References on the Use of ALZET® Osmotic Pumps in Neonatal Rats

16121 Frost, J. D., Jr., Le, J. T., Lee, C. L., Ballester-Rosado, C., Hrachovy, R. A., Swann, J. W. Vigabatrin therapy implicates neocortical high frequency oscillations in an animal model of infantile spasms. Neurobiol Dis 2015; 82(--):1-11. >>> Tetrodotoxin; PBS; CSF/CNS (somatosensory cortex); Rat (neonate); 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info: 11 or 12 day-old male rat pups; functionality of mp verified by EEG; dose-response (pg 3); Plastics One cannula used; Dose: 200ǨL of 12ǨM tetrodotoxin; Brain coordinates; AP: 2.2, ML: 2.0 from bregma and 0.8 mm below the surface of cortex.

14630 Callaghan, B.L., Richardson, R., Callaghan, B.L. Early Emergence of Adult-Like Fear Renewal in the Developing Rat After Chronic Corticosterone Treatment of the Dam or the Pups. Behavioral Neuroscience 2014; 128(--):594-602. >>> Corticosterone; Water, deionized; SC; Rat (neonate); 1007D; Control animals received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (naive, Sprague Dawley, P7). no stress pg 595-596."The entire surgery took less than 5 min and the rats recovered well. The dorsal placement of the micropump was chosen because it does not interfere with the feeding position of pups."pg 595."...dams in the current studies tolerated the pups well after both surgeries and there were no instances of cannibalism or obvious abuse (e.g., bite marks)"pg 596; pumps removed after 1 week;.

13543 Miki, T., Hirai, H., Takahashi, T. Activity-Dependent Neurotrophin Signaling Underlies Developmental Switch of Ca(2+) Channel Subtypes Mediating Neurotransmitter Release. Journal of Neuroscience 2013; 33(-48-):18755-18763. >>> Tetrodotoxin; K252a; Saline; CSF/CNS (cerebellum); Rat (neonate); 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Wistar/ST, Postnatal day 6); ALZET brain infusion kit 1 used; tissue perfusion (cerebellum); teratology; good methods(pg. 18757); Pump implantation shown figure 6A pg.P18761. K252a is a CaM kinase and phosphorylase inhibitor;.

13466 Qiu, J., Zhou, X.Y., Zhou, X.G., Cheng, R., Liu, H.Y., Li, Y. Neuroprotective Effects of MicroRNA-210 on Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy. BIOMED RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL 2013; ;(-;-):U1-U5. >>> Oligonucleotide, miR-210 mimic; inhibitor, miR-210; Saline; CSF/CNS; Rat (neonate); 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, P7); ischemia (hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy); gene therapy;.

11756 Wilkinson-Berka, J.L., Tan, G., Binger, K.J., Sutton, L., McMaster, K., Deliyanti, D., Perera, G., Campbell, D.J., Miller, A.G. Aliskiren reduces vascular pathology in diabetic retinopathy and oxygen-induced retinopathy in the transgenic (mRen-2)27 rat. Diabetologia 2011; 54(-10-):2724-2735. >>> Aliskiren; lisonopril; SC; Rat; rat (neonate); 2ML4; 1007D; Controls received sham surgery; animal info (Sprague-Dawley, transgenic (mRen-2)27, postnatal days 12-18, female, 180-210 g, STZ-induced diabetes); pumps replaced every 4 weeks; long-term study; diabetes; enzyme inhibitor (renin);.

9609 Berka, J.L.W., Tan, G., Jaworski, K., Miller, A.G. Identification of a Retinal Aldosterone System and the Protective Effects of Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonism on Retinal Vascular Pathology. Circulation Research 2009; 104(-1-):124-U309. >>> Aldosterone; DMSO; saline; SC; Rat (neonate); 1007D; Animal info (Sprague Dawley, OIR); 2% DMSO used.

