References on the Administration of Agents to Livestock Using ALZET® Osmotic Pumps

1. Cattle

14898 Crawford, H.M., Morin, D.E., Wall, E.H., McFadden, T.B., Dahl, G.E., Dahl, G.E. Evidence for a Role of Prolactin in Mediating Effects of Photoperiod during the Dry Period. ANIMALS 2015; 5(--):803-820. >>> Prolactin; Saline; SC; Cattle (pregnant); Controls received no mp; animal info (female, Holstein, multiparous); functionality of mp verified by blood samples; pumps removed after 28 days;.

14834 Bae, J.H., Plummer, C.E., Kim, J., Kim, S., Kim, N.S., Kim, N.S. Continuous ophthalmic treatment using an osmotic pump in a bull calf following surgical removal of an ocular dermoid: a case report. VETERINARNI MEDICINA 2015; 60(--):282-287. >>> Ciprofloxacin; Eye; Cattle (bull); Animal info (male, Hanwoo bull calf, 6 months old); functionality of mp verified by drug levels in aqueous humor and residual volume; good methods (pg. 284); no stress (see pg. 285);“As the owner could not apply topical medications regularly, a drug-filled osmotic pump (Alzet; Alza, Palo Alto, CA) was implanted subconjunctivally under the upper eyelid and connected to a catheter at the lateral limbus.” pg 282;"... it is clear that the osmotic infusion pump maintained the aqueous concentration of ciprofloxacin at a reasonable steady state until its removal four weeks after implantation. The amount of drug remaining in the pump was about 17Ǩg/ml after four weeks. This also demonstrates the reliability of the pump."pg. 286; picture of pump pg 283; pumps primed for 40 hours in 37C saline; pumps removed after 4 weeks;.

13860 Martel, C.A., Mamedova, L.K., Minton, J.E., Jones, M.L., Carroll, J.A., Bradford, B.J., Bradford, B.J. Continuous low-dose infusion of tumor necrosis factor alpha in adipose tissue elevates adipose tissue interleukin 10 abundance and fails to alter metabolism in lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 2014; 97(--):4897-4906. >>> Tumor necrosis factor alpha; Saline; SC; Cattle (lactating); 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, Holstein, late lactation); Multiple pumps per animal (2); immunology;.

12462 Contri, A., Gloria, A., Wegher, L., Carluccio, A. Successful use of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analog for the treatment of tertiary hypogonadism (GnRH deficiency) in a 5-year-old Belgian Blue bull. VETERINARY QUARTERLY 2012; 32(-1-):51-54. >>> Buserelin acetate; NaCl; SC; Cattle (bull); 2ML4; Animal info (Belgian, blue, beef, 5 years old); pumps replaced every 28 days; long-term study; buserelin acetate is a gonadotrophin releasing hormone analog.

9980 Roche, J.R., Sheahan, A.J., Chagas, L.M., Blache, D., Berry, D.P., Kay, J.K. Long-Term Infusions of Ghrelin and Obestatin in Early Lactation Dairy Cows. Journal of Dairy Science 2008; 91(-12-):4728-4740. >>> Ghrelin, Dap3-; obestatin; DMSO; SC; Cattle (cow); 2ML4; Controls were untreated; functionality of mp verified by residual volume; long-term study; pumps replaced after 28 days; animal info (multparous); 50% DMSO used; wound clips used; peptides.

top of page

2. Goat

15241 Yamamura, T., Wakabayashi, Y., Sakamoto, K., Matsui, H., Kusaka, M., Tanaka, T., Ohkura, S., Okamura, H., Okamura, H. The Effects of Chronic Subcutaneous Administration of an Investigational Kisspeptin Analog, TAK-683, on Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Pulse Generator Activity in Goats. NEUROENDOCRINOLOGY 2014; 100(--):250-264. >>> TAK-683; DMSO; SC; Goat; 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Shiba goat Capra hircus, 20-32kg, gonadectomized); functionality of mp verified by blood samples; 50% DMSO used; dose-response (pg 254-255); pump removed after 6 days;.

