References on the Administration of Endotoxin Using ALZET® Osmotic Pumps

16357 Gupta, K. K., Xu, Z., Castellino, F. J., Ploplis, V. A. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 stimulates macrophage activation through Toll-like Receptor-4. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2016; 477(-3-):503-8. >>> Endotoxin, LPS; Saline, isotonic; IP; mice; 1003D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (WT, PAI-1 deficient,&TLR4 deficient male mice); animal info (WT, PAI-1 deficient,&TLR4 deficient male mice); Strain/dose-specific reactions (pg. 505);“As expected, the sham and vehicle control (saline) showed no lethality in mice survival as compared to LPS-challenged mice” pg 504; Inflammation induction; Dose (10 ug/uL);.

16315 Carusillo Theriault, B., Woo, S. K., Karimy, J. K., Keledjian, K., Stokum, J. A., Sarkar, A., Coksaygan, T., Ivanova, S., Gerzanich, V., Simard, J. M. Cerebral microbleeds in a neonatal rat model. PLoS One 2017; 12(-2-):e0171163. >>> Endotoxin, LPS; IV (jugular); Rat (Pregnant); 2001D; animal info (Pregnant Wistar); post op. care (Buprenorphine (0.3±0.5 mg/kg) every 12 hours, as needed.); Dose (600 ng/hr); Resultant plasma level (4.5+/-0.9 EU/mL LPS);.

16243 Shaver, C. M., Grove, B. S., Putz, N. D., Clune, J. K., Lawson, W. E., Carnahan, R. H., Mackman, N., Ware, L. B., Bastarache, J. A. Regulation of alveolar procoagulant activity and permeability in direct acute lung injury by lung epithelial tissue factor. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2015; 53(-5-):719-27. >>> LPS; PBS; SC; mice; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (8- to 16-week-old male and female mice); cardiovascular; Dose (8 mg/h for 24 h);.

16154 Petitdant, N., Lecomte, A., Robidel, F., Gamez, C., Blazy, K., Villegier, A. S. Cerebral radiofrequency exposures during adolescence: Impact on astrocytes and brain functions in healthy and pathologic rat models. Bioelectromagnetics 2016; 37(-5-):338-50. >>> Endotoxin, LPS; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dalwey, P32); behavioral testing (Open Field test; elevated plus maze; fear conditioning); Cannula placement verified via methylene blue dye; used Plastics One cannula; used PEEK cannula; rats exposed to radio frequency electromagnetic fields while pump implanted; Dose (1.25 ug/h); Brain coordinates;.

16068 Wu, K. L., Wu, C. W., Chao, Y. M., Hung, C. Y., Chan, J. Y. Impaired Nrf2 regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis in rostral ventrolateral medulla on hypertension induced by systemic inflammation. Free Radic Biol Med 2016; 97(--):58-74. >>> Endotoxin, LPS; coenzyme Q10; temple; Interleukin-1, receptor antagonist; butylhydroquinone, tert-; Saline; CSF, artificial; IP; CSF/CNS (cisterna magna); Rat; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 8 weeks old, 250-280g); ALZET brain infusion kit 2 used; post op. care (IM procaine Penicillin 1000 IU); tissue perfusion (cisterna magna); cardiovascular; bp measured using tail cuff; Dose (LPS 1.2 mg/kg/day; coenzyme Q10 3.25 ug/ul/hr; tempol 5 ug/ul/hr; IL-1Ra 0.5 ug/ul/h);.

15969 Liang, W., Lindeman, J. H., Menke, A. L., Koonen, D. P., Morrison, M., Havekes, L. M., van den Hoek, A. M., Kleemann, R. Metabolically induced liver inflammation leads to NASH and differs from LPS- or IL-1beta-induced chronic inflammation. Lab Invest 2014; 94(-5-):491-502. >>> LPS; interluekin-1, beta; PBS; SC; mice; 1004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; treated with either HFD + PBS (minipump) or HFD only; animal info (Male APOE3L.CETP mice were 10–14 weeks old); functionality of mp verified by plasma level; immunology; inflammatory response; LPS aka lipopolysaccharide; IL-1B aka interleuking-1B; HFD aka high fat diet; Dose: LPS, 5 ug/day; IL-1B, 100 ng/day; Resultant plasma level (pg. 493, 499); Industry authored (Journal of Laboratory Investigation);.

