References on the Administration of NMDA Receptor Agonists and Antagonists
Using ALZET® Osmotic Pumps

1. AP5

6457 Morris, R.G.M., Moser, E.I., Riedel, G., Martin, S.J., Sandin, J., Day, M., O'Carroll, C. Elements of a neurobiological theory of the hippocampus: the role of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity in memory. PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON SERIES B-BIO LOGICAL SCIENCES 2003; 358(-1432-):773-786. >>> AP5, D-; LY326325; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS (dorsal hippocampus); Rat; mice; Controls received mp w/ vehicle.

5681 Martin, S.J., Morris, R.G.M. New life in an old idea: The synaptic plasticity and memory hypothesis revisited. Hippocampus 2002; 12(-5-):609-636. >>> AP5, D-; Rat; Mice; Brief mention of pump use on p. 622.

3954 Danysz, W., Zajaczkowski, W., Parsons, C.G. Modulation of learning processes by ionotropic glutamate receptor ligands. Behav. Pharmacology 1995; 6(--):455-474. >>> AP5, D-; CSF/CNS; rat; comparison of injections vs. mp; AP5 is 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid.

2377 Cotman, C.W., Bridges, R.J., Taube, J.S., Clark, A.S., Geddes, J.W., Monaghan, D.T. The role of the NMDA receptor in central nervous system plasticity and pathology. J. NIH Res 1989; 1(--):65-74. >>> AP5; CSF/CNS; rat; no comment posted.

2367 McNaughton, B.L., Morris, R.G.M. Hippocampal synaptic enhancement and information storage within a distributed memory system. Tins 1987; 10(-10-):408-415. >>> AP5; CSF/CNS; rat; 5 days; brief mention of mp.

15961 Li, X. F., Hu, M. H., Hanley, B. P., Lin, Y. S., Poston, L., Lightman, S. L., O'Byrne, K. T. The Posterodorsal Medial Amygdala Regulates the Timing of Puberty Onset in Female Rats. Endocrinology 2015; 156(-10-):3725-36. >>> Bicuculline; AP5, D-; CSF/CNS (posterodorsal subnucleus); Rat; 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, Sprague Dalwey, late pregnant); bilateral cannula used; behavioral testing (social interaction; play fighting behavior); Cannula placement verified via histological analysis; bilateral infusion with Plastics One cannula;.

15235 Shinohara, K., Hata, T. Post-acquisition hippocampal NMDA receptor blockade sustains retention of spatial reference memory in Morris water maze. BEHAVIOURAL BRAIN RESEARCH 2014; 259(-;-):261-267. >>> AP5, D-; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS (hippocampus); Rat; 1007D; Animal info (male, albino Wistar); pumps replaced every 7 days; Plastics One bilateral cannula used; Multiple pumps per animal (2); behavioral testing (morris water maze, probe test); tissue perfusion (hippocampus); Cannula placement verified via histological analysis; pumps primed for 24 hours in 37C saline; bilateral infusion;.

13356 Brozoski, T.J., Wisner, K.W., Odintsov, B., Bauer, C.A. Local NMDA Receptor Blockade Attenuates Chronic Tinnitus and Associated Brain Activity in an Animal Model. PLoS One 2013; 8(-10-):U388-U398. >>> AP5, D-; Saline; CSF/CNS (paraflocculus); Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ methylene dye; animal info (male, Long-Evans, 60 days old); functionality of mp verified by residual volume; tissue perfusion (paraflocculus); brain tissue distribution; Used PE-50 tubing. D-AP5 is an NMDA antagonist. Pumps anchored to muscle/connective tissue via nylon suture.

12878 Morris, R.G.M., Steele, R.J., Bell, J.E., Martin, S.J. N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors, learning and memory: chronic intraventricular infusion of the NMDA receptor antagonist d-AP5 interacts directly with the neural mechanisms of spatial learning. European Journal of Neuroscience 2013; 37(-5-):700-717. >>> AP5, D-; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2002; Control animals received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Lister hooded); behavioral testing (water maze, place task, cue task);.

12874 Inglis, J., Martin, S.J., Morris, R.G.M. Upstairs/downstairs revisited: spatial pretraining-induced rescue of normal spatial learning during selective blockade of hippocampal N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors. European Journal of Neuroscience 2013; 37(-5-):718-727. >>> AP5, D-; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS (dorsal hippocampus); Rat; 2002; Control animals received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Lister-Hooded); bilateral cannula used; behavioral testing (water maze); bilateral infusion;.

10537 Wong, C.S., Wu, G.J., Chen, W.F., Jean, Y.H., Hung, C.H., Lin, C.S., Huang, S.Y., Wen, Z.H. N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist D-AP5 prevents pertussis toxin-induced alterations in rat spinal cords by inhibiting increase in concentrations of spinal CSF excitatory amino acids and downregulation of glutamate transporters. Brain Research Bulletin 2009; 80(-1-2-):69-74. >>> AP5, D-; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (Male, Wistar, 400-420 g); two intrathecal catheters inserted; behavioral testing (tail flick latency).

10103 Uekita, T., Okaichi, H. Pretraining Does Not Ameliorate Spatial Learning Deficits Induced by Intrahippocampal Infusion of AP5. Behavioral Neuroscience 2009; 123(-3-):520-526. >>> AP5; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS (hippocampus); Rat; 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; multiple pumps per animal (2); animal info (male, albino, Wistar, 2 months old); Plastics One cannula used; silicon rubber used.

7793 Day, M., Langston, R.F. Post-training N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor blockade offers protection from retrograde interference but does not affect consolidation of weak or strong memory traces in the water maze. Neuroscience 2006; 137(-1-):19-28. >>> AP5, D-; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS; Rat; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; pumps replaced after 7 days; post op. care (carpofen); animal info (male, Lister-hooded 230-280 g); electrophysiology.

7672 Sakai, M., Kudoh, M. Characteristics of sound discrimination enhancement after sound exposure in adult rats. Behavioral Neuroscience 2005; 119(-4-):961-973. >>> Ap5, D-; Saline; CSF/CNS (auditory cortex); Rat; 1003D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; no stress (see pg. 970); post op. care (ampicillin, fradiomycin); animal info (male, Wistar); cannula placement verified via fast blue dye; external pump application.

5950 Foster, T.C., Fugger, H.N., Cunningham, S.G. Receptor blockade reveals a correspondence between hippocampal-dependent behavior and experience-dependent synaptic enhancement. Brain Res 2000; 871(-1-):39-43. >>> AP5, DL-; Saline; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; (D-APS) or D-2-Amino-5-phosphonpentanoic acid is an NMDA-receptor antagonist; Behavioral testing (Y-maze).

5818 Nagano, I., Murakami, T., Shiote, M., Abe, K., Itoyama, Y. Ventral root avulsion leads to downregulation of GluR2 subunit in spinal motoneurons in adult rats. Neuroscience 2003; 117(-1-):139-146. >>> MK-801; AP5, D-, NBQX; CNQX; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 2002; Glutamate receptor antagonists; MK-801&AP5 are NMDA recept. antag.; NBQX&CNQX are AMPA recept. antag..

5767 Wen, Z.H., Guo, Y.W., Chang, Y.C., Wong, C.S. D-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid inhibits intrathecal pertussis toxin-induced thermal hyperalgesia and protein kinase C gamma up-regulation. Brain Research 2003; 963(-1-2-):1-7. >>> AP5, D-; Saline; CSF/CNS (Intrathecal); Rat; 2001; (D-AP5) is D-2-Amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid..

4818 Allan, S.M, Rothwell, N.J. Cortical death caused by striatal administration of AMPA and interleukin-1 is mediated by activation of cortical NMDA receptors.. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 2000; 20(--):1409-1413. >>> NPQX; AP5, D-;; Saline, sterile; Serum albumin;; CSF/CNS (cortex);; rat;; Comparison of striatal injections vs. mp;"because of less reflux of the injected solution, more reproducible lesions were obtained in the cortex when an infusion pump was used, whereas no obvious difference in the striatal lesions between the two methods was found."P. 1410. D-AP5 is an NMDA-receptor antagonist..

4359 Rema, V., Armstrong-James, M., Ebner, F.F. Experience-dependent plasticity of adult rat S1 cortex requires local NMDA receptor activation. J. Neurosci 1998; 18(-23-):10196-10206. >>> AP5, D-; AP5, L-; CSF, artificial;; CSF/CNS (cortex); rat; 2001; controls received mp w/L-AP5.

3864 d'Aldin, C.G., Ruel, J., Assie, R., Pujol, R., Puel, J.-L. Implication of NMDA type glutamate receptors in neural regeneration and neoformation of synapses after excitotoxic injury in the guinea pig cochlea. Int. J. Devl. Neuroscience 1997; 15(-4/5-):619-629. >>> AP5, D-; Perilymph, artificial; Ear (cochlea); guinea-pig; 2001; controls received mp w/saline; tissue perfusion (scala tympani); comparison of acute administration vs. mp.

3334 Lyford, G.L., Gutnikov, S.A., Clark, A.M., Rawlins, J.N.P. Determinants of non-spatial working memory deficits in rats given intraventricular infusions of the NMDA antagonist AP5. Neuropsychologia 1993; 31(-10-):1079-1098. >>> AP5, D-; CSF, artificial;; CSF/CNS; rat; 2002; controls received mp with vehicle; long-term study, pumps replaced every 10 days; sulphonamide powder applied topically to surgical wound.

3249 Tonkiss, J., Rawlins, J.N.P. The competitive NMDA antagonist AP5, but not the non-competitive antagonist MK801, induces a delay-related impairment in spatial working memory in rats. Exp. Brain Research 1991; 85(--):349-358. >>> AP5; CSF, artificial;; CSF/CNS; rat; 2002; controls received mp with vehicle or no surgery.

2951 Davis, S., Butcher, S.P., Morris, R.G.M. The NMDA receptor antagonist D-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoate (D-AP5) impairs spatial learning and LTP in vivo at intracerebral concentrations comparable to those that block LTP in vitro. J. Neurosci 1992; 12(-1-):21-34. >>> AP5, D-; NaOH; EGTA; CSF, artificial; Water; CSF/CNS; rat; 2002; controls received mp with aCSF; functionality of mp verified by analysis of extracellular and hippocampal tissue samples; stress/adverse reaction: no weight gain due to cannula or pump? pg. 23--tissue from cannula area eval. for damage to this area; ALZA aCSF recipe.

2817 Lin, N., Hubbard, J.I. An NMDA receptor antagonist reduces ethanol preference in untrained but not trained rats. Brain Res. Bull 1995; 36(-5-):421-424. >>> AP5; Saline; CSF/CNS; rat; 2002; controls received mp w/ vehicle; at the end of infusion, pumps and tubing exposed and checked for continuity and patency; dependence.

2711 Redini-Del Negro, C., Laroche, S. Learning-induced increase in glutamate release in the dentate gyrus is blocked by the NMDA receptor antagonist AP5. Neurosci. Res. Comm 1993; 13(-3-):157-165. >>> AP5, DL-; PBS; CSF/CNS (dentate gyrus); rat; 2002; controls received mp w/ vehicle.

2013 Somers, D.L., Beckstead, R.M. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonism alters substance P and Met-enkephalin biosynthesis in neurons of the rat striatum. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther 1992; 262(-2-):823-833. >>> AP5; CPP; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS; rat; 2002; dose-response; NMDA antagonists; both D- and L- enantiomers of AP5 infused.

1608 Schmidt, J.T. Long-term potentiation and activity-dependent retinotopic sharpening in the regenerating retinotectal projection of goldfish: common sensitive period and sensitivity to NMDA blockers. J. Neurosci 1990; 10(-1-):233-246. >>> AP6; AP7; AP5; tectal ventricle; fish; 2002; functionality of mp verified by recovery of remaining drug soltn. at end of study; good methods for infusion to tectal ventricle; pumping in 20 degrees celsius environment, discusses dilution of drug in fluids of fish's brain; NMDA antagonists.

