Recent References on the Study of Obesity, Appetite & Satiety
Using ALZET® Osmotic Pumps

1. Agouti-Related Peptide

9460 Sutton, G.M., Perez-Tilve, D., Nogueiras, R., Fang, J.D., Kim, J.K., Cone, R.D., Gimble, J.M., Tschoep, M.H., Butler, A.A. The Melanocortin-3 Receptor Is Required for Entrainment to Meal Intake. Journal of Neuroscience 2008; 28(-48-):12946-12955. >>> Agouti-related peptide (82-131); CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS; Mice; 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; ALZET brain infusion kit used; dental cement and stay screws used; peptides; post op. care (Buprenorphine); animal info (male, B6, 8 wks old).

9241 Hillebrand, J.J.G., Kas, M.J.H., Scheurink, A.J.W., van Dijk, G., Adan, R.A.H. AgRP(83-132) and SHU9119 differently affect activity-based anorexia. European Neuropsychopharmacology 2006; 16(-6-):403-412. >>> SHU9119; agouti-related protein (83-132), human; Saline, sterile, isotonic; CSF/CNS; Rat; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; ALZET brain infusion kit 2 used; peptides; post op. care (Buprenorphine, temagesic); animal info (female, Wistar wu); melanocortin antagonist.

8532 Joppa, M.A., Gogas, K.R., Foster, A.C., Markison, S. Central infusion of the melanocortin receptor antagonist agouti-related peptide (AgRP(83-132)) prevents cachexia-related symptoms induced by radiation and colon-26 tumors in mice. Peptides 2007; 28(-3-):636-642. >>> Agouti-related peptide (83-132); Saline, sterile; CSF/CNS; Mice; 1003D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; cancer (colon adenocarcinoma); peptides; animal info (male, BALB/C, 6 weeks old, 22 grams); Research Diets D12689B.

5987 Kas, M.J.H., van Dijk, G., Scheurink, A.J.W., Adan, R.A.H. Agouti-related protein prevents self-starvation. Molecular Psychiatry 2003; 8(-2-):235-240. >>> Agouti-related protein; Saline; CSF/CNS; Rat; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; ALZET brain infusion kit used; peptides; catheter tubing filled w/ saline to allow 2-3 day delayed infusion; Agouti-related protein is a suppressor of melanocortin receptor activity.

5731 Fekete, C., Sarkar, S., Rand, W.M., Harney, J.W., Emerson, C.H., Bianco, A.C., Lechan, R.M. Agouti-related protein (AGRP) has a central inhibitory action on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis; Comparisons between the effect of AGRP and neuropeptide Y on energy homeostasis and the HPT axis. Endocrinology 2002; 143(-10-):3846-3853. >>> Neuropeptide Y; Agouti-related protein; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS; rat; 1003D; peptides; cannula was implanted then occluded with a dummy cannula for one week prior to infusion to allow for recovery; AGRP is an appetite stimulant.

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2. CART (55-102)

9427 Singh, M.K., Elefteriou, F., Karsenty, G. Cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript may regulate bone remodeling as a circulating molecule. Endocrinology 2008; 149(-8-):3933-3941. >>> CART; PBS; CSF/CNS (third ventricle); Mice (transgenic); Controls received mp w/ vehicle; ALZET brain infusion kit 2 used; cyanoacrylate adhesive; animal info (CART -/-, female, 5 months old); compound also known as cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript, a mediator of the leptin regulation of bone mass.

7226 Choi, Y.H., la-Fera, M.A., Li, C.L., Hartzell, D.L., Little, D.E., Kuhar, M.J., Balle, C.A. CART peptide: central mediator of leptin-induced adipose tissue apoptosis?. REGULATORY PEPTIDES 2004; 121(-1-3-):155-162. >>> CART (55-102); leptin, recomb. rat; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS; Rat; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; dose-response; peptides; mp primed overnight; catheter connecting mp to cannula filled with 12 ul aCSF to give 24 hours lag time before agent delivery.

5163 Rohner-Jeanrenaud, F., Craft, L.S., Bridwell, J., Suter, T.M., Tinsley, F.C., Smiley, D.L., Burkhart, D.R., Statnick, M.A., Heiman, M.L., Ravussin, E., Caro, J.F. Chronic central infusion of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART 55-102): effects on body weight homeostasis in lean and high -fat-fed obese rats. International Journal of Obesity 2002; 26(--):143-149. >>> CART (55-102); Saline; ascorbic acid;; CSF/CNS; rat; 2001; controls received mp w/ vehicle; in vitro stability verified by HPLC: 72% of agent was stable after 7