7040 Mphahlele, N.R., Fuller, A., Roth, J., Kamerman, P.R. Body temperature, behavior, and plasma cortisol changes induced by chronic infusion of Staphylococcus aureus in goats. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 2004; 287(-4-):R863-R869. >>> Bacteria, staphylococcus aureus; IV (jugular); Goat; 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ sterile saline; functionality of mp verified by examining contents of internal reservoir; comparison of IV injections vs. mp; no stress (see pg. R864); post op. care (enrofloxacin); catheter filled with heparinized saline (100 units/ml); to delay infusion of pump contents until 24 hours after mp implantation;"no signs of secondary infection or pathology...were found."(p. R864).; immunology.

1971 Bretzlaff, K., Nuti, L., Scarfe, A., Elmore, R., Capehart, J., Varner, D., Weston, P. Luteinizing hormone and progesterone concentrations and induction of estrus after use of norgestomet ear implants or constant infusion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in anestrous, nonlactating dairy goats. Am. J. Vet. Res 1991; 52(-9-):1423-1426. >>> Luteinizing HRH; SC; Goat; pumps placed on side of neck.

top of page

3. Horse

13971 Thorson, J.F., Prezotto, L.D., Cardoso, R.C., Sharpton, S.M., Edwards, J.F., Welsh, TH Jr, Riggs, P.K., Caraty, A., Amstalden, M., Williams, G.L. Hypothalamic Distribution, Adenohypophyseal Receptor Expression, and Ligand Functionality of RFamide-Related Peptide 3 in the Mare During the Breeding and Nonbreeding Seasons. Biology of Reproduction 2014; 90(-2-):U75-U83. >>> Gonadotropin-releasing hormone; Horse; Animal info (female, Quarter horse and mixed breed, 5-10 years old);.

13970 Thorson, J.F., Prezotto, L.D., Cardoso, R.C., Allen, C.C., Alves, B.R.C., Amstalden, M., Williams, G.L. Pharmacologic application of native GnRH in the winter anovulatory mare, II: Accelerating the timing of pregnancy. Theriogenology 2014; 81(-4-):625-631. >>> Gonadotropin-releasing hormone; Saline; SC; Horse (mare); 2ML2; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, Quarter Horse grade); pumps replaced every 14 days (2ML2) or 28 days (2ML4); Multiple pumps per animal (4 2ML2 or 2 2ML4); used contralateral side for next pump implantation; pumps removed at end of study;.

13969 Thorson, J.F., Allen, C.C., Amstalden, M., Williams, G.L. Pharmacologic application of native GnRH in the winter anovulatory mare, I: Frequency of reversion to the anovulatory state following ovulation induction and cessation of treatment. Theriogenology 2014; 81(-4-):579-586. >>> Gonadotropin-releasing hormone; Saline, sterile; SC; Horse (mare); 2ML2; Controls received sham pumps (silastic tubing); animal info (female, American Quarter Horses, 409-522 kg); pumps replaced every 14 days; post op. care (wound cleaned, disinfected with povidone iodine, antibacterial ointment - PO); pumps primed for 16 hours in 37C saline; used contralaterial location for next pump implantation;.

9147 Collins, S.M., Zieba, D.A., Williams, G.L. Continuous administration of low-dose GnRH in mares II. Pituitary and ovarian responses to uninterrupted treatment beginning near the autumnal equinox and continuing throughout the anovulatory season. Theriogenology 2007; 68(-4-):673-681. >>> Gonadotropin-releasing hormone; Saline, physiological; SC; Horse; 2004; Controls received sham pumps; long-term study; pumps replaced every 30 days; animal info (mare, 18 mo to 24 years); pumps were disinfected using chlorhexidine gluconate, sham pumps were made from silicon tubing filled with medical grade silicone adhesive to approximate the size of the ALZET pumps, then cold-sterilized (similar to pumps) before surgical insertion.