15804 Mark K. Nøhr, Anete Dudele, Morten M. Poulsen, Lene H. Ebbesen, Yulia Radko, Lars P. Christensen, Niels Jessen, Bjørn Richelsen, Sten Lund, Steen B. Pedersen  PLoS One 2016; 11(-1-):1-15. >>> Endotoxin, LPS; Saline; SC; Mice; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, C57BL/6N, 12 weeks old); immunology; diabetes; Dose (600 ug/kg/day);.

15730 Sun-Young Ahna,, Sung-Hwa Sohna,, Sang-Yeon Lee,, Hye-Lim Park,, Yong-Wook Park,, Hun Kim,, Jae-Hwan Nam  ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY AND PHARMACOLOGY 2016; (-40-):924-930. >>> Endotoxin, LPS; Tween 80; saline; water; SC; mice; 1004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info: 12-wk old, male mice (C57BL/6); %0.1of Tween 80; dose-response (charts and images, pages 927, 928); immunology; response to influenza virus after introduction to LPS;“They produce a constant flowrate over a period from 1 day to 6 weeks using the principle of osmotic pressure difference between components of the device.The advantage of this type of pump is that it can continuously infuse the target reagent.” pg 925; Dose: 300 ug/kg/day.

15239 Wolfs, T.G.A.M., Kramer, B.W., Thuijls, G., Kemp, M.W., Saito, M., Willems, M.G.M., Senthamarai-Kannan, P., Newnham, J.P., Jobe, A.H., Kallapur, S.G. Chorioamnionitis-induced fetal gut injury is mediated by direct gut exposure of inflammatory mediators or by lung inflammation. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-GASTROINTESTINAL AND LIVER PHYSIOLOGY 2014; 306(-5-):G382-G393. >>> Endotoxin, LPS; Intra-amniotic; Sheep (fetus); Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (124 gestation day); immunology;.

15029 Maneenil, G., Kemp, M.W., Kannan, P.S., Kramer, B.W., Saito, M., Newnham, J.P., Jobe, A.H., Kallapur, S.G., Kallapur, S.G. Oral, Nasal and Pharyngeal Exposure to Lipopolysaccharide Causes a Fetal Inflammatory Response in Sheep. PLoS One 2015; 10(--):U1091-U1101. >>> Endotoxin, LPS; Oral cavity; Sheep (ewe); Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (Merino); teratology; immunology;.

14960 Ho, Y.H., Lin, Y.T., Wu, C.W.J., Chao, Y.M., Chang, A.Y.W., Chan, J.Y.H., Chan, J.Y.H. Peripheral inflammation increases seizure susceptibility via the induction of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in the hippocampus. JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL SCIENCE 2015; 22(--):U1-U14. >>> Endotoxin, LPS; NS398; tempol; Saline; DMSO; IP; CSF/CNS; Rat; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 10 weeks old, 250-282g); ALZET brain infusion kit 2 used; 1% DMSO used; Multiple pumps per animal (2); post op. care (IM procaine penicillin 1000IU); immunology; used dental cement; NS398 is a COX-2 inhibitor and anti-inflammatory; tempol scavanges ROS;.

14932 Fischer, C.W., Liebenberg, N., Madsen, A.M., Mueller, H.K., Lund, S., Wegener, G., Fischer, C.W. Chronic lipopolysaccharide infusion fails to induce depressive-like behaviour in adult male rats. ACTA NEUROPSYCHIATRICA 2015; 27(--):189-194. >>> Endotoxin, LPS; Saline; IP; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dalwey, 299.9g); post op. care (Rimadyl 50 mg/ml); behavioral testing (forced swim test, open field testing);“Osmotic minipumps allow a continuous slow infusion of LPS, whereas daily injections might induce stress because of the daily handling as well as local inflammation due to the needle. Moreover, when the daily volume is administered at once, the effect may be more abrupt and deleterious.” pg 193;.

14907 de La Serre, C.B., de Lartigue, G., Raybould, H.E., Raybould, H.E. Chronic exposure to Low dose bacterial lipopolysaccharide inhibits leptin signaling in vagal afferent neurons. PHYSIOLOGY&BEHAVIOR 2015; 139(--):188-194. >>> Endotoxin, LPS; IP; Rat; 2004; 2006; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (male, Wistar, 237g); functionality of mp verified by circulating LPS; long-term study;.