8852 Khan, O.H., McPhee, L.C., Moddemann, L.N., Del Bigio, M.R. Calcium antagonism in neonatal rats with kaolin-induced hydrocephalus. Journal of Child Neurology 2007; 22(-10-):1161-1166. >>> Magnesium chloride; magnesium sulfate; SC; Rat (neonate); 2002; 2004; Controls received mp w/ saline, equimolar; dose-response (table 1); comparison of SC injections vs. mp; stress/adverse reaction : (see pg 1162) high magnesium sulfate concentrations led to necrosis and skin sloughing at implant site; animal info (Sprague-Dawley, P7); skin was closed with staples (wound clips used).

8695 Stoller, D.C., Sim-Selley, L.J., Smith, F.L. Role of kappa and delta opioid receptors in mediating morphine-induced antinociception in morphine-tolerant infant rats. Brain Research 2007; 1142(--):28-36. >>> Morphine; SC; Rat (neonate); 1003D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; tolerance; post op. care (10% povidone iodine swab); animal info (P14, 30 g); Vetbond tissue adhesive used to close incision.

8683 Trauth, J.A., Seidler, F.J., McCook, E.C., Slotkin, T.A. Adolescent nicotine exposure causes persistent upregulation of nicotinic cholinergic receptors in rat brain regions. Brain Res 1999; 851(-1-2-):9-19. >>> Nicotine; SC; Rat (neonate); rat; 1002; 2ML2; No stress (see pg. 10); animal info (P30-P47, Sprague-Dawley, male, 120 g, female 100 g); anesthetized with ether; adult animal info (90 days old, 350 g, Sprague-Dawley); incision was closed with wound clips.

8527 Zissen, M.H., Zhang, G., McKelvy, A., Propst, J.T., Kendig, J.J., Sweitzer, S.M. Tolerance, opioid-induced allodynia and withdrawal associated allodynia in infant and young rats. Neuroscience 2007; 144(-1-):247-262. >>> Morphine; Saline; SC; Rat (neonate); 1003D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; dose-response (p. 250); comparison of acute or intermittently injections vs. mp; vs. pellet; good methods (p. 249); tolerance; post op. care (IP penicillin, fluid therapy); animal info (Sprague-Dawley); morphine withdrawal; behavioral testing;"Using the pellet in P7 rats produced a high rate of mortality from respiratory depression following pellet implantation and precluded parallel studies in the younger rats."(p. 254); Vetbond tissue adhesive was used.

8152 Zissen, M.H., Zhang, G.H., Kendig, J.J., Sweitzer, S.M. Acute and chronic morphine alters formalin pain in neonatal rats. Neuroscience Letters 2006; 400(-1-2-):154-157. >>> Morphine; Saline; Rat (neonate); 1003D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; post op. care (penicillin, ringer's solution); animal info (male and female Sprague-Dawley); Vetbond tissue used.

8142 Suryawan, A., Frank, J.W., Nguyen, H.V., Davis, T.A. Expression of the TGF-beta family of ligands is developmentally regulated in skeletal muscle of neonatal rats. PEDIATRIC RESEARCH 2006; 59(-2-):175-179. >>> Follistatin; PBS; SC; Rat (neonate); Peptides; animal info (10 days old).

8041 Thyssen, S., Arany, E., Hill, D.J. Ontogeny of regeneration of beta-cells in the neonatal rat after treatment with streptozotocin. Endocrinology 2006; 147(-5-):2346-2356. >>> Glucagon-like polypeptide-1(9-39); Saline; SC; Rat (neonate); 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; no stress (see pg. 2352); peptides; animal info (Wistar, PD5, STZ-treated); GLP-1 receptor antagonist;"GLP-1-(9-39) treatment did not alter weight gain in these animals or have any visible deleterious effect.";.

7229 Stoller, D.C., Smith, F.L. Buprenorphine blocks withdrawal in morphine-dependent rat pups. PEDIATRIC ANESTHESIA 2004; 14(-8-):642-649. >>> Morphine sulphate; Water, distilled; SC; Rat (neonate); 1003D; Controls received mp w/ isotonic saline; dependence; Vetbond tissue used.

