinal fluid, artificial; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2001; Animal info (male, Sprague Dawley); pumps replaced every 7 days; ischemia (cerebral); behavioral testing (staircase test); pumps removed 7 days after serial implantation;.

13772 Fronz, U., Deten, A., Baumann, F., Kranz, A., Weidlich, S., Haertig, W., Nieber, K., Boltze, J., Wagner, D.C. Continuous adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonism after focal cerebral ischemia in spontaneously hypertensive rats. NAUNYN-SCHMIEDEBERGS ARCHIVES OF PHARMACOLOGY 2014; 387(-2-):165-173. >>> Caffeine, 8-(3-chlorostyryl); DMSO; SC; Rat; 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Spontaneously hypertensive; 12 weeks old); functionality of mp verified by residual volume; ischemia (cerebral); no stress (see pg.168); stress/adverse reaction: (see pg.168); Caffeine, 8-(3-chlorostyryl) aka CSC;.

13712 Bake, S., Selvamani, A., Cherry, J., Sohrabji, F. Blood Brain Barrier and Neuroinflammation Are Critical Targets of IGF-1-Mediated Neuroprotection in Stroke for Middle-Aged Female Rats. PLoS One 2014; 9(-3-):U897-U907. >>> Insulin-like growth factor, human recombinant; Cerebrospinal fluid, artificial; CSF/CNS; Rat; 1003D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Female, Sprague Dawley, 9-11 months, 325-350g); ischemia (Cerebral); immunology; cyanoacrylate adhesive;"Previous studies have shown that IGF-1 is stable in Alzet minipumps for upto 7 days and the dose of IGF-1 was found to be effective"pg e91427; Pump and cannula primed overight; cannula implanted one week prior to MCAO and pump implantation;.

13624 Shi, R.F., Wang, S.L., Qi, X., Chen, S., Chen, P.J., Zhang, Q.G. Lose dose genistein inhibits glucocorticoid receptor and ischemic brain injury in female rats. NEUROCHEMISTRY INTERNATIONAL 2014; 65(-;-):14-22. >>> Genistein; DMSO; water, distilled; SC; Rat; 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, ovarectomized); 50% DMSO used; ischemia (cerebral); cardiovascular;.

13592 Chen, X.R., Liao, S.J., Ye, L.X., Gong, Q., Ding, Q., Zeng, J.S., Yu, J. Neuroprotective effect of chondroitinase ABC on primary and secondary brain injury after stroke in hypertensive rats. Brain Research 2014; 1543(-;-):324-333. >>> Chondroitinase ABC; Penicillinase; CSF/CNS; Rat; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 360-480g); functionality of mp verified after sacrifice; ALZET brain infusion kit 3 used; ischemia (cerebral); post op. care (heating pad); behavioral testing (mNSS); Chondroitinase ABC aka ChABC;.

13591 Chen, J., Zhao, Y.H., Chen, S.Z., Wang, J.J., Xiao, X., Ma, X.T., Penchikala, M., Xia, H.J., Lazartigues, E., Zhao, B., Chen, Y.F. Neuronal over-expression of ACE2 protects brain from ischemia-induced damage. Neuropharmacology 2014; 79(-;-):550-558. >>> Norepinephrine; A-779; Cerebrospinal fluid, artificial; CSF/CNS; Mice (transgenic); Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, SARA or RA transgenic, 6-10 weeks); ALZET brain infusion kit used; ischemia (cerebral); cardiovascular; Pumps primed overnight in 37C saline;.

13481 Briones, T.L., Woods, J., Wadowska, M. Chronic neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment following transient global cerebral ischemia: role of fractalkine/CX3CR1 signaling. Journal of Neuroinflammation 2014; 11(-;-):U1-U13. >>> RNA, small interfering CX3CR1; RNA, scrambled; Transfection medium; CSF/CNS; Rat; 1002; Animal info (male, Wistar, 350-375g); ALZET brain infusion kit 2 used; ischemia (cerebral); post op. care (heating pad); behavioral testing (Morris water maze); gene therapy; immunology; Cannula stabilized using dental cement. Pumps primed in sterile saline 37C overnight..

 

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What researchers are saying...

“Mini-pumps were used to eliminate stress associated with multiple daily injections.” Akhter et al., Journal of Orthopaedic Research 2002;21:14-19.