1558 Staubli, U., Thibault, O., DiLorenzo, M., Lynch, G. Antagonism of NMDA receptors impairs acquisition but not retention of olfactory memory. Behav. Neurosci 1989; 103(-1-):54-60. >>> AP5; Saline; CSF/CNS; rat; 2002; dose-response; functionality of mp verified upon excision; neuroscience.

1543 Morris, R.G.M. Synaptic plasticity and learning: selective impairment of learning in rats and blockade of long-term potentiatioin in vivo by the n-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist AP5. J. Neurosci 1989; 9(-9-):3040-3057. >>> AP5; CSF, artificial; Saline; CSF/CNS; rat; 2002; no comment posted.

1406 Tonkiss, J., Morris, R.G.M., Rawlins, J.N.P. Intra-ventricular infusion of the NMDA antagonist AP5 impairs performance on a non-spatial operant DRL task in the rat. Exp. Brain Research 1988; 73(--):181-188. >>> Phosphopentanoic acid, 2-amino; AP5; CSF, artificial; Sodium hydroxide; CSF/CNS; rat; 2002; NMDA antagonist.

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2. AP5, D-

6457 Morris, R.G.M., Moser, E.I., Riedel, G., Martin, S.J., Sandin, J., Day, M., O'Carroll, C. Elements of a neurobiological theory of the hippocampus: the role of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity in memory. PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON SERIES B-BIO LOGICAL SCIENCES 2003; 358(-1432-):773-786. >>> AP5, D-; LY326325; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS (dorsal hippocampus); Rat; mice; Controls received mp w/ vehicle.

5681 Martin, S.J., Morris, R.G.M. New life in an old idea: The synaptic plasticity and memory hypothesis revisited. Hippocampus 2002; 12(-5-):609-636. >>> AP5, D-; Rat; Mice; Brief mention of pump use on p. 622.

3954 Danysz, W., Zajaczkowski, W., Parsons, C.G. Modulation of learning processes by ionotropic glutamate receptor ligands. Behav. Pharmacology 1995; 6(--):455-474. >>> AP5, D-; CSF/CNS; rat; comparison of injections vs. mp; AP5 is 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid.

15961 Li, X. F., Hu, M. H., Hanley, B. P., Lin, Y. S., Poston, L., Lightman, S. L., O'Byrne, K. T. The Posterodorsal Medial Amygdala Regulates the Timing of Puberty Onset in Female Rats. Endocrinology 2015; 156(-10-):3725-36. >>> Bicuculline; AP5, D-; CSF/CNS (posterodorsal subnucleus); Rat; 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, Sprague Dalwey, late pregnant); bilateral cannula used; behavioral testing (social interaction; play fighting behavior); Cannula placement verified via histological analysis; bilateral infusion with Plastics One cannula;.

15235 Shinohara, K., Hata, T. Post-acquisition hippocampal NMDA receptor blockade sustains retention of spatial reference memory in Morris water maze. BEHAVIOURAL BRAIN RESEARCH 2014; 259(-;-):261-267. >>> AP5, D-; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS (hippocampus); Rat; 1007D; Animal info (male, albino Wistar); pumps replaced every 7 days; Plastics One bilateral cannula used; Multiple pumps per animal (2); behavioral testing (morris water maze, probe test); tissue perfusion (hippocampus); Cannula placement verified via histological analysis; pumps primed for 24 hours in 37C saline; bilateral infusion;.

13356 Brozoski, T.J., Wisner, K.W., Odintsov, B., Bauer, C.A. Local NMDA Receptor Blockade Attenuates Chronic Tinnitus and Associated Brain Activity in an Animal Model. PLoS One 2013; 8(-10-):U388-U398. >>> AP5, D-; Saline; CSF/CNS (paraflocculus); Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ methylene dye; animal info (male, Long-Evans, 60 days old); functionality of mp verified by residual volume; tissue perfusion (paraflocculus); brain tissue distribution; Used PE-50 tubing. D-AP5 is an NMDA antagonist. Pumps anchored to muscle/connective tissue via nylon suture.

12878 Morris, R.G.M., Steele, R.J., Bell, J.E., Martin, S.J. N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors, learning and memory: chronic intraventricular infusion of the NMDA receptor antagonist d-AP5 interacts directly with the neural mechanisms of spatial learning. European Journal of Neuroscience 2013; 37(-5-):700-717. >>> AP5, D-; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2002; Control animals received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Lister hooded); behavioral testing (water maze, place task, cue task);.

12874 Inglis, J., Martin, S.J., Morris, R.G.M. Upstairs/downstairs revisited: spatial pretraining-induced rescue of normal spatial learning during selective blockade of hippocampal N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors. European Journal of Neuroscience 2013; 37(-5-):718-727. >>> AP5, D-; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS (dorsal hippocampus); Rat; 2002; Control animals received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Lister-Hooded); bilateral cannula used; behavioral testing (water maze); bilateral infusion;.

10537 Wong, C.S., Wu, G.J., Chen, W.F., Jean, Y.H., Hung, C.H., Lin, C.S., Huang, S.Y., Wen, Z.H. N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist D-AP5 prevents pertussis toxin-induced alterations in rat spinal cords by inhibiting increase in concentrations of spinal CSF excitatory amino acids and downregulation of glutamate transporters. Brain Research Bulletin 2009; 80(-1-2-):69-74. >>> AP5, D-; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (Male, Wistar, 400-420 g); two intrathecal catheters inserted; behavioral testing (tail flick latency).

7793 Day, M., Langston, R.F. Post-training N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor blockade offers protection from retrograde interference but does not affect consolidation of weak or strong memory traces in the water maze. Neuroscience 2006; 137(-1-):19-28. >>> AP5, D-; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS; Rat; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; pumps replaced after 7 days; post op. care (carpofen); animal info (male, Lister-hooded 230-280 g); electrophysiology.

7672 Sakai, M., Kudoh, M. Characteristics of sound discrimination enhancement after sound exposure in adult rats. Behavioral Neuroscience 2005; 119(-4-):961-973. >>> Ap5, D-; Saline; CSF/CNS (auditory cortex); Rat; 1003D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; no stress (see pg. 970); post op. care (ampicillin, fradiomycin); animal info (male, Wistar); cannula placement verified via fast blue dye; external pump application.

5818 Nagano, I., Murakami, T., Shiote, M., Abe, K., Itoyama, Y. Ventral root avulsion leads to downregulation of GluR2 subunit in spinal motoneurons in adult rats. Neuroscience 2003; 117(-1-):139-146. >>> MK-801; AP5, D-, NBQX; CNQX; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 2002; Glutamate receptor antagonists; MK-801&AP5 are NMDA recept. antag.; NBQX&CNQX are AMPA recept. antag..

5767 Wen, Z.H., Guo, Y.W., Chang, Y.C., Wong, C.S. D-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid inhibits intrathecal pertussis toxin-induced thermal hyperalgesia and protein kinase C gamma up-regulation. Brain Research 2003; 963(-1-2-):1-7. >>> AP5, D-; Saline; CSF/CNS (Intrathecal); Rat; 2001; (D-AP5) is D-2-Amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid..

4818 Allan, S.M, Rothwell, N.J. Cortical death caused by striatal administration of AMPA and interleukin-1 is mediated by activation of cortical NMDA receptors.. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 2000; 20(--):1409-1413. >>> NPQX; AP5, D-;; Saline, sterile; Serum albumin;; CSF/CNS (cortex);; rat;; Comparison of striatal injections vs. mp;"because of less reflux of the injected solution, more reproducible lesions were obtained in the cortex when an infusion pump was used, whereas no obvious difference in the striatal lesions between the two methods was found."P. 1410. D-AP5 is an NMDA-receptor antagonist..

4359 Rema, V., Armstrong-James, M., Ebner, F.F. Experience-dependent plasticity of adult rat S1 cortex requires local NMDA receptor activation. J. Neurosci 1998; 18(-23-):10196-10206. >>> AP5, D-; AP5, L-; CSF, artificial;; CSF/CNS (cortex); rat; 2001; controls received mp w/L-AP5.

3864 d'Aldin, C.G., Ruel, J., Assie, R., Pujol, R., Puel, J.-L. Implication of NMDA type glutamate receptors in neural regeneration and neoformation of synapses after excitotoxic injury in the guinea pig cochlea. Int. J. Devl. Neuroscience 1997; 15(-4/5-):619-629. >>> AP5, D-; Perilymph, artificial; Ear (cochlea); guinea-pig; 2001; controls received mp w/saline; tissue perfusion (scala tympani); comparison of acute administration vs. mp.

3334 Lyford, G.L., Gutnikov, S.A., Clark, A.M., Rawlins, J.N.P. Determinants of non-spatial working memory deficits in rats given intraventricular infusions of the NMDA antagonist AP5. Neuropsychologia 1993; 31(-10-):1079-1098. >>> AP5, D-; CSF, artificial;; CSF/CNS; rat; 2002; controls received mp with vehicle; long-term study, pumps replaced every 10 days; sulphonamide powder applied topically to surgical wound.

2951 Davis, S., Butcher, S.P., Morris, R.G.M. The NMDA receptor antagonist D-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoate (D-AP5) impairs spatial learning and LTP in vivo at intracerebral concentrations comparable to those that block LTP in vitro. J. Neurosci 1992; 12(-1-):21-34. >>> AP5, D-; NaOH; EGTA; CSF, artificial; Water; CSF/CNS; rat; 2002; controls received mp with aCSF; functionality of mp verified by analysis of extracellular and hippocampal tissue samples; stress/adverse reaction: no weight gain due to cannula or pump? pg. 23--tissue from cannula area eval. for damage to this area; ALZA aCSF recipe.

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3. AP5, DL-

5950 Foster, T.C., Fugger, H.N., Cunningham, S.G. Receptor blockade reveals a correspondence between hippocampal-dependent behavior and experience-dependent synaptic enhancement. Brain Res 2000; 871(-1-):39-43. >>> AP5, DL-; Saline; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; (D-APS) or D-2-Amino-5-phosphonpentanoic acid is an NMDA-receptor antagonist; Behavioral testing (Y-maze).

2711 Redini-Del Negro, C., Laroche, S. Learning-induced increase in glutamate release in the dentate gyrus is blocked by the NMDA receptor antagonist AP5. Neurosci. Res. Comm 1993; 13(-3-):157-165. >>> AP5, DL-; PBS; CSF/CNS (dentate gyrus); rat; 2002; controls received mp w/ vehicle.

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4. AP5, L-

4359 Rema, V., Armstrong-James, M., Ebner, F.F. Experience-dependent plasticity of adult rat S1 cortex requires local NMDA receptor activation. J. Neurosci 1998; 18(-23-):10196-10206. >>> AP5, D-; AP5, L-; CSF, artificial;; CSF/CNS (cortex); rat; 2001; controls received mp w/L-AP5.

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5. CP-98,113

4490 Okiyama, K., Smith, D.H., White, W.F., McIntosh, T.K. Effects of the NMDA antagonist CP-98,113 on regional cerebral edema and cardiovascular, cognitive, and neurobehavioral function following experimental brain injury in the rat. Brain Research 1998; 792(--):291-298. >>> CP-98,113; DMSO; SC; Rat; 2001D; controls received mp with vehicle; comparison of acute IP injections vs. mp.

3820 Okiyama, K., Smith, D.H., White, W.F., Richter, K., McIntosh, T.K. Effects of the novel NMDA antagonists CP-98,113, CP-101,581 and CP-101,606 on cognitive function and regional cerebral edema following experimental brain injury in the rat. J. Neurotrauma 1997; 14(-4-):211-222. >>> CP-98,113; CP-101,581; CP-101,606; DMSO; SC; rat; 2001D; controls received mp w/vehicle; all agents are ifenprodil derivatives.