top of page

4. Pig

16352 Garcia-Alvarez, A., Pereda, D., Garcia-Lunar, I., Sanz-Rosa, D., Fernandez-Jimenez, R., Garcia-Prieto, J., Nuno-Ayala, M., Sierra, F., Santiago, E., Sandoval, E., Campelos, P., Aguero, J., Pizarro, G., Peinado, V. I., Fernandez-Friera, L., Garcia-Ruiz, J. M., Barbera, J. A., Castella, M., Sabate, M., Fuster, V., Ibanez, B. Beta-3 adrenergic agonists reduce pulmonary vascular resistance and improve right ventricular performance in a porcine model of chronic pulmonary hypertension. Basic Res Cardiol 2016; 111(-4-):49. >>> BRL37344; Saline; IV (right jugular vein); pigs; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (pig, 4 months old, 45 kg); functionality of mp verified by plasma levels; cardiovascular; antihypertensive; PE-60 catheter used for IV application; BRL37344 is a B3AR agonist; Dose (10 ug/kg/day BRL37344);.

15845 MingWu, Piet Claus, Nina Vanden Driessche, Geert Reyns, Peter Pokreisz, Hilde Gillijns, Ellen Caluwe, Jan Bogaert, Desire Collen, Stefan Janssens. Placental growth factor 2— A potential therapeutic strategy for chronic myocardial ischemia. International Journal of Cardiology 2016; 203(--):534-542. >>> Placental growth factor-2, recombinant human; PBS; IV; Pig; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Sus Scrofa, 20-25kg); functionality of mp verified by plasma levels; ischemia (myocardial); cardiovascular; Dose (15 ug/kg/day);.

14986 Katleba, K.D., Legacki, E.L., Conley, A.J., Berger, T., Berger, T. Steroid regulation of early postnatal development in the corpus epididymidis of pigs. JOURNAL OF ENDOCRINOLOGY 2015; 225(--):125-134. >>> Fulvestrant; DMSO; PBS; Pig; 2ML2; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (boar, 6-6.5 weeks old); 50% DMSO used; Fulvestrant is a nuclear estrogen receptor antagonist and G protein-coupled receptor agonist;.

13648 Lassaletta, A.D., Elmadhun, N.Y., Burgess, T.A., Bianchi, C., Sabe, A.A., Robich, M.P., Chu, L.M., Sellke, F.W. Microvascular Notch Signaling Is Upregulated in Response to Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Chronic Myocardial Ischemia. CIRCULATION JOURNAL 2014; 78(-3-):743-751. >>> Vascular endothelial growth factor, recombinant human; Heparin; Saline; Intrapericardial; Pig; 2ML4; Animal info (male, Yorkshire miniswine, 13-22kg); ischemia (cardiac, chronic); stress/adverse reaction: (see pg. 746); post op. care (Enrofloxacin 68mg PO daily for 5 days; aspirin 325 mg/day for 5 days; buprenorphine HCL 0.3 mg/kg, transdermal fentanyl patch 4mcg/kg for 72h); cardiovascular;.

13054 Hunt, N.J., Waters, K.A., Machaalani, R. Orexin receptors in the developing piglet hypothalamus, and effects of nicotine and intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia exposures. Brain Research 2013; 1508(-;-):73-82. >>> Nicotine; Water, sterile; IP; Pig; 2ML2; Control animals received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (piglet, mixed bred).

12906 Berger, T., Conley, A.J., van Klompenberg, M., Roser, J.F., Hovey, R.C. Increased testicular Sertoli cell population induced by an estrogen receptor antagonist. MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR ENDOCRINOLOGY 2013; 366(-1-):53-58. >>> ICI 182,780; Saline; DMSO; SC; Pig; 2ML2; 2ML4; Control animals received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (1 wk old, Sygen); 50% DMSO used; pumps replaced after 4 weeks.