6873 Marino, M.J., Awad-Granko, H., Ciombor, K.J., Conn, P.J. Haloperidol-induced alteration in the physiological actions of group I mGlus in the subthalamic nucleus and the substantia nigra pars reticulata. Neuropharmacology 2002; 43(-2-):147-159. >>> Haloperidol; Lactic acid; NaOH; saline; SC; Rat (neonate); 2001; Cyanoacrylate adhesive applied over sutures; animal info (15-18 days old, 20-37 grams).

6647 Abreu-Villaca, Y., Seidler, F.J., Tate, C.A., Cousins, M.M., Slotkin, T.A. Prenatal nicotine exposure alters the response to nicotine administration in adolescence: Effects on cholinergic systems during exposure and withdrawal. Neuropsychopharmacology 2004; 29(-5-):879-890. >>> Nicotine; Water, sterile; SC; Rat (neonate); 1002; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; teratology; 1002's used in neonatal rats and 2ML2 pumps were used in adult rats; incision was closed with wound clips.

6204 Sarlos, S., Rizkalla, B., Moravski, C.J., Cao, Z.M., Cooper, M.E., Wilkinson-Berka, J.L. Retinal angiogenesis is mediated by an interaction between the angiotensin type 2 receptor, VEGF, and angiopoietin. American Journal of Pathology 2003; 163(-3-):879-887. >>> PD123319; IP; Rat (neonate); 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (11 days old); insertion wound was then closed with a small stitch.

5944 Santoni, G., Amantini, C., Lucciarini, R., Pompei, P., Perumi, M., Nabissi, M., Morrone, S., Piccoli, M. Expression of substance P and its neurokinin-1 receptor on thymocytes: Functional relevance in the regulation of thymocyte apoptosis and proliferation. NEUROIMMUNOMODULATION 2002; 10(-4-):232-246. >>> Substance P; SR140333; Water, distilled; DMSO; SC; Rat (neonate); 2001; Controls received mp w/ one of two vehicles; functionality of mp verified by plasma levels of (sp); dose-response (p.241); peptides; SR140333 (A NK-1R antagonist) was diluted in 1% DMSO distilled water, alone, or in combination with (sp); pups were 28 days old.

5779 Eiden, S., Doering, H., Schmidt, I. Developmental and food-access-dependent changes in effector systems activated by leptin. PFLUGERS ARCHIV-EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY 2002; 445(-3-):366-374. >>> Leptin; PBS; SC; Rat (neonate); Controls received mp w/ vehicle; comparison of injections v. mp; peptides; 14 day and 25 day old rat pups used..

5511 Margotti, E., Covaceuszach, S., Tongiorgi, E., Cattaneo, A., Domenici, L. TRKB signalling controls the expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in the visual cortex. European Journal of Neuroscience 2002; 16(-6-):1067-1074. >>> Immunoglobulin G, TrkB; Saline; CSF/CNS (occipital cortex); Rat (neonate); Controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by TrkB-IgG immunohistochemistry in visual cortex; immunology; TrkB-IgG consists of the soluble form of the tirosine Kinase receptor engineered as an immunoadhesin by fusing it to the Fc portion of an IgG; 20-21 day old rats used; Fig. 2A (graphic of infusion site).

5475 Stoller, D.C., Thornton, S.R., Smith, F.L. Loss of antinociceptive efficacy in rat pups infused with morphine from osmotic minipumps. Pharmacology 2002; 66(-1-):11-18. >>> Morphine sulfate; Saline, isotonic; SC; Rat (neonate); 1003D; Controls received mp w/ saline; toxicology; teratology; tolerance; dependence; 6-day and 14-day old rat pups implanted; incision closed w/ vetbond tissue adhesive.