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6. CP-101,581

3820 Okiyama, K., Smith, D.H., White, W.F., Richter, K., McIntosh, T.K. Effects of the novel NMDA antagonists CP-98,113, CP-101,581 and CP-101,606 on cognitive function and regional cerebral edema following experimental brain injury in the rat. J. Neurotrauma 1997; 14(-4-):211-222. >>> CP-98,113; CP-101,581; CP-101,606; DMSO; SC; rat; 2001D; controls received mp w/vehicle; all agents are ifenprodil derivatives.

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7. CP-101,606

5755 Yang, Y., Li, Q., Yang, T., Hussain, M., Shuaib, A. Reduced brain infarct volume and improved neurological outcome by inhibition of the NR2B subunit of NMDA receptors by using CP101,606-27 alone and in combination with rt-PA in a thromboembolic stroke model in rats. Journal of Neurosurgery 2003; 98(-2-):397-403. >>> CP-101; 606-27; Saline; DMSO; SC; Rat; 2001D; Controls received mp/ w vehicle; dose-response; ischemia (cerebral); 606-27 is a NMDA antagonist.

3820 Okiyama, K., Smith, D.H., White, W.F., Richter, K., McIntosh, T.K. Effects of the novel NMDA antagonists CP-98,113, CP-101,581 and CP-101,606 on cognitive function and regional cerebral edema following experimental brain injury in the rat. J. Neurotrauma 1997; 14(-4-):211-222. >>> CP-98,113; CP-101,581; CP-101,606; DMSO; SC; rat; 2001D; controls received mp w/vehicle; all agents are ifenprodil derivatives.

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8. MK-801

15545 Ellison, G. The N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists phencyclidine, ketamine and dizocilpine as both behavioral and anatomical models of the dementias. Brain Res. Reviews 1995; 20(--):250-267. >>> Phencyclidine; MK-801; schizophrenia models; brief mention of mp on p. 256.

4134 Ellison, G. The N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists phencyclidine, ketamine and dizocilpine as both behavioral and anatomical models of the dementias. Brain Res. Reviews 1995; 20(--):250-267. >>> Phencyclidine; MK-801; schizophrenia models; brief mention of mp on p. 256.

14330 Cauli, O., Gonzalez-Usano, A., Cabrera-Pastor, A., Gimenez-Garzo, C., Lopez-Larrubia, P., Ruiz-Sauri, A., Hernandez-Rabaza, V., Duszczyk, M., Malek, M., Lazarewicz, J.W., Carratala, A., Urios, A., Miguel, A., Torregrosa, I., Carda, C., Montoliu, C., Felipo, V., Felipo, V. Blocking NMDA Receptors Delays Death in Rats with Acute Liver Failure by Dual Protective Mechanisms in Kidney and Brain. NEUROMOLECULAR MEDICINE 2014; 16(--):360-375. >>> MK-801; Saline; SC; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Wister, 220-270g); MK-801 is an NMDA receptor blocker;.

13852 Lundgaard, I., Luzhynskaya, A., Stockley, J.H., Wang, Z., Evans, K.A., Swire, M., Volbracht, K., Gautier, H.O.B., Franklin, R.J.M., Ffrench-Constant, C., Attwell, D., Karadottir, R.T. Neuregulin and BDNF Induce a Switch to NMDA Receptor-Dependent Myelination by Oligodendrocytes. PLOS BIOLOGY 2013; 11(-12-):U147-U164. >>> MK-801; Saline; CSF/CNS; Rat; 1004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Female, Sprague Dawley, 9-12 weeks old, 200-225g); cyanoacrylate adhesive; used anchoring screws and dental cement; used Plastics one cannula 30g; delayed delivery for 3 days; MK-801 is a NMDA receptor channel blocker;.

12915 Sokoloff, P., Leriche, L., Diaz, J., Louvel, J., Pumain, R. Direct and indirect interactions of the dopamine D(3) receptor with glutamate pathways: implications for the treatment of schizophrenia. NAUNYN-SCHMIEDEBERGS ARCHIVES OF PHARMACOLOGY 2013; 386(-2-):107-124. >>> MK-801; SC; Mice; 1007D; Control animals received mp w/ saline; wound clips used; post op. care (Vetedine, Negrol spray).

12840 Grasselli, G., Rossi, S., Musella, A., Gentile, A., Loizzo, S., Muzio, L., Di Sanza, C., Errico, F., Musumeci, G., Haji, N., Fresegna, D., Sepman, H., De Chiara, V., Furlan, R., Martino, G., Usiello, A., Mandolesi, G., Centonze, D. Abnormal NMDA receptor function exacerbates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. British Journal of Pharmacology 2013; 168(-2-):502-517. >>> MK-801; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS; Mice; 1004; Control animals received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (6-8 wks old); ALZET brain infusion kit 3 used;.

12667 Spieles-Engemann, A.L., Steece-Collier, K., Behbehani, M.M., Collier, T.J., Wohlgenant, S.L., Kemp, C.J., Cole-Strauss, A., Levine, N.D., Gombash, S.E., Thompson, V.B., Lipton, J.W., Sortwell, C.E. Subthalamic Nucleus Stimulation Increases Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor in the Nigrostriatal System and Primary Motor Cortex. JOURNAL OF PARKINSONS DISEASE 2011; 1(-1-):123-136. >>> MK-801; SC; Rat; 2002; Control animals received mp w/ saline; animal info (Sprague Dawley, male, 200-250 g).

11562 Ramsey, A.J., Milenkovic, M., Oliveira, A.F., Escobedo-Lozoya, Y., Seshadri, S., Salahpour, A., Sawa, A., Yasuda, R., Caron, M.G. Impaired NMDA receptor transmission alters striatal synapses and DISC1 protein in an age-dependent manner. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 2011; 108(-14-):5795-5800. >>> MK-801; Saline; SC; Mice; 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (NR1-KD).

11030 Sarkis, R., Saade, N., Atweh, S., Jabbur, S., Al-Amin, H. Chronic dizocilpine or apomorphine and development of neuropathy in two rat models I: Behavioral effects and role of nucleus accumbens. Experimental Neurology 2011; 228(-1-):19-29. >>> MK-801; apomorphine HCL hemihydrate; Saline; ascorbic acid; CSF/CNS (nucleus accumbens); Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (adult, female, Sprague Dawley, 200-300 g); post op. care (dexamethasone injections to prevent brain edema); behavioral testing (mechanical allodynia, Paw withdrawal latency, cold allodynia, hotplate test, spontaneous motor activity); cannula placement verified by picomicrograph of brain section; CCI, chronic constriction injury; SNI, spared nerve injury.

10521 van Dorp, E.L.A., Kest, B., Kowalczyk, W.J., Morariu, A.M., Waxman, A.R., Arout, C.A., Dahan, A., Sarton, E.Y. Morphine-6 beta-glucuronide Rapidly increases Pain Sensitivity Independently of Opioid Receptor Activity in Mice and Humans. Anesthesiology 2009; 110(-6-):1356-1363. >>> Morphine-6 beta-glucuronide; MK-801; Saline; SC; Mice; 2001; Animal info (adult, male, CD-1, TrKO, B6129F1);"Osmotic pumps afford continuous opioid infusions and control for hyperalgesia associated with withdrawal in opioid-dependent subjects that potentially confounds experiments in which chronic opioid treatment is accomplished via repeated acute injections."pg 1357.

10046 Kocerha, J., Faghihi, M.A., Lopez-Toledano, M.A., Huang, J., Ramsey, A.J., Caron, M.G., Sales, N., Willoughby, D., Elmen, J., Hansen, H.F., Orum, H., Kauppinen, S., Kenny, P.J., Wahlestedt, C. MicroRNA-219 modulates NMDA receptor-mediated neurobehavioral dysfunction. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 2009; 106(-9-):3507-3512. >>> MK-801; oligonucleotide, antisense; SC; CSF/CNS; Mice; 1002; 2002; Controls received mp w/ saline; antisense (LNA-antimiR-219); animal info (12 wks old, 25 g.); tygon tubing used; MK-801 also known as dizocilpine.

10016 Nasr, P., Carbery, T., Geddes, J.W. N-Methyl-d-aspartate Receptor Antagonists Have Variable Affect in 3-Nitropropionic Acid Toxicity. Neurochemical Research 2009; 34(-3-):490-498. >>> Ifenpradil; memantine; MK-801; SC; Rat; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley).

9611 De Bittencourt-Navarrete, R.E., do Nascimento, I.C., Santiago, M.F., Mendez-Otero, R. NMDA receptor blockade alters the intracellular distribution of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the superficial layers of the rat superior colliculus. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research 2009; 42(-2-):189-196. >>> MK-801; Saline; CSF/CNS (superior collicus); Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (adult, male Lister); cyanoacrylate adhesive.

9278 Cauli, O., Rodrigo, R., Boix, J., Piedrafita, B., Agusti, A., Felipo, V. Acute liver failure-induced death of rats is delayed or prevented by blocking NMDA receptors in brain. American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 2008; 295(-3-):G503-G511. >>> MK-801; memantine hydrochloride; Saline; NaCl; DMSO; SC; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Wistar, 220-270 g.); 10% DMSO used; MK-801 is an NMDA receptor antagonist.

9112 Rezvani, A.H., Tizabi, Y., Getachew, B., Hauser, S.R., Caldwell, D.P., Hunter, C., Levin, E.D. Chronic nicotine and dizocilpine effects on nicotinic and NMDA glutamatergic receptor regulation: Interactions with clozapine actions and attentional performance in rats. PROGRESS IN NEURO-PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY&BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY 2008; 32(-4-):1030-1040. >>> Nicotine; MK-801; Saline; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (adult, female, Sprague Dawley); MK-801 is also known as dizocilpine; schizophrenia.

9079 Klein, G., Juni, A., Arout, C.A., Waxman, A.R., Inturrisi, C.E., Kest, B. Acute and chronic heroin dependence in mice: Contribution of opioid and excitatory amino acid receptors. European Journal of Pharmacology 2008; 586(-1-3-):179-188. >>> MK-801; LY293558; Saline, physiological; SC; Mice; 2001; Controls received vehicle; comparison of SC injections vs. mp; dependence; animal info (male, CD-1, adult);"only MK-801 infusion was effective in reducing the subsequent withdrawal jumping."(p. 186);"We observed that LY293558 delivery by continuous infusion-but not acute bolus dose injection-prior to acute heroin injection reduced naloxone-precipitated withdrawal jumping"(p. 186).

8986 Wen, Z.H., Wu, G.J., Hsu, L.C., Chen, W.F., Chen, J.Y., Shui, H.A., Chou, A.K., Wong, C.S. N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801 attenuates morphine tolerance and associated glial fibrillary acid protein up-regulation: a proteomic approach. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 2008; 52(-4-):499-508. >>> Morphine; MK-801; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ saline; tolerance; animal info (male, Wistar, 350-375g); NMDA receptor antagonist.

8465 Hahm, J.O., Langdon, R.B., Sur, M. Disruption of retinogeniculate afferent segregation by antagonists to NMDA receptors. Nature 1991; 351(-6327-):568-570. >>> MK-801; phosphonovaleric acid, D-2 amino-5-; phosphonovaleric acid, L-2 amino-5-; Saline; CSF/CNS; SC; Ferret; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle or inactive isomer; dose-response (fig. 1); cyanoacrylate adhesive used; animal info (2-3 weeks old).

8225 Nakamura, S., Murayama, N., Noshita, T., Katsuragi, R., Ohno, T. Cognitive dysfunction induced by sequential injection of amyloid-beta and ibotenate into the bilateral hippocampus; protection by memantine and MK-801. European Journal of Pharmacology 2006; 548(-1-3-):115-122. >>> Memantine; MK-801; Saline; SC; Rat; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; dose-response (fig.2); long-term study; pumps replaced every 2 weeks; animal info (male, F344/DuCrj, 10 wk old, 220-250g.); neurodegenerative (Alzheimers's disease).