12045 Bienemann, A., White, E., Woolley, M., Castrique, E., Johnson, D.E., Wyatt, M., Murray, G., Taylor, H., Barua, N., Gill, S.S. The development of an implantable catheter system for chronic or intermittent convection-enhanced delivery. Journal of Neuroscience Methods 2012; 203(-2-):284-291. >>> CSF, artificial (agent); CSF/CNS (patumen); Pig; 2ML4; Animal info (Large White/Landrace);"due to concerns regarding the risk of blockage, catheters were modified to be connected to Alzet osmotic minipumps"pg 288.

top of page

5. Sheep

16304 Bazargan, M., Foster, D. J., Muhlhausler, B. S., Morrison, J. L., McMillen, I., Davey, A. K. Limited fetal metabolism of rosiglitazone: Elimination via the maternal compartment in the pregnant ewe. Reprod Toxicol 2016; 61(--):162-8. >>> Rosiglitazone Maleate; Water, Ethanol; SC; Sheep (pregnant); 2ML1; animal info (Singleton pregnant sheep); functionality of mp verified by plasma level, amniotix fluid samples; 15% ethanol used; Multiple pumps per animal (4); stability verified by regular plasma level measurements (reached after day 5, tested through day 16; half life of 24-48 hours in sheep); Catheters flushed with heparinized saline; Dose (2.7 mg/fetus/d);.

15737 Kelsey Brooks and Thomas E. Spencer. Biological Roles of Interferon Tau (IFNT) and Type I IFN Receptors in Elongation of the Ovine Conceptus1. Biology of Reproduction 2015; 92(2)(-47-):1-10. >>> oligonucleotdies, antisense morpholino; PBS; Intrauterine; Sheep (ewe, pregnant); 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ control oligonucleotides; animal info (female, Columbia Rambouillet); teratology; cyanoacrylate adhesive; used vinyl catheter tubing (0007760) to cannulate uterine lumen; pump affixed to mesosalpinx using cyanoacrylate glue;.

15239 Wolfs, T.G.A.M., Kramer, B.W., Thuijls, G., Kemp, M.W., Saito, M., Willems, M.G.M., Senthamarai-Kannan, P., Newnham, J.P., Jobe, A.H., Kallapur, S.G. Chorioamnionitis-induced fetal gut injury is mediated by direct gut exposure of inflammatory mediators or by lung inflammation. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-GASTROINTESTINAL AND LIVER PHYSIOLOGY 2014; 306(-5-):G382-G393. >>> Endotoxin, LPS; Intra-amniotic; Sheep (fetus); Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (124 gestation day); immunology;.

15223 Lie, S., Hui, M., McMillen, I.C., Muhlhausler, B.S., Posterino, G.S., Dunn, S.L., Wang, K.C., Botting, K.J., Morrison, J.L. Exposure to rosiglitazone, a PPAR-gamma agonist, in late gestation reduces the abundance of factors regulating cardiac metabolism and cardiomyocyte size in the sheep fetus. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-REGULATORY INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE PHYSIOLOGY 2014; 306(-6-):R429-R437. >>> Rosiglitazone; Ethanol; SC; Sheep (fetus); 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (fetus, 123-126 days gestion); 15% ethanol used; cardiovascular;.

15029 Maneenil, G., Kemp, M.W., Kannan, P.S., Kramer, B.W., Saito, M., Newnham, J.P., Jobe, A.H., Kallapur, S.G., Kallapur, S.G. Oral, Nasal and Pharyngeal Exposure to Lipopolysaccharide Causes a Fetal Inflammatory Response in Sheep. PLoS One 2015; 10(--):U1091-U1101. >>> Endotoxin, LPS; Oral cavity; Sheep (ewe); Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (Merino); teratology; immunology;.

14854 Brooks, K.E., Burns, G.W., Spencer, T.E., Spencer, T.E. Peroxisome Proliferator Activator Receptor Gamma (PPARG) Regulates Conceptus Elongation in Sheep. BIOLOGY OF REPRODUCTION 2015; 92(--):U102-U114. >>> Oligonucleotide, antisense morpholino PPARD; oligonucleotide, antisense morpholino PPARG; PBS; Intrauterine (uterine horn); Sheep (ewe); 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ control morpholino; animal info (Ovis aries, 7 days after mating); cyanoacrylate adhesive; used vinyl catheter tubing; pump glued to mesosalpinyx and sutures; pumps primed in 37C sterile PBS for 24 hours.