14417 Stifano, G., Affandi, A.J., Mathes, A.L., Rice, L.M., Nakerakanti, S., Nazari, B., Lee, J., Christmann, R.B., Lafyatis, R., Stifano, G. Chronic Toll-like receptor 4 stimulation in skin induces inflammation, macrophage activation, transforming growth factor beta signature gene expression, and fibrosis. ARTHRITIS RESEARCH&THERAPY 2014; 16(--):U10-U22. >>> Endotoxin, LPS; SC; Mice; Controls received mp w/ PBS, sterile; animal info (TLR2 -/- or MyD88 -/-); immunology;.

14284 Llorens-Martin, M., Jurado-Arjona, J., Fuster-Matanzo, A., Hernandez, F., Rabano, A., Avila, J., Avila, J. Peripherally triggered and GSK-3beta-driven brain inflammation differentially skew adult hippocampal neurogenesis, behavioral pattern separation and microglial activation in response to ibuprofen. TRANSLATIONAL PSYCHIATRY 2014; 4(--):U58-U68. >>> Endotoxin, LPS; PBS; SC; Mice; 1002; 1004; Animal info (female, C57BL6Jcc, 6 weeks old); pumps replaced every 4 weeks; neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's); long-term study; immunology;.

14277 Liang, W., Lindeman, J.H., Menke, A.L., Koonen, D.P., Morrison, M., Havekes, L.M., van den Hoek, A.M., Kleemann, R., Kleemann, R. Metabolically induced liver inflammation leads to NASH and differs from LPS- or IL-1 beta-induced chronic inflammation. LABORATORY INVESTIGATION 2014; 94(--):491-502. >>> Endotoxin, LPS; interleukin-1B, recombinant murine; SC; Mice; 1004; Controls received mp w/ PBS; animal info (male, APOE3L.CETP, 10-14 weeks old); long-term study; immunology;.

14222 Hopp, S.C., D'Angelo, H.M., Royer, S.E., Kaercher, R.M., Crockett, A.M., Adzovic, L., Wenk, G.L., Wenk, G.L. Calcium dysregulation via L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels and ryanodine receptors underlies memory deficits and synaptic dysfunction during chronic neuroinflammation. Journal of Neuroinflammation 2015; 12(--):U1-U14. >>> Endotoxin, LPS; CSF/CNS (fourth ventricle); Rat; 2004; Controls received mp w/ aCSF; animal info (male F-344, 3 months old); neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's disease); behavioral testing (Morris Water Maze); immunology;.

14221 Hopp, S.C., Royer, S.E., D'Angelo, H.M., Kaercher, R.M., Fisher, D.A., Wenk, G.L., Wenk, G.L. Differential Neuroprotective and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of L-Type Voltage Dependent Calcium Channel and Ryanodine Receptor Antagonists in the Substantia Nigra and Locus Coeruleus. Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology 2015; 10(--):35-44. >>> Endotoxin, LPS; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS (fourth ventricle); Rat; 2004; Animal info (male, F-344, 3 months old); behavioral testing (rotarod; open field test; forced swim test); tissue perfusion (fourth ventricle); immunology;.

14708 Leon-Pennell, K.Y., Bras, L.E.D., Iyer, R.P., Bratton, D.R., Jin, Y.F., Ripplinger, C.M., Lindsey, M.L., Lindsey, M.L. P. gingivalis lipopolysaccharide intensifies inflammation post-myocardial infarction through matrix metalloproteinase-9. Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 2014; 76(--):218-226. >>> Endotoxin, PgLPS ATCC 33277; Mice; 1003D; 1007D; 2004; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (C57BL6J or MMP-9 -/-, 4-7 months old); cardiovascular; myocardial infarction; immunology;.

14650 Adzovic, L., Lynn, A.E., D'Angelo, H.M., Crockett, A.M., Kaercher, R.M., Royer, S.E., Hopp, S.C., Wenk, G.L., Wenk, G.L. Insulin improves memory and reduces chronic neuroinflammation in the hippocampus of young but not aged brains. Journal of Neuroinflammation 2015; 12(--):U1-U10. >>> Insulin, recombinant cat; endotoxin, LPS; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS (fourth ventricle); Rat; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, F-344, 3 months old, 21 months old); bilateral cannula used; behavioral testing (morris water maze); tissue perfusion (fourth ventricle); bilateral infusion; used tygon tubing to attach cannula to pump;.