8105 Armentero, M.T., Fancellu, R., Nappi, G., Bramanti, P., Blandini, F. Prolonged blockade of NMDA or mGluR5 glutamate receptors reduces nigrostriatal degeneration while inducing selective metabolic changes in the basal ganglia circuitry in a rodent model of Parkinson's disease. NEUROBIOLOGY OF DISEASE 2006; 22(-1-):1-9. >>> MK-801; pyridine, 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-; Saline; water; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ saline; dose-response (fig. 1); multiple pumps per animal (2); neurodegenerative (Parkinson's disease) animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 250-280grams.); MPEP; 6-OHDA induced striatal lesion.

8121 Garrett, J.E., Kim, I., Wilson, R.E., Wellman, C.L. Effect of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor blockade on plasticity of frontal cortex after cholinergic deafferentation in rat. Neuroscience 2006; 140(-1-):57-66. >>> MK-801; SC; Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ PBS; animal info (male, fischer 344, 3 month old, NBM lesions).

7998 Glezer, I., Lapointe, A., Rivest, S. Innate immunity triggers oligodendrocyte progenitor reactivity and confines damages to brain injuries. FASEB Journal 2006; 20(-2-):U405-U430. >>> Endotoxin, LPS; MK-801; Saline, sterile; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; immunology; animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 250g.).

7499 Scholz, J., Broom, D.C., Youn, D.H., Mills, C.D., Kohno, T., Suter, M.R., Moore, K.A., Decosterd, I., Coggeshall, R.E., Woolf, C.J. Blocking caspase activity prevents transsynaptic neuronal apoptosis and the loss of inhibition in lamina II of the dorsal horn after peripheral nerve injury. Journal of Neuroscience 2005; 25(-32-):7317-7323. >>> zVAD; MK-801; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; comparison of intrathecal injections vs. mp; enzyme inhibitor (caspase); peptides; MK-801also known as dizocilpine; catheter tip location confirmed at end of infusion.

7495 Dai, Y., Wang, H., Ogawa, A., Yamanaka, H., Obata, K., Tokunaga, A., Noguchi, K. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in the spinal cord contributes to neuropathic pain in a rat model of mononeuropathy. European Journal of Neuroscience 2005; 21(-9-):2467-2474. >>> KN93; KN92; MK-801; DMSO; saline; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 1003D; 2001; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle, or KN92 control peptide; no stress (see pg. 2472); enzyme inhibitor (Ca/Calmodulin - dependent protein Kinase II); peptides; 10% DMSO; cannula tip location verified by dissection; NMDA receptor antagonist.

7468 Levin, E.D., Tizabi, Y., Rezvani, A.H., Caldwell, D.P., Petro, A., Getachew, B. Chronic nicotine and dizocilpine effects on regionally specific nicotinic and NMDA glutamate receptor binding. Brain Research 2005; 1041(-2-):132-142. >>> Nicotine ditartrate; MK-801; Saline; SC; Rat; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; MK-801 is also known as dizocilpine.

7188 Sams-Dodd, F. (+) MK-801 and phencyclidine induced neurotoxicity do not cause enduring behaviours resembling the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia in the rat. BASIC&CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY&TOXICOLOGY 2004; 95(-5-):241-246. >>> MK-801; phencyclidine hydrochloride; Sodium chloride; SC; Rat; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; dose-response; comparison of SC injections vs. mp; post op. care (wound plast); NMDA antagonists.

7073 Giraldi-Guimaraes, A., De Bittencourt-Navarrete, R.E., Nascimento, I.C.C., Salazar, P.R., Freitas-Campos, D., Mendez-Otero, R. Postnatal expression of the plasticity-related nerve growth factor-induced gene A (NGFI-A) protein in the superficial layers of the rat superior colliculus: Relation to N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor function. Neuroscience 2004; 129(-2-):371-380. >>> MK-801, hydrogen maleate; Sodium chloride; CSF/CNS (superior colliculus); Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; comparison of IP injections vs. mp.

6928 Quartilho, A., Mata, H.P., Ibrahim, M.M., Vanderah, T.W., Ossipov, M.H., Lai, J., Porreca, F., Malan, P.Jr. Production of paradoxical sensory hypersensitivity by alpha 2-adrenoreceptor agonists. Anesthesiology 2004; 100(-6-):1538-1544. >>> Clonidine; MK-801; dexmedetomidine; idazoxan; CSF/CNS (intrathecal, lumbar); SC; Rat; 2001; Comparison of IT injections vs. IT and SC mp; idazoxan and MK-801 infused intrathecally in a separate infusion.

6762 Frankiewicz, T., Parsons, C.G. Chronic memantine does not block 3-nitropropionic acid-delayed ischaemic tolerance in rat hippocampal slices Ex vivo. NEUROTOXICITY RESEARCH 2004; 5(-8-):617-622. >>> Memantine; MK-801; Saline; SC; Rat; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; half-life (p. 618) 3 hours or less for MK-801;"This route of drug application [ALZET pumps] achieves stable brain concentrations of memantine of around 1uM."p. 621.

6818 Wen, Z.H., Chang, Y.C., Cherng, C.H., Wang, J.J., Tao, P.L., Wong, C.S. Increasing of intrathecal CSF excitatory amino acids concentration following morphine challenge in morphine-tolerant rats. Brain Research 2004; 995(-2-):253-259. >>> Morphine; MK-801; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ saline; tolerance.

6553 Glezer, I., Zekki, H., Scavone, C., Rivest, S. Modulation of the innate immune response by NMDA receptors has neuropathological consequences. Journal of Neuroscience 2003; 23(-35-):11094-11103. >>> Endotoxin, LPS; MK-801; Saline; CSF/CNS (parenchyma); Rat; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; 28 g, Plastics One cannula used.

6300 Mao, J.R., Sung, B.K., Ji, R.R., Lim, G. Neuronal apoptosis associated with morphine tolerance: Evidence for an opioid-induced neurotoxic mechanism. Journal of Neuroscience 2002; 22(-17-):7650-7661. >>> Morphine; MK-801; zVAD-fmk; AC-DEVD-CHO; Saline; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; good methods p. 7651; enzyme inhibitor (pan caspase); tolerance; analgesic; AC-DEVD-CHO and zVAD-fmk are caspase inhibitors.

5818 Nagano, I., Murakami, T., Shiote, M., Abe, K., Itoyama, Y. Ventral root avulsion leads to downregulation of GluR2 subunit in spinal motoneurons in adult rats. Neuroscience 2003; 117(-1-):139-146. >>> MK-801; AP5, D-, NBQX; CNQX; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 2002; Glutamate receptor antagonists; MK-801&AP5 are NMDA recept. antag.; NBQX&CNQX are AMPA recept. antag..

5530 Tolu, P., Masi, F., Leggio, B., Scheggi, S., Tagliamonte, A., De Montis, M.G., Gambarana, C. Effects of long-term acetyl-L-carnitine administration in rats: I. Increased dopamine output in mesocorticolimbic areas and protection toward acute stress exposure. Neuropsychopharmacology 2002; 27(-3-):410-420. >>> MK-801; Saline; SC; Rat; Neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's disease); MK-801 is also known as dizocilpine.

5466 Jordan, C.L., Christensen, S.E., Handa, R.J., Anderson, J.L., Pouliot, W.A., Breedlove, S.M. Evidence that androgen acts through NMDA receptors to affect motoneurons in the rat spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus. Journal of Neuroscience 2002; 22(-21-):9567-9572. >>> MK-801; Saline; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; NMDA receptor antagonist.

4969 Oh, S., Kim, Y.H., Hann, H.J., Lee, H.L., Choi, H.S., Kim, H.S., Ho, I.K. Modulation of the levels of NMDA receptor subunit mRNA and the bindings of [H-3]MK-801 in rat brain by chronic infusion of subtoxic dose of MK-801. Neurochemical Research 2001; 26(-5-):559-565. >>> MK-801; Saline; CSF/CNS; rat; 2001; controls received mp w/ vehicle; MK-801 is an NMDA-receptor antagonist; 1 week recovery period after surgery..

4857 Kim, H.S, Choi, H.S, Lee, S.Y, Oh, S. Changes of GABAA receptor binding and subunit mRNA level in rat brain by infusion of subtoxic dose of MK-801.. Brain Research 2000; 880(--):28-37. >>> MK-801;; Saline;; CSF/CNS;; rat;; 2ML1;; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; 1-week recovery period; MK-801 an NMDA antagonist; dummy cannula used before pump implantation;.

4848 Ikonomidou, C, Stefovska, V, Turski, L. Neuronal death enhanced by N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists.. PNAS 2000; 97(-23-):12885-12890. >>> MK-801; CPP; NBQX; Memantine; MPQX; 3-nitro-propionate;; SC;; rat;; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; MK-801 also called Dizocilpine; Neuroprotection; 3-nitro-propionate also called 3NP; glutamate (NMDA) antagonists;.

4426 Dunbar, S.A., Yaksh, T.L. Spinal infusion of N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist MK801 induces hypersensitivity to the spinal Alpha-2 agonist ST91 in the rat. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 1997; 281(-3-):1219-1225. >>> MK-801; Enkaphalin analog ST-91; Saline, sterile normal;; CSF/CNS (spinal cord, intrathecal);; rat;; 2001;; controls received mp with vehicle; no stress (see pg. 1221); tolerance; agents infused singly and concomitantly; pain; PE-10 tubing externalized through the top of the skull to allow discontinuation of infusion, and conduit for external drug dosing;.

4422 Hesselink, M.B., De Boer, A.G., Breimer, D.D., Danysz, W. Adaptations of NMDA and dopamine D2, but not of muscarinic receptors following 14 days administration of uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists.. Journal of Neural Transmission 1999; 106(--):409-421. >>> MK-801; Memantine; Amantadine;; Water;; SC;; rat;; 2ML2;; controls received sham surgeries; comparison of S.C. injections vs. mp; half-life (p. 411);"In the clinical situation, depending on dosing schedule, only minor fluctuations in the steady-state plasma levels of the aminoadamantanes is observed. The only way to mimic this in animals is by continuous infusion of the drug using ALZET osmotic minipumps."(p. 411);.

15550 Powell, K.R., Holtzman, S.G. Lack of NMDA receptor involvement in caffeine-induced locomotor stimulation and tolerance in rats. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav 1998; 59(-2-):433-438. >>> MK-801; Water, distilled; SC; rat; 2ML1; MK-801 is NMDA receptor antagonist dizocilpine; controls received sham pumps; tolerance.

4139 Powell, K.R., Holtzman, S.G. Lack of NMDA receptor involvement in caffeine-induced locomotor stimulation and tolerance in rats. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav 1998; 59(-2-):433-438. >>> MK-801; Water, distilled; SC; rat; 2ML1; MK-801 is NMDA receptor antagonist dizocilpine; controls received sham pumps; tolerance.

15549 Lewin, G.R., Rueff, A., Mendell, L.M. Peripheral and central mechanisms of NGF-induced hyperalgesia. Eur. J. Neurosci 1994; 6(--):1903-1912. >>> MK-801; rat; no comment posted.

4138 Lewin, G.R., Rueff, A., Mendell, L.M. Peripheral and central mechanisms of NGF-induced hyperalgesia. Eur. J. Neurosci 1994; 6(--):1903-1912. >>> MK-801; rat; no comment posted.

15464 Dunbar, S.A., Pulai, I.J. Repetitive opioid abstinence causes progressive hyperalgesia sensitive to n-methyl-d-aspartate receptor blockade in the rat. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther 1998; 284(-2-):678-686. >>> Morphine sulfate; MK-801; Saline, sterile; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); rat; 2002; controls received mp w/ saline; functionality of mp verified by in vivo and in vitro assays; pulsed delivery (air used as spacer in Lynch coil); no stress (see pg. 681); good methods (pg. 679); tolerance.

4053 Dunbar, S.A., Pulai, I.J. Repetitive opioid abstinence causes progressive hyperalgesia sensitive to n-methyl-d-aspartate receptor blockade in the rat. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther 1998; 284(-2-):678-686. >>> Morphine sulfate; MK-801; Saline, sterile; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); rat; 2002; controls received mp w/ saline; functionality of mp verified by in vivo and in vitro assays; pulsed delivery (air used as spacer in Lynch coil); no stress (see pg. 681); good methods (pg. 679); tolerance.