14264 Lee, J., Stanley, J.A., McCracken, J.A., Banu, S.K., Arosh, J.A., Arosh, J.A. Intrauterine Coadministration of ERK1/2 Inhibitor U0126 Inhibits Interferon TAU Action in the Endometrium and Restores Luteolytic PGF(2alpha) Pulses in Sheep. Biology of Reproduction 2014; 91(--):U177-U185. >>> U0126; serum protein, ovine; interferon tau, recombinant ovine; DMSO; Intrauterine (uterine horn); Sheep (ewe); 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, Suffolk Ovis aries); 3% DMSO used; tissue perfusion (uterine horn); cyanoacrylate adhesive; used cyanoacrylate glue to anchor pump; interferon tau aka IFNT;.

14226 Hyde, M.L., Fraser, D.R., Fraser, D.R. In vivo measurement of the absorption of strontium in the rumen and small intestine of sheep as an index of calcium absorption capacity. British Journal of Nutrition 2014; 112(--):718-724. >>> Hydroxyvitamin D3, 1a-; SC; Sheep (ewe); 2002; Animal info (merino, mature); functionality of mp verified by plasma 1,125-dihydroxycholecalciferol levels;.

14726 Eifert, A.W., Wilson, M.E., Vonnahme, K.A., Camacho, L.E., Borowicz, P.P., Redmer, D.A., Romero, S., Dorsam, S., Haring, J., Lemley, C.O., Lemley, C.O. Effect of melatonin or maternal nutrient restriction on vascularity and cell proliferation in the ovine placenta. ANIMAL REPRODUCTION SCIENCE 2015; 153(--):13-21. >>> Melatonin; luzindole; DMSO; water; Intrauterine; Sheep (ewe; pregnant); 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, Western white face, GD62); functionality of mp verified by serum levels; 45% DMSO used; good methods (pg 15); no stress (see pg. 15); post op. care (BID IM injection flunixin meglumine; QD IP injection Penicillin G Procaine); teratology; cardiovascular; used 20 cm of PE 60 tubing; pumps primed overnight 37C saline with catheters;.

13883 Nitsos, I., Newnham, J.P., Rees, S.M., Harding, R., Moss, T.J.M., Moss, T.J.M. The Impact of Chronic Intrauterine Inflammation on the Physiologic and Neurodevelopmental Consequences of Intermittent Umbilical Cord Occlusion in Fetal Sheep. REPRODUCTIVE SCIENCES 2014; 21(--):658-670. >>> Endotoxin, LPS; Amniotic sac; Sheep (fetus); 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (female, pregnant, GD80); post op. care (benacillin); teratology; immunology; E.coli LPS 055:B5, 18 mg/ml;.

13877 Musk, G.C., Murdoch, F.R., Tuke, J., Kemp, M.W., Dixon, M.J., Taylor, P.M., Musk, G.C. Thermal and mechanical nociceptive threshold testing in pregnant sheep. VETERINARY ANAESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA 2014; 41(--):305-311. >>> Medetomidine; Saline; IP; Sheep (pregnant); 2ML1; Animal info (female, Merino singleton, pregnant at GD118-121); functionality of mp verified by plasma levels; comparison of transdermal patch vs mp; behavioral testing (mechanical nociceptive threshold; thermal nociceptive threshold); pumps primed at 37C overnight;.

13794 Guo, B., Kongsuwan, K., Greenwood, P.L., Zhou, G.H., Zhang, W.G., Dalrymple, B.P., Dalrymple, B.P. A gene expression estimator of intramuscular fat percentage for use in both cattle and sheep. JOURNAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCE AND BIOTECHNOLOGY 2014; 5(--):U1-U12. >>> Oxytocin; Sheep; Pumps replaced every 30 days; long-term study;.

top of page

Looking for references? We can help!

Since 1977, scientist around the world have used ALZET pumps to conduct their research, publishing their results in high-impact journals. The ALZET bibliography now contains over 16,000 publications! We can perform a custom search for references relevant to your research.

Request your ALZET bibliography search!


Order the ALZET SurgicalImplantation Video

What researchers are saying ...

“The implanted pumps offered an advantageous alternative to repeated injections. During drug delivery, no external connection was required, and rats were untethered and unrestrained, thereby minimizing animal handling stress” Zhang et al., Journal of Neurophysiology 2000;84:798-805.