13883 Nitsos, I., Newnham, J.P., Rees, S.M., Harding, R., Moss, T.J.M., Moss, T.J.M. The Impact of Chronic Intrauterine Inflammation on the Physiologic and Neurodevelopmental Consequences of Intermittent Umbilical Cord Occlusion in Fetal Sheep. REPRODUCTIVE SCIENCES 2014; 21(--):658-670. >>> Endotoxin, LPS; Amniotic sac; Sheep (fetus); 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (female, pregnant, GD80); post op. care (benacillin); teratology; immunology; E.coli LPS 055:B5, 18 mg/ml;.

13856 Ma, J.H., Choi, B.R., Chung, C., Min, S.S., Jeon, W.K., Han, J.S., Han, J.S. Chronic brain inflammation causes a reduction in GluN2A and GluN2B subunits of NMDA receptors and an increase in the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in the hippocampus. MOLECULAR BRAIN 2014; 7(--):U1-U10. >>> Endotoxin, LPS; Cerebrospinal fluid, artificial; CSF/CNS (fourth ventricle); Rat; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Fischer-344); behavioral testing (morris water maze); tissue perfusion (fourth ventricle); immunology; LPS from E.coli, serotype 055:B5;.

13723 Brothers, H.M., Bardou, I., Hopp, S.C., Kaercher, R.M., Corona, A.W., Fenn, A.M., Godbout, J.P., Wenk, G.L. Riluzole Partially Rescues Age-Associated, but not LPS-Induced, Loss of Glutamate Transporters and Spatial Memory. Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology 2013; 8(-5-):1098-1105. >>> Endotoxin, LPS; Cerebrospinal fluid, artificial; CSF/CNS (fourth ventricle); Rat; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Fisher F-344, 3 months old); behavioral testing (Morris water maze); tissue perfusion (fourth ventricle); immunology;.

13714 Bardou, I., Kaercher, R.M., Brothers, H.M., Hopp, S.C., Royer, S., Wenk, G.L. Age and duration of inflammatory environment differentially affect the neuroimmune response and catecholaminergic neurons in the midbrain and brainstem. NEUROBIOLOGY OF AGING 2014; 35(-5-):1065-1073. >>> Endotoxin, LPS; Cerebrospinal fluid, artificial; CSF/CNS (fourth ventricle); Rat; 2006; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, F-344 rats, 3 months or 9 months or 23 months old); post op. care (lidocane 1% on wound; 2ML isotonic saline SC injection; 2% tylenol in drinking water 3 days after surgery); tissue perfusion (fourth ventricle); long-term study; immunology; LPS aka lipopolysaccharide;.

13682 Llorens-Martin, M., Jurado-Arjona, J., Avila, J., Hernandez, F., Hernandez, F. Novel connection between newborn granule neurons and the hippocampal CA2 field. Experimental Neurology 2015; 263(--):285-292. >>> Endotoxin, LPS; PBS; SC; Mice; 1004; Animal info (female, 8 wks old, C57BL/6JRcc); long-term delivery; pumps replaced after 4 weeks.

13472 Passler, T., Chamorro, M.F., Riddell, K.P., Edmondson, M.A., van Santen, E., Cray, C., Maxwell, H.S., Walz, P.H. Evaluation of Methods to Improve the Diagnosis of Systemic Inflammation in Alpacas. JOURNAL OF VETERINARY INTERNAL MEDICINE 2013; 27(-4-):970-976. >>> LPS; Saline; SC (left thorax); Alpaca; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (male, castrated, adult); functionality of mp verified by inflammatory response (increased haptoglobin levels, increased leukocyte count, decreased iron levels); stress/adverse reaction: (see pg. 972 and 974);.

13350 Bardou, I., Brothers, H.M., Kaercher, R.M., Hopp, S.C., Wenk, G.L. Differential effects of duration and age on the consequences of neuroinflammation in the hippocampus. NEUROBIOLOGY OF AGING 2013; 34(-10-):2293-2301. >>> Endotoxin, LPS; Cerebrospinal fluid, artificial; CSF/CNS (fourth ventricle); Rat; 2006; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, F-344, 3 months, 9 months, and 23 months of age); post op. care (1% lidocane to closure, saline injected SC); behavioral testing (Morris Water Maze); used Tygon tubing.

 

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What researchers are saying...

“CsA and RAD were administered by ALZET minipumps, which we prefer because of the well-defined drug exposure. It avoids the daily peaks and troughs of oral drug administration, which in many animal studies are not well defined.” Matsumoto et al., Trasplantation 2003;76:166-1170.