4002 Ellison, G. Competitive and non-competitive NMDA antagonists induce similar limbic degeneration. NeuroReport 1994; 5(-18-):2688-2692. >>> Phencyclidine HCl; MK-801; LY-235959; rat; controls received empty mp; comparison of single injections vs. mp.

3951 Zajaczkowski, W., Quack, G., Danysz, W. Infusion of (+)-MK-801 and memantine - contrasting effects on radial maze learning in rats with entorhinal cortex lesion. Eur. J. Pharmacol 1996; 296(--):239-246. >>> MK-801; Memantine; Sodium chloride; SC; rat; 2002; 2ML2; no comment posted.

3850 Gambarana, C., Ghiglieri, O., Grazilla De Montis, M., Tagliamonte, A. Under continuous dizocilpine infusion an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor independent form of cocaine sensitization develops in rats. Behav. Pharmacology 1998; 9(--):61-68. >>> MK-801; Saline; SC; rat; 2001; 2002; tolerance.

3805 Basile, A.S., Huang, J.-M., Xie, C., Webster, P., Berlin, C., Skolnick, P. N-Methyl-D-aspartate antagonists limit aminoglycoside antibiotic-induced hearing loss. Nature Medicine 1996; 2(-12-):1338-1343. >>> MK-801; Ifenprodil tartrate; DMSO; Water, deionized; Alkamuls EL620; SC; guinea-pig; 2002; long-term study, pumps replaced after 14 days; agents NMDA antagonists; 40% DMSO used; dizocilpine maleate used.

3587 Misztal, M., Frankiewicz, T., Parsons, C.G., Danysz, W. Learning deficits induced by chronic intraventricular infusion of quinolinic acid - protection by MK-801 and memantine. Eur. J. Pharmacol 1996; 296(--):1-8. >>> Quinolinic acid; Memantine; MK-801; Saline; SC; CSF/CNS; rat; 2002; 2ML2; ALZET brain infusion kit used; animals were given ICV quinolinic acid concurrently w/ subcutaneous NMDA antagonists.

3579 Tandon, P., Liu, Z., Stafstrom, C.E., Sarkisian, M., Werner, S.J., Mikati, M., Yang, Y., Holmes, G.L. Long-term effects of excitatory amino acid antagonists NBQX and MK-801 on the developing brain. Dev. Brain Research 1996; 95(--):256-262. >>> NBQX; MK-801; Kollidon PFI2; Glucose; CSF/CNS; rat; 2001; controls received mp w/ vehicle; stress/adverse reaction: see P 258.

3569 Dunbar, S., Yaksh, T.L. Concurrent spinal infusion of MK801 blocks spinal tolerance and dependence induced by chronic intrathecal morphine in the rat. Anesthesiology 1996; 84(--):1177-1188. >>> MK-801; Morphine; Saline; CSF/CNS (spinal cord, intrathecal); rat; 2001; controls received saline infusion; good methods p. 1178; tolerance; dependence; NMDA receptor antagonist.

3235 Tiseo, P.J., Inturrisi, C.E. Attenuation and reversal of morphine tolerance by the competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, LY274614. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther 1993; 264(-3-):1090-1096. >>> LY-274614; MK-801; Saline; SC; rat; 2ML1; controls received mp with saline; tolerance; drugs pH'ed to 7.0; pumps used because inj . of Lilly compound caused sedation, and because inj. could cue subsequent morphine administration.

6018 Zhang, R.X., Ruda, M.A., Qiao, J.T. Pre-emptive intrathecal Mk-801, a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, inhibits the up-regulation of spinal dynorphin mRNA and hyperalgesia in a rat model of chronic inflammation. Neurosci Lett 1998; 241(-1-):57-60. >>> MK-801; Saline; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; NMDA receptor antagonist.

2943 Qin, Z.-H., Zhou, L.-W., Weiss, B. D2 dopamine receptor messenger RNA is altered to a greater extent by blockade of glutamate receptors than by blockade of dopamine receptors. Neuroscience 1994; 60(-1-):97-114. >>> MK-801; NaCl; Ascorbic acid; mice; controls received vehicle injections; comparison of injections vs. mp.

2930 Wessinger, W.D. Tolerance to and dependence on MK-801 (dizocilpine) in rats. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav 1995; 49(-4-):1049-1056. >>> MK-801; Water, sterile; SC; rat; 2ML2; controls received mp with vehicle; dose response; tolerance; dependence; MK-801 is dizocilpine.

2787 Meloni, D., Gambarana, C., Graziella de Montis, M., Dal Pra, P., Taddei, I., Tagliamonte, A. Dizocilpine antagonizes the effect of chronic imipramine on learned helplessness in rats. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav 1993; 46(--):423-426. >>> MK-801; Imipramine; Saline; SC; rat; 2001; 2002; antidepressant; controls received sham operation and ip saline injections; pumps replaced after 14 days; tolerance; dizolcipine is MK-801.

2601 Lewin, G.R., Mckintosh, E., McMahon, S.B. NMDA receptors and activity-dependent tuning of the receptive fields of spinal cord neurons. Nature 1994; 369(--):482-485. >>> MK-801; Saline; SC; rat; NMDA receptor antagonist.

2154 De Montis, M.G.., Gambarana, C., Meloni, D., Taddei, I., Tagliamonte, A. Long-term imipramine effects are prevented by NMDA receptor blockade. Brain Research 1993; 606(--):63-67. >>> MK-801; Saline; SC; rat; 2001; 2002; pumps replaced after 14 days.

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9. Memantine

8924 Parsons, C.G., Stoeffler, A., Danysz, W. Memantine: a NMDA receptor antagonist that improves memory by restoration of homeostasis in the glutarnatergic system - too little activation is bad, too much is even worse. Neuropharmacology 2007; 53(-6-):699-723. >>> Memantine; SC; Rat; 2ML2; Functionality of mp verified by plasma levels; learning; memory; review p. 703.

6444 Danysz, W., Parsons, C.G., Kornhuber, J, Schmidt, W.J, Quack, G. Aminoadamantanes as NMDA Receptor Antagonists and Antiparkinsonian Agents - Preclinical Studies. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 1997; 21(-4-):455-468. >>> Amantadine; memantine; SC; Rat; Neurodegenerative (Parkinson's disease).

15261 Trotman, M., Vermehren, P., Gibson, C.L., Fern, R., Fern, R. The dichotomy of memantine treatment for ischemic stroke: dose-dependent protective and detrimental effects. JOURNAL OF CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW AND METABOLISM 2015; 35(--):230-239. >>> Memantine; DMSO; saline; SC; Mice; 1003D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, C57BL6, 22-32g); 10% DMSO used; dose-response (237); ischemia (cerebral); memantine is a NMDA Glur antagonist;.

14863 Castaneda, M.T., Lopez, E.D., Touhami, A., Tovar, R., Ortega, M.R., Rodriguez, J.M., Castaneda, M.T. Neuroprotection of medial septal cholinergic neurons by memantine after intralateral septal injection of Abeta(1-40). NEUROREPORT 2015; 26(--):450-454. >>> Memantine; SC; Rat; 2ML2; Animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 300-400g); neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's disease); brain tissue distribution;.

13189 Colom, L.V., Castaneda, M.T., Aleman, D., Touhami, A. Memantine protects cholinergic and glutamatergic septal neurons from Abeta(1-40)-induced toxicity. Neuroscience Letters 2013; 541(-;-):54-57. >>> Memantine; SC; Rat; 2ML2; Animal info (Sprague Dawley, 300-400g); neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's disease, dementia).

10713 Chen, S.R., Samoriski, G., Pan, H.L. Antinociceptive effects of chronic administration of uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists in a rat model of diabetic neuropathic pain. Neuropharmacology 2009; 57(-2-):121-126. >>> Neramexane mesylate; memantine; gabapentin; Saline, sterile; water; SC; Rat; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, 225-250 g, STZ induced diabetes); functionality of mp verified by plasma drug levels; post op. care (penicillin); wound clips used; neuropathic pain.

10535 Rosi, S., Ramirez-Amaya, V., Vazdarjanova, A., Esparza, E.E., Larkin, P.B., Fike, J.R., Wenk, G.L., Barnes, C.A. Accuracy of hippocampal network activity is disrupted by neuroinflammation: rescue by memantine. Brain 2009; 132(-;-):2464-2477. >>> Endotoxin, LPS; memantine; CSF/CNS (fourth ventricle); SC; Rat; 2004; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ aCSF; animal info (3-month-old, male, F-344, Sprague Dawley); multiple pumps per animal (2); no stress (see pg 2468)"No adverse neurological signs were observed..."; behavioral testing (exploration).

10016 Nasr, P., Carbery, T., Geddes, J.W. N-Methyl-d-aspartate Receptor Antagonists Have Variable Affect in 3-Nitropropionic Acid Toxicity. Neurochemical Research 2009; 34(-3-):490-498. >>> Ifenpradil; memantine; MK-801; SC; Rat; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley).

9444 Dong, C.J., Guo, Y.X., Agey, P., Wheeler, L., Hare, W.A. alpha-2 adrenergic modulation of NMDA receptor function as a major mechanism of RGC protection in experimental glaucoma and retinal excitotoxicity. INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY&VISUAL SCIENCE 2008; 49(-10-):4515-4522. >>> Brimonidine; memantine; atipamezole; SC; Rat; Enzyme inhibitor (PDE-4); animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 350-400 g.); Brimonidine also known as UK14304.

9278 Cauli, O., Rodrigo, R., Boix, J., Piedrafita, B., Agusti, A., Felipo, V. Acute liver failure-induced death of rats is delayed or prevented by blocking NMDA receptors in brain. American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 2008; 295(-3-):G503-G511. >>> MK-801; memantine hydrochloride; Saline; NaCl; DMSO; SC; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Wistar, 220-270 g.); 10% DMSO used; MK-801 is an NMDA receptor antagonist.

8943 Kusari, J., Zhou, S., Padillo, E., Clarke, K.G., Gil, D.W. Effect of memantine on neuroretinal function and retinal vascular changes of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY&VISUAL SCIENCE 2007; 48(-11-):5152-5159. >>> Memantine; Water, distilled; SC; Rat; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by plasma MEM levels; pumps replaced after 2 weeks; animal info (male, Brown Norway, 250-300g); diabetes.

8495 Rosi, S., Vazdarjanova, A., Ramirez-Amaya, V., Worley, P.F., Barnes, C.A., Wenk, G.L. Memantine protects against LPS-induced neuroinflammation, restores behaviorally-induced gene expression and spatial learning in the rat. Neuroscience 2006; 142(-4-):1303-1315. >>> Endotoxin, LPS; memantine; CSF, artificial; SC; CSF/CNS (fourth ventricle); Rat; 2004; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; no stress (see pg. 1308); multiple pumps per animal (2); animal info (male, F-344, 3 months old); neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's disease, Multiple Sclerosis, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, etc.).

8240 Duszczyk, M., Gadamski, R., Ziembowicz, A., Danysz, W., Lazarewicz, J.W. NMDA receptor antagonism does not inhibit induction of ischemic tolerance in gerbil brain in vivo. NEUROTOXICITY RESEARCH 2005; 7(-4-):283-292. >>> Memantine; SC; Gerbil; 1003D; Comparison of acute IP injection vs. mp; tolerance; ischemia (cerebral); animal info (male, Mongolian, 12-13 wks old, 70g, carotid artery occlusion); mp primed 4 h. in 37 celsius saline;"steady state plasma levels at therapeutic range relevant to humans, were mimicked by using infusion pumps."(291).