5263 Thompson, C.I., Munford, J.W., Buell, E.H., Karry, R.J., Lee, C.T., Morgan, B.L., Radnovich, A.J. Plasma constituents and mortality in rat pups given chronic insulin via injection, pellet, or osmotic minipump. Can. J Physiol Pharmacol 2002; 80(--):180-192. >>> Insulin, bovine; Saline; SC; rat (neonate); 1002; Animal info (neonates, 9 days old), controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by plasma insulin levels and residual aspiration; comparison of pellet vs. sc injections vs. mp; no stress (see p. 186);"The minipumps appeared to be well tolerated and caused no obvious difficulty with nursing"(p. 186); teratology; peptides;"...pups tolerate insulin more readily from a minipump than from a pellet..."(p. 190)"pellets caused high mortality within 24 h"(abstract);"Hypothermia is safe, and it has been shown to be an effective technique for inducing anesthesia in neonatal and preweaning rats. We therefore used moderate hypothermia to subcutaneously implant the osmotic minipumps..."p. 186;"It took approximately 1.5 minutes to implant the minipump in each pup..."p. 186;"The present studies indicate that subcutaneous insulin pellets are not suitable for this purpose (chronic insulin delivery in rat pups), since rat pups do not tolerate them well."p. 191.

5144 Eiden, S., Preibisch, G., Schmidt, I. Leptin responsiveness of juvenile rats: proof of leptin function within the physiological range. JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-LONDON 2001; 530(--):131-139. >>> Leptin, recombinant mouse; PBS; SC; rat (neonate); 1002; 2002; controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by plasma leptin levels; dose-response (page 135); peptides; 1002 pumps used in 15-day old pups, 2002 used in 24-day old pups; His6-tagged murine leptin used.

5118 Robinson, S.E., Wallace, M.J. Effect of perinatal buprenorphine exposure on development in the rat. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 2001; 298(--):797-804. >>> Buprenorphine; Methadone; Water; SC; rat (pregnant); rat (neonate); controls received mp w/ vehicle; dose-response (graphs p. 802); teratology; toxicology; dependence; 28-day pumps implanted in pregnant rats; 14-day pumps implanted in 10-day old rat pups..

4932 Sameshima, H., Ikenoue, T. Long-term magnesium sulfate treatment as protection against hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in seven-day-old rats.. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2001; 184(--):185-190. >>> Magnesium sulfate;; SC;; rat (neonate);; 1003D;; Controls received mp w/ saline; functionality of mp verified by measuring magnesium ion concentrations; teratology; seven-day old rat pups weighed on average 13.9±2.5 grams; neuroprotection; ischemia (cerebral).

4832 Choe, C.H, Smith, F.L. Sedative tolerance accompanies tolerance to the analgesic effects of fentanyl in infant rats.. Pediatr. Res 2000; 47(-6-):727-735. >>> Fentanyl; Saline; Rat (neonate); 1003D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by plasma fentanyl levels; dose-response (table p. 729 / graph p. 730); tolerance; dependence; pumps implanted in 14 day old rat pups; surgical incision was closed with Vetbond tissue adhesive (3M animal care products);.

4737 Lohmann, A.B., Smith, F.L. Buprenorphine substitution ameliorates spontaneous withdrawal in fentanyl-dependent rat pups.. Pediatr. Res 2001; 49(-1-):50-55. >>> Fentanyl citrate; Saline, isotonic; SC; Rat (neonate); 1003D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; teratology; tolerance; dependence; the surgical incision was closed with Vetbond Tissue Adhesive; pumps implanted in 14-day old rat pups..

4658 Doucette, T.A, Ryan, C.L, Tasker, R.A  Physiology and Behavior 2000; 71(--):207-212. >>> ; Saline; SC; Rat (neonate); 1007D; Controls received sham surgery; no stress (p. 211-212); good surgical methods (p. 208-209); teratology.

4429 Thornton, S.R., Lohmann, A.B., Nicholson, R.A., Smith, F.L. Fentanyl self-administration in juvenile rats that were tolerant and dependent to fentanyl as infants. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 2000; 65(-3-):563-570. >>> Fentanyl HCl; Saline, pyrogen-free isotonic; SC; Rat (neonate); 1003D; Controls received mp with saline; tolerance; dependence; pain.