8225 Nakamura, S., Murayama, N., Noshita, T., Katsuragi, R., Ohno, T. Cognitive dysfunction induced by sequential injection of amyloid-beta and ibotenate into the bilateral hippocampus; protection by memantine and MK-801. European Journal of Pharmacology 2006; 548(-1-3-):115-122. >>> Memantine; MK-801; Saline; SC; Rat; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; dose-response (fig.2); long-term study; pumps replaced every 2 weeks; animal info (male, F344/DuCrj, 10 wk old, 220-250g.); neurodegenerative (Alzheimers's disease).

7365 Yamada, K., Takayanagi, M., Kamei, H., Nagai, T., Dohniwa, M., Kobayashi, K., Yoshida, S., Ohhara, T., Takauma, K., Nabeshima, T. Effects of memantine and donepezil on amyloid beta-induced memory impairment in a delayed-matching to position task in rats. Behavioural Brain Research 2005; 162(-2-):191-199. >>> Memantine, HCL; Saline; SC; Rat; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; pumps replaced every 11 days; neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's disease); memory.

6762 Frankiewicz, T., Parsons, C.G. Chronic memantine does not block 3-nitropropionic acid-delayed ischaemic tolerance in rat hippocampal slices Ex vivo. NEUROTOXICITY RESEARCH 2004; 5(-8-):617-622. >>> Memantine; MK-801; Saline; SC; Rat; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; half-life (p. 618) 3 hours or less for MK-801;"This route of drug application [ALZET pumps] achieves stable brain concentrations of memantine of around 1uM."p. 621.

6634 Wenk, G.L., gann-Gramling, K., Hauss-Wegrzyniak, B. The presence of the APPswe mutation in mice does not increase the vulnerability of cholinergic basal forebrain neurons to neuroinflammation. Neuroscience 2004; 125(-3-):769-776. >>> Tumor necrosis factor-alpha; memantine; CSF, artificial; saline; CSF/CNS (basal forebrain); Mice (transgenic); 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; tissue perfusion (basal forebrain); multiple pumps per animal (2); Plastics One cannula used with tygon tubing; secured with dental cement; second pump contained memantine/saline and was implanted on the other side of the spine.

6559 Lang, U.E., Muehlbacher, M., Hesselink, M.B., Zajaczkowski, W., Danysz, W., nker-Hopfe, H., Hellweg, R. No nerve growth factor response to treatment with memantine in adult rats. Journal of Neural Transmission 2004; 111(-2-):181-190. >>> Memantine; Saline; SC; Rat; 2002; 2ML2; Memory; behavioral testing.

6056 Miguel-Hidalgo, J.J., Alvarez, X.A., Cacabelos, R., Quack, G. Neuroprotection by memantine against neurodegeneration induced by beta-amyloid(1-40). Brain Research 2002; 958(-1-):210-221. >>> Memantine HCL; Water; SC; Rat; Controls received mp w/ water; plasma levels reported; neuroprotection; NMDA receptor channel blocker; neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's disease); behavorial study; pump model not stated;"treatment with memantine led to study state plasma membrane concentrations."(p. 211).

6016 WoldeMussie, E., Yoles, E., Schwartz, M., Ruiz, G., Wheeler, L.A. Neuroprotective effect of memantine in different retinal injury models in rats. JOURNAL OF GLAUCOMA 2002; 11(-6-):474-480. >>> Memantine; PBS; SC; Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; Neuroprotection; NMDA receptor channel blocker.

4848 Ikonomidou, C, Stefovska, V, Turski, L. Neuronal death enhanced by N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists.. PNAS 2000; 97(-23-):12885-12890. >>> MK-801; CPP; NBQX; Memantine; MPQX; 3-nitro-propionate;; SC;; rat;; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; MK-801 also called Dizocilpine; Neuroprotection; 3-nitro-propionate also called 3NP; glutamate (NMDA) antagonists;.

4685 Bush, T.G, Puvanachandra, N, Horner, C.H, Polito, A, Ostenfeld, T, Svendsen, C.N, Mucke, L, Johnson, M.H, Sofroniew, M.V. Leukocyte infiltration, neuronal degeneration, and neurite outgrowth after ablation of scar-forming, reactive astrocytes in adult transgenic mice.. Neuron 1999; 23(--):297-308. >>> Ganciclovir; memantine; Saline, sterile physiological; SC; Mice (transgenic); gene therapy; ganciclovir infused for 7 days; memantin infused for 14 days.

4422 Hesselink, M.B., De Boer, A.G., Breimer, D.D., Danysz, W. Adaptations of NMDA and dopamine D2, but not of muscarinic receptors following 14 days administration of uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists.. Journal of Neural Transmission 1999; 106(--):409-421. >>> MK-801; Memantine; Amantadine;; Water;; SC;; rat;; 2ML2;; controls received sham surgeries; comparison of S.C. injections vs. mp; half-life (p. 411);"In the clinical situation, depending on dosing schedule, only minor fluctuations in the steady-state plasma levels of the aminoadamantanes is observed. The only way to mimic this in animals is by continuous infusion of the drug using ALZET osmotic minipumps."(p. 411);.

4336 Lagreze, W.A., Knorle, R., Bach, M., Feuerstein, T.J. Memantine is neuroprotective in a rat model of pressure-induced retinal ischemia. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci 1998; 39(-6-):1063-1066. >>> Memantine HCl; Water; SC; rat; 2ML2; controls received mp w/saline; functionality of pump verified by residual volume; NMDA antagonist;"the pumps reached a steady state plasma level after approximately 12 hours (p. 1064); ischemia (retinal).

4327 Hesselink, M.B., De Boer, B.G., Breimer, D.D., Danysz, W. Brain penetration and in vivo recovery of NMDA receptor antagonists amantadine and memantine: a quantitative microdialysis study. Pharmaceut. Res 1999; 16(-5-):637-642. >>> Memantine; Amantadine; Water; SC; rat; 2ML2; dose-response; serum levels.

3951 Zajaczkowski, W., Quack, G., Danysz, W. Infusion of (+)-MK-801 and memantine - contrasting effects on radial maze learning in rats with entorhinal cortex lesion. Eur. J. Pharmacol 1996; 296(--):239-246. >>> MK-801; Memantine; Sodium chloride; SC; rat; 2002; 2ML2; no comment posted.

3950 Wenk, G.L., Zajaczkowski, W., Danysz, W. Neuroprotection of acetylcholinergic basal forebrain neurons by memantine and neurokinin B. Behav. Brain Research 1997; 83(--):129-133. >>> Memantine; SC; rat; 2002; 2ML2; controls received surgery w/out mp.

3587 Misztal, M., Frankiewicz, T., Parsons, C.G., Danysz, W. Learning deficits induced by chronic intraventricular infusion of quinolinic acid - protection by MK-801 and memantine. Eur. J. Pharmacol 1996; 296(--):1-8. >>> Quinolinic acid; Memantine; MK-801; Saline; SC; CSF/CNS; rat; 2002; 2ML2; ALZET brain infusion kit used; animals were given ICV quinolinic acid concurrently w/ subcutaneous NMDA antagonists.

3451 Carlton, S.M., Hargett, G.L. Treatment with the NMDA antagonist memantine attenuates nociceptive responses to mechanical stimulation in neuropathic rats. Neurosci. Lett 1995; 198(--):115-118. >>> Memantine; Saline; DMSO; IP; rat; 2ML1; controls received mp w/ vehicle or sham surgery; functionality of mp verified by residual volume; comparison of IP injections vs. mp; 2 mps used in each animal; stress/adverse reaction: combination chronic memantine infusion: pump implantation may have contributed to weight loss; more remarkable antinociceptive effect seen w/infusion and it persisted for 3 days after infusion.

2838 Eisenberg, E., LaCross, S., Strassman, A.M. The clinically tested N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist memantine blocks and reverses thermal hyperalgesia in a rat model of painful mono-neuropathy. Neurosci. Lett 1995; 187(--):17-20. >>> Memantine; IP; rat; 2ML1; controls received mp w/ saline or no sciatic ligation; comparison of ip injections vs. mp; memantine is 1-amino-3,5-dimethyl-amandate, an NMDA receptor antagonist; multiple pumps per animal (2).

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10. Phencyclidine

4134 Ellison, G. The N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists phencyclidine, ketamine and dizocilpine as both behavioral and anatomical models of the dementias. Brain Res. Reviews 1995; 20(--):250-267. >>> Phencyclidine; MK-801; schizophrenia models; brief mention of mp on p. 256.

12876 Balla, A., Schneider, S., Sershen, H., Javitt, D.C. Effects of novel, high affinity glycine transport inhibitors on frontostriatal dopamine release in a rodent model of schizophrenia. European Neuropsychopharmacology 2012; 22(-12-):902-910. >>> Phencyclidine hydrochloride; Saline, sterile, physiological; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Control animals received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Sprague Dawley, male, wks old, 160-200 g, 280-320 g).

10624 Pedersen, C.S., Goetghebeur, P., Dias, R. Chronic infusion of PCP via osmotic mini-pumps: A new rodent model of cognitive deficit in schizophrenia characterized by impaired attentional set-shifting (ID/ED) performance. Journal of Neuroscience Methods 2009; 185(-1-):66-69. >>> Phencyclidine; SC; Rat; Controls received mp w/saline; animal info (Lister hooded, male); post op. care (Baitril, Rimadyl);"Using PCP mini-pump infusion instead of the well described intraperitoneal dosing bears the advantage of reducing the animal's stress levels, bypasses the risk of potential mis-dosing that could arise from multiple dosing events and consequently may reduce the number of animals needed."pg 69.

8040 Pitas, G., Laurenzana, E.M., Williams, D.K., Owens, S.M., Gentry, W.B. Anti-phencyclidine monoclonal antibody binding capacity is not the only determinant of effectiveness, disproving the concept that antibody capacity is easily surmounted. Drug Metabolism and Disposition 2006; 34(-6-):906-912. >>> Phencyclidine HCL; Saline, sterile; SC; Rat; 2ML1; Functionality of mp verified by serum PCP concentrations; half-life (pg. 907) 3.9 hours in rats; tolerance; animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 270-300g.).

7188 Sams-Dodd, F. (+) MK-801 and phencyclidine induced neurotoxicity do not cause enduring behaviours resembling the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia in the rat. BASIC&CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY&TOXICOLOGY 2004; 95(-5-):241-246. >>> MK-801; phencyclidine hydrochloride; Sodium chloride; SC; Rat; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; dose-response; comparison of SC injections vs. mp; post op. care (wound plast); NMDA antagonists.

6361 Balla, A., Sershen, H., Serra, M., Koneru, R., Javitt, D.C. Subchronic continuous phencyclidine administration potentiates amphetamine-induced frontal cortex dopamine release. Neuropsychopharmacology 2003; 28(-1-):34-44. >>> Phencyclidine, HCL; Saline, sterile physiological; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by serum PCP levels.

6073 Laurenzana, E.M., Gunnell, M.G., Gentry, W.B., Owens, S.M. Treatment of adverse effects of excessive phencyclidine exposure in rats with a minimal dose of monoclonal antibody. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 2003; 306(-3-):1092-1098. >>> Phencyclidine; phencyclidine HCL;; Saline; sterile; SC; Rat; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; serum levels taken; good methods p. 1093; half-life (p. 1093) =3.9 h in rats; dependence; behavioral study.

5308 Balla, A., Hashim, A., Burch, S., Javitt, D.C., Lajtha, A., Sershen, H. Phencyclidine-induced dysregulation of dopamine response to amphetamine in prefrontal cortex and striatum. Neurochem. Res 2001; 26(-8-9-):1001-1006. >>> Phencyclidine HCl; Saline; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by PCP serum levels; NMDA antagonist.

5264 Jebelli, A.K., Doan, N., Ellison, G. Prenatal phencyclidine induces heightened neurodegeneration in rats in some brain regions, especially during 2nd trimester, but possible anti-apoptotic effects in others. Pharmacol Toxicol 2002; 90(--):20-25. >>> Phencyclidine; Saline; SC; rat (pregnant); 2ML1; controls received a saline pellet as a"sham minipump"; teratology.

5047 Balla, A., Koneru, R., Smiley, J., Sershen, H., Javitt, D.C. Continuous phencyclidine treatment induces schizophrenia-like hyperreactivity of striatal dopamine release. Neuropsychopharmacology 2001; 25(-2-):157-164. >>> Phencyclidine HCl; Saline, sterile; SC; rat; 2ML4; controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by serum PCP levels; dose response (graphs p. 160); schizophrenia.

4926 Kyosseva, S.V., Owens, S., Elbein, A.D., Karson, C.N. Differential and region-specific activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases following chronic administration of phencyclidine in rat brain. Neuropsychopharmacology 2001; 24(--):267-277. >>> Phencyclidine HCl;; Saline;; SC;; rat;; 2ML2;; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; dose-response p. 270-271;.

4450 Martinez, Z.A., Ellison, G.D., Geyer, M.A., Swerdlow, N.R. Effects of sustained phencyclidine exposure on sensorimotor gating of startle in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology 1999; 21(--):28-39. >>> Phencyclidine HCl; SC;; rat;; controls received silastic polymer pellets ~ the same size and shape as mps; comparison of repeated IP injections vs. mp;.

4002 Ellison, G. Competitive and non-competitive NMDA antagonists induce similar limbic degeneration. NeuroReport 1994; 5(-18-):2688-2692. >>> Phencyclidine HCl; MK-801; LY-235959; rat; controls received empty mp; comparison of single injections vs. mp.

3876 Ellison, G., Switzer III, R.C. Dissimilar patterns of degeneration in brain following four different addictive stimulants. NeuroReport 1993; 5(--):17-20. >>> Phencyclidine HCl; SC; rat; comparison of pellets vs. mp.

3066 Burke, T.F., Buzzard, S., Wessinger, W.D. [3H]MK-801 binding to well-washed rat brain membranes following cessation of chronic phencyclidine treatment. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav 1995; 51(-2&3-):435-438. >>> Phencyclidine; SC; rat; 2ML2; controls received mp with saline; dependence.

3055 Saransaari, P., Lillrank, S.M., Oja, S.S. Phencyclidine treatment in mice: effects on phencyclidine binding sites and glutamate uptake in cerebral cortex preparations. J. Neural Transm 1993; 93(--):47-59. >>> Phencyclidine HCl; SC; mice; 2001; controls received empty mp.

2941 Owens, M.S., Gunnell, M., Laurenzana, E.M., Valentine, J.L. Dose- and time-dependent changes in phencyclidine metabolite covalent binding in rats and the possible role of CYP2D1. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther 1993; 265(-3-):1261-1266. >>> Phencyclidine HCl; Saline; SC; rat; 2ML2; controls received mp with saline, no treatment or sham surgery; pumps replaced at 10 days.

2805 Lillrank, S.M., Oja, S.S. Phencyclidine treatments differentially affect dopamine and D-aspartate release from frontal cortical and striatal slices from mice. Int. J. Neurosci 1992; 64(--):69-81. >>> Phencyclidine HCl; SC; mice; 2001; controls received sham operations.

2216 Bronson, M.E., Roberts, J. Withdrawal from chronic phencyclidine produces a pentylenetetrazol-like discriminative stimulus. Life Sci 1992; 50(-7-):499-504. >>> Phencyclidine; Water; SC; rat; 2ML2; controls received mp w/water; dependence; phencyclidine is PCP.

1873 Wessinger, W.D., Owens, S.M. Chronic administration of phencyclidine: pharmacokinetic comparison of intravenous and subcutaneous infusions in Sprague-Dawley rats. Drug Metab. Disp 1991; 19(-3-):719-721. >>> Phencyclidine; Saline; SC; rat; 2ML2; comparison of iv infusion by external infusion pump vs. sc infusion by ALZET pump; sc infusion data were much more reproducible (p. 719).

1815 Massey, B.W., Wessinger, W.D. Alterations in rat brain [3H]-TCP binding following chronic phencyclidine adminstration. Life Sci 1990; 47(--):L139-L143. >>> Phencyclidine; rat; 2ML2; no comment posted.

1764 Massey, B.W., Wessinger, W.D. Effects of terminating chronic phencyclidine on schedule-controlled behavior in rats. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav 1990; 36(--):117-121. >>> Phencyclidine; Saline; SC; rat; 2ML4; dependence.

225 Nabeshima, T., Sivam, S.P., Tai, C.Y., Ho, I.K. Development of dispositional tolerance to phencyclidine by osmotic minipump in the mouse. J. Pharmacol. Methods 1982; 7(--):239-253. >>> Phencyclidine; SC; mice; 1701; no comment posted.

183 Nabeshima, T., Sivam, S.P., Norris, J.C., Ho, I.K. Calcium-dependent GABA release from mouse brain slices following acute and chronic phencyclidine administration. Res. Commun. Substance Abuse 1981; 2(-4-):343-354. >>> Phencyclidine HCl; Saline; SC; mice; 1701; comparison of acute ip injections vs. chronic infusion.

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11. Phosphonovaleric

8465 Hahm, J.O., Langdon, R.B., Sur, M. Disruption of retinogeniculate afferent segregation by antagonists to NMDA receptors. Nature 1991; 351(-6327-):568-570. >>> MK-801; phosphonovaleric acid, D-2 amino-5-; phosphonovaleric acid, L-2 amino-5-; Saline; CSF/CNS; SC; Ferret; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle or inactive isomer; dose-response (fig. 1); cyanoacrylate adhesive used; animal info (2-3 weeks old).

8008 Takehara-Nishiuchi, K., Nakao, K., Kawahara, S., Matsuki, N., Kirino, Y. Systems consolidation requires postlearning activation of NMDA receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex in trace eyeblink conditioning. Journal of Neuroscience 2006; 26(-19-):5049-5058. >>> Phosphonovaleric acid, 2-amino-5-; CSF/CNS (prefrontal cortex); Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ a CSF; ALZET brain infusion kit 1 used; animal info (male, Wistar, 210-270g., 9 wk. old); NMDA receptor antagonist; cannula placement verified by Nissl-staining.

1639 Gu, Q., Bear, M.F., Singer, W. Blockade of NMDA-receptors prevents ocularity changes in kitten visual cortex after reversed monocular deprivation. Dev. Brain Research 1989; 47(--):281-288. >>> Phosphonovaleric acid, 2-amino-5-; Saline; CSF/CNS (visual cortex); cat; 2001; stress/adverse reaction: necrosis around cannula (see pg. 283-284); 2 pumps implanted per animal for bilateral infusion.

1594 Bear, M.F., Kleinschmidt, A., Gu, Q., Singer, W. Disruption of experience-dependent synaptic modifications in striate cortex by infusion of an NMDA receptor antagonist. J. Neurosci 1990; 10(-3-):909-925. >>> Phosphonovaleric acid, 2-amino-5-; Saline, sterile; CSF/CNS (striate cortex); cat; 2001; stability verified in vitro at 38 degrees for 7 days; discussion of spatial distribution via brain infusion, good methods.

1180 Kleinschmidt, A., Bear, M.F., Singer, W. Blockade of'NMDA'receptors disrupts experience-dependent plasticity of kitten striate cortex. Science 1987; 238(--):355-358. >>> Phosphonovaleric acid, 2-amino-5-; CSF/CNS (visual cortex); cat (kitten); Pump model not stated; controls left untreated; mp connected to cannula; multiple pumps per animal (2); agent infused in 1st pump, 2nd pump infused saline in opposite hemisphere; 2 doses of agent infused.

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12. Phosphonovaleric Acid, 2-amino-5-

P8242 Hahm,J.O., Langdon,R.B., Sur,M. Disruption of retinogeniculate afferent segregation by antagonists to NMDA receptors. Nature 1991; 351(-6327-):568-570. >>> MK-801; phosphonovaleric acid, D-2 amino-5-; phosphonovaleric acid, L-2 amino-5-; Saline; CSF/CNS; SC; Ferret; 2001; 1 week; Controls received mp w/ vehicle or inactive isomer; dose-response (fig. 1); cyanoacrylate adhesive used; animal info (2-3 weeks old).

P7792 Takehara-Nishiuchi,K., Nakao,K., Kawahara,S., Matsuki,N., Kirino,Y. Systems consolidation requires postlearning activation of NMDA receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex in trace eyeblink conditioning. Journal of Neuroscience 2006; 26(-19-):5049-5058. >>> Phosphonovaleric acid, 2-amino-5-; CSF/CNS (prefrontal cortex); Rat; 2002; 1, 2 weeks; 1 day; Controls received mp w/ a CSF; ALZET brain infusion kit 1 used; animal info (male, Wistar, 210-270g., 9 wk. old); NMDA receptor antagonist; cannula placement verified by Nissl-staining.

P1642 Gu,Q., Bear,M.F., Singer,W. Blockade of NMDA-receptors prevents ocularity changes in kitten visual cortex after reversed monocular deprivation. Dev.Brain Research 1989; 47(--):281-288. >>> Phosphonovaleric acid, 2-amino-5-; Saline; CSF/CNS (visual cortex); cat; 2001; no duration posted; stress/adverse reaction: necrosis around cannula (see pg. 283-284); 2 pumps implanted per animal for bilateral infusion.

P1597 Bear,M.F., Kleinschmidt,A., Gu,Q., Singer,W. Disruption of experience-dependent synaptic modifications in striate cortex by infusion of an NMDA receptor antagonist. J.Neurosci. 1990; 10(-3-):909-925. >>> Phosphonovaleric acid, 2-amino-5-; Saline, sterile; CSF/CNS (striate cortex); cat; 2001; 7 days; stability verified in vitro at 38 degrees for 7 days; discussion of spatial distribution via brain infusion, good methods.

P1180 Kleinschmidt,A., Bear,M.F., Singer,W. Blockade of 'NMDA' receptors disrupts experience-dependent plasticity of kitten striate cortex. Science 1987; 238(--):355-358. >>> Phosphonovaleric acid, 2-amino-5-; CSF/CNS (visual cortex); cat (kitten); 7 days; Pump model not stated; controls left untreated; mp connected to cannula; multiple pumps per animal (2); agent infused in 1st pump, 2nd pump infused saline in opposite hemisphere; 2 doses of agent infused.

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13. Quinolinic Acid

P8905 Yates,J.R., Heyes,M.P., Blight,A.R. 4-Chloro-3-hydroxyanthranilate reduces local quinolinic acid synthesis, improves functional recovery, and preserves white matter after spinal cord injury. Journal of Neurotrauma 2006; 23(-6-):866-881. >>> Quinolinic acid, 13C7-; Saline, physiological; IP; Guinea-pig; 1007D; 5 days; Brain tissue distribution; animal info (female, Hartley, adult, 300-480 g.); lateral compression of the spinal cord (spinal cord injury; SCI); nephrology; behavioral testing (motor testing, CTM reflex/sensory teseting).

P3973 Maeda,K., Kaneda,H., Whetsell,W.O., Tamminga,C.A. Neurochemical and metabolic consequences of elevated cerebrospinal fluid quinolinic acid concentrations in rat brain. Neurosci.Res. 1997; 29(--):303-309. >>> Quinolinic acid; PBS; CSF/CNS; rat; 2002; 14 days; controls received mp w/saline; comparison of ICV injections vs. mp; no stress (see pg. 305); stress/adverse reaction only in animals receiving ICV injections (pg.305).

P3815 Beagles,K.E., Morrison,P.F., Heyes,M.P. Quinolinic acid in vivo synthesis rates, extracellular concentrations, and intercompartmental distributions in normal and immune-activated brain as determined by multiple-isotope microdialysis. J.Neurochem. 1998; 70(--):281-291. >>> Quinolinic acid; Saline; 3H tracer; Radio-isotopes; SC; gerbil; 1007D; no duration posted; no comment posted.