4409 Thornton, S.R., Smith, F.L. Long-term alterations in opiate antinociception resulting from infant fentanyl tolerance and dependence. European Journal of Pharmacology 1998; 363(--):113-119. >>> Fentanyl HCl;; Saline;; SC;; rat (neonate);; 1003D;; controls received mp w/ vehicle; tolerance; dependence;.

4283 Thornton, S.R., Wang, A.F., Smith, F.L. Characterization of neonatal rat morphine tolerance and dependence. Eur. J. Pharmacol 1997; 340(--):161-167. >>> Morphine sulfate; Saline, sterile isotonic; SC; rat (neonate); 1003D; controls received mp w/saline; pumps implanted in 14 day old rat pups;"osmotic minipumps may provide a reliable method of examining the tolerance and dependence liability of many opioids in neonatal rats"(p. 165); toxicology; teratology; tolerance; dependence; good surgical methods (p.102).

3984 Brooks, W.J., Petit, T.L., LeBoutillier, J.C. Effect of chronic administration of NMDA antagonists on synaptic development. Synapse 1997; 26(--):104-113. >>> APV; Saline; CSF/CNS (occipital cortex); rat (neonate); 2002; controls received mp w/vehicle; ALZET brain infusion kit used; APV is 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid.

3650 Steeb, C.-B., Shoubridge, C.A., Tivey, D.R., Read, L.C. Systemic infusion of IGF-I or LR(3)IGF-I stimulates visceral organ growth and proliferation of gut tissues in suckling rats. Am. J. Physiol. (Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 35) 1997; 272(--):G522-G533. >>> Insulin-like growth factor I; Insulin-like growth factor I, LR3-; SC; rat (neonate); 1007D; controls received mp w/ vehicle; peptides; teratology; neonates were 6 or 12 days old; recomb. human IGF-I and human LR3IGF-I used; good surgical methodology (see pg G523).

3557 Thornton, S.R., Smith, F.L. Characterization of neonatal rat fentanyl tolerance and dependence. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther 1997; 281(-1-):514-521. >>> Fentanyl; SC; rat (neonate); 1003D; controls received mp w/ saline; excellent methodology for working with neonates; animals were given penicillin G prophylactically, along with .5 ml saline to prevent hypovolemia; pumps were implanted 1.5 cm from the base of the tail to obviate problems w/ nursing; tolerance; dependence; teratology.

1946 Glasscock, G.F., Hein, A.N., Miller, J.A., Hintz, R.L., Rosenfeld, R.G. Effects of continuous infusion of insulin-like growth factor I and II, alone and in combination with thyroxine or growth hormone, on the neonatal, hypophysectomized rat. Endocrinology 1992; 130(-1-):203-210. >>> Insulin-like growth factor I; Insulin-like growth factor II; Acetic acid; PBS; SC; rat (neonate); 1003D; peptides; teratology; pumps implanted in 10-day old rat pups; pumps replaced on postnatal days 13 and 16; functionality of mp verified by IGF serum levels assayed by RIA; wound clips used.

594 Bouby, N., Trinh-Trang-Tan, M.M., Bankir, L. Stimulation of tubular reabsorption of magnesium and calcium by antidiuretic hormone in conscious rats: study in Brattleboro rats with hereditary hypothalamic diabetes insipidus. Pflugers Arch 1984; 402(--):458-464. >>> Vasopressin, 1-desamino-8-D arginine; Saline; IP; rat (neonate); 2002; no stress p. 463 - refers to value of exp. with non-stressed animals; prior to implant w/ mp, neonate rats received daily sc admin. of Vasopressin, 1-desamino-8-D arginine; peptides; teratology.


Since 1977, scientist around the world have used ALZET pumps to conduct their research, publishing their results in high-impact journals. The ALZET bibliography now contains over 16,000 publications! We can perform a custom search for references relevant to your research.

Request your ALZET bibliography search!


Order the ALZET SurgicalImplantation Video

What researchers are saying...

“Pump implantation and subsequent infusion of either A-CSF or PAI-1 did not impair the mice’s ability to perform a previously learned motor task.” Seeds et al., The Journal of Neuroscience 2003;23(19):7368-7375.