P3492 Bazzett,T., Geiger,A., Coppola,B., Albin,R. The neuronal NOS inhibitor L-MIN, but not 7-NINA, reduces neurotoxic effects of chronic intrastriatal administration of quinolinic acid. Brain Research 1997; 775(--):229-232. >>> Quinolinic acid; Nitroindazole, 7-, sodium salt; thiocitrulline dihydrochloride, methyl-; PBS; CSF/CNS (striatum); rat; 2002; no duration posted; dose-response; microdialysis; quinolinic acid administered alone or w/1 other agent in same pump; enzyme inhibitor; nitric oxide synthase inhibitor;.

P3489 Heyes,M.P., Morrison,P.F. Quantification of local de novo synthesis versus blood contributions to quinolinic acid concentrations in brain and systemic tissues. J.Neurochem. 1997; 68(--):280-288. >>> Quinolinic acid; Saline; 13C tracer; Radio-isotopes; SC; gerbil; 1007D; 7 days; controls received saline; functionality of mp verified by in vitro assay, in vivo assays on blood and tissue samples; 13C-QUIN (labeled) used; analyzed fluid&tissue distribution of labeled quinolinic acid.

P3479 Misztal,M., Frankiewicz,T., Parsons,C.G., Danysz,W. Learning deficits induced by chronic intraventricular infusion of quinolinic acid - protection by MK-801 and memantine. Eur.J.Pharmacol. 1996; 296(--):1-8. >>> Quinolinic acid; Memantine; MK-801; Saline; SC; CSF/CNS; rat; 2002; 2ML2; 2 weeks; ALZET brain infusion kit used; animals were given ICV quinolinic acid concurrently w/ subcutaneous NMDA antagonists.

P3423 Misztal,M., Skangiel-Kramska,J., Niewiadomska,G., Danysz,W. Subchronic intraventricular infusion of quinolinic acid produces working memory impairment - a model of progressive excitotoxicity. Neuropharmacology 1996; 35(-4-):449-458. >>> Quinolinic acid; CSF/CNS; rat; 2002; 3, 14 days; ALZET brain infusion kit used; after 3 or 14 days, pumps were removed, infusion tubing sealed and left in place and behavioral testing was conducted.

P3084 Yamada,K., Fuji,K., Nabeshima,T., Kameyama,T. Neurotoxicity induced by continuous infusion of quinolinic acid into the lateral ventricle in rats. Neurosci.Lett. 1990; 118(--):128-131. >>> Quinolinic acid; PBS; CSF/CNS; rat; 2002; 7,14,21 days; controls received mp with vehicle; comparison of striatal injections vs. mp.

P3025 Vezzani,A., Forloni,G.L., Serafini,R., Rizzi,M., Samanin,R. Neurodegenerative effects induced by chronic infusion of quinolinic acid in rat striatum and hippocampus. Eur.J.Neurosci. 1990; 3(--):40-46. >>> Quinolinic acid; Nicotinic acid; AP7; Kynurenic acid; Radio-isotopes; 3H tracer; NaOH; PBS; HCI; CSF/CNS (striatum); CSF/CNS (hippocampus); rat; 2002; 15 hours - 2 weeks; Controls received mp with nicotinic acid; functionality of mp verified by measurement of radioactivity; dose response; neurodegenerative.

P2787 Kalisch,B.E., Jhamandas,K., Boegman,R.J., Beninger,R.J. Picolinic acid protects against quinolinic acid-induced depletion of NADPH diaphorase containing neurons in the rat striatum. Brain Research 1994; 668(--):1-8. >>> Quinolinic acid; Picolinic acid; Saline; CSF/CNS (striatum); rat; 2002; 1-7 days, 7 days; controls received mp w/ saline; agents infused alone or concomittantly.

P2571 Kaneda,H., Maeda,K. Alteration in regional brain neuropeptides following intracerebroventricular infusion of excitotoxins in rats. Biol.Psychiatry 1994; 36(--):103-109. >>> Ibotenic acid; Kainic acid; Quinolinic acid; PBS; CSF/CNS; rat; 2002; 14 days; controls received mp w/ vehicle.

P2180 Bazzett,T.J., Becker,J.B., Kaatz,K.W., Albin,R.L. Chronic intrastriatal dialytic administration of quinolinic acid produces selective neural degeneration. Exp.Neurol. 1993; 120(--):177-185. >>> Quinolinic acid; PBS; CSF/CNS (striatum); rat; 2002; 18 days; controls received mp w/phosphate buffered saline; microdialysis; pump attached to dialysis probe anchored via guide cannula; stylet maintained patency of 8 mm cannula.

P1997 Bazzett,T.J., Becker,J.B., Albin,R.L. A novel device for chronic intracranial drug delivery via microdialysis. J.Neurosci.Methods 1991; 40(--):1-8. >>> Quinolinic acid; CSF/CNS (striatum); rat; 2002; 14-17 days; functionality of mp verified in vitro for 22 days; detailed methods; excitotoxin; pumps used in a microdialysis infusion apparatus; detailed schematic on p. 2.

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14. Quinolinic Acid

6476 Stone, T.W. Kynurenines in the CNS: from endogenous obsurity to therapeutic importance. Progress in Neurobiology 2001; 64(--):185-218. >>> Quinolinic acid; CSF/CNS; Rat; .

9136 Yates, J.R., Heyes, M.P., Blight, A.R. 4-Chloro-3-hydroxyanthranilate reduces local quinolinic acid synthesis, improves functional recovery, and preserves white matter after spinal cord injury. Journal of Neurotrauma 2006; 23(-6-):866-881. >>> Quinolinic acid, 13C7-; Saline, physiological; IP; Guinea-pig; 1007D; Brain tissue distribution; animal info (female, Hartley, adult, 300-480 g.); lateral compression of the spinal cord (spinal cord injury; SCI); nephrology; behavioral testing (motor testing, CTM reflex/sensory teseting).

15479 Maeda, K., Kaneda, H., Whetsell, W.O., Tamminga, C.A. Neurochemical and metabolic consequences of elevated cerebrospinal fluid quinolinic acid concentrations in rat brain. Neurosci. Res 1997; 29(--):303-309. >>> Quinolinic acid; PBS; CSF/CNS; rat; 2002; controls received mp w/saline; comparison of ICV injections vs. mp; no stress (see pg. 305); stress/adverse reaction only in animals receiving ICV injections (pg.305).

4068 Maeda, K., Kaneda, H., Whetsell, W.O., Tamminga, C.A. Neurochemical and metabolic consequences of elevated cerebrospinal fluid quinolinic acid concentrations in rat brain. Neurosci. Res 1997; 29(--):303-309. >>> Quinolinic acid; PBS; CSF/CNS; rat; 2002; controls received mp w/saline; comparison of ICV injections vs. mp; no stress (see pg. 305); stress/adverse reaction only in animals receiving ICV injections (pg.305).

3912 Beagles, K.E., Morrison, P.F., Heyes, M.P. Quinolinic acid in vivo synthesis rates, extracellular concentrations, and intercompartmental distributions in normal and immune-activated brain as determined by multiple-isotope microdialysis. J. Neurochem 1998; 70(--):281-291. >>> Quinolinic acid; Saline; 3H tracer; Radio-isotopes; SC; gerbil; 1007D; no comment posted.

3600 Bazzett, T., Geiger, A., Coppola, B., Albin, R. The neuronal NOS inhibitor L-MIN, but not 7-NINA, reduces neurotoxic effects of chronic intrastriatal administration of quinolinic acid. Brain Research 1997; 775(--):229-232. >>> Quinolinic acid; Nitroindazole, 7-, sodium salt; thiocitrulline dihydrochloride, methyl-; PBS; CSF/CNS (striatum); rat; 2002; dose-response; microdialysis; quinolinic acid administered alone or w/1 other agent in same pump; enzyme inhibitor; nitric oxide synthase inhibitor;.

3597 Heyes, M.P., Morrison, P.F. Quantification of local de novo synthesis versus blood contributions to quinolinic acid concentrations in brain and systemic tissues. J. Neurochem 1997; 68(--):280-288. >>> Quinolinic acid; Saline; 13C tracer; Radio-isotopes; SC; gerbil; 1007D; controls received saline; functionality of mp verified by in vitro assay, in vivo assays on blood and tissue samples; 13C-QUIN (labeled) used; analyzed fluid&tissue distribution of labeled quinolinic acid.

3587 Misztal, M., Frankiewicz, T., Parsons, C.G., Danysz, W. Learning deficits induced by chronic intraventricular infusion of quinolinic acid - protection by MK-801 and memantine. Eur. J. Pharmacol 1996; 296(--):1-8. >>> Quinolinic acid; Memantine; MK-801; Saline; SC; CSF/CNS; rat; 2002; 2ML2; ALZET brain infusion kit used; animals were given ICV quinolinic acid concurrently w/ subcutaneous NMDA antagonists.

3531 Misztal, M., Skangiel-Kramska, J., Niewiadomska, G., Danysz, W. Subchronic intraventricular infusion of quinolinic acid produces working memory impairment - a model of progressive excitotoxicity. Neuropharmacology 1996; 35(-4-):449-458. >>> Quinolinic acid; CSF/CNS; rat; 2002; ALZET brain infusion kit used; after 3 or 14 days, pumps were removed, infusion tubing sealed and left in place and behavioral testing was conducted.

3192 Yamada, K., Fuji, K., Nabeshima, T., Kameyama, T. Neurotoxicity induced by continuous infusion of quinolinic acid into the lateral ventricle in rats. Neurosci. Lett 1990; 118(--):128-131. >>> Quinolinic acid; PBS; CSF/CNS; rat; 2002; controls received mp with vehicle; comparison of striatal injections vs. mp.

3133 Vezzani, A., Forloni, G.L., Serafini, R., Rizzi, M., Samanin, R. Neurodegenerative effects induced by chronic infusion of quinolinic acid in rat striatum and hippocampus. Eur. J. Neurosci 1990; 3(--):40-46. >>> Quinolinic acid; Nicotinic acid; AP7; Kynurenic acid; Radio-isotopes; 3H tracer; NaOH; PBS; HCI; CSF/CNS (striatum); CSF/CNS (hippocampus); rat; 2002; Controls received mp with nicotinic acid; functionality of mp verified by measurement of radioactivity; dose response; neurodegenerative.

2886 Kalisch, B.E., Jhamandas, K., Boegman, R.J., Beninger, R.J. Picolinic acid protects against quinolinic acid-induced depletion of NADPH diaphorase containing neurons in the rat striatum. Brain Research 1994; 668(--):1-8. >>> Quinolinic acid; Picolinic acid; Saline; CSF/CNS (striatum); rat; 2002; controls received mp w/ saline; agents infused alone or concomittantly.

2659 Kaneda, H., Maeda, K. Alteration in regional brain neuropeptides following intracerebroventricular infusion of excitotoxins in rats. Biol. Psychiatry 1994; 36(--):103-109. >>> Ibotenic acid; Kainic acid; Quinolinic acid; PBS; CSF/CNS; rat; 2002; controls received mp w/ vehicle.

2174 Bazzett, T.J., Becker, J.B., Kaatz, K.W., Albin, R.L. Chronic intrastriatal dialytic administration of quinolinic acid produces selective neural degeneration. Exp. Neurol 1993; 120(--):177-185. >>> Quinolinic acid; PBS; CSF/CNS (striatum); rat; 2002; controls received mp w/phosphate buffered saline; microdialysis; pump attached to dialysis probe anchored via guide cannula; stylet maintained patency of 8 mm cannula.

1993 Bazzett, T.J., Becker, J.B., Albin, R.L. A novel device for chronic intracranial drug delivery via microdialysis. J. Neurosci. Methods 1991; 40(--):1-8. >>> Quinolinic acid; CSF/CNS (striatum); rat; 2002; functionality of mp verified in vitro for 22 days; detailed methods; excitotoxin; pumps used in a microdialysis infusion apparatus; detailed schematic on p. 2.

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“Angiostatin was administered through continuous infusion...the continuous administration of angiogenesis inhibitors has greater therapeutic efficacy than the more commonly used twice-daily injections.” (p. 80) Reijneveld et al., European Journal of Clinical Investigation 2003;33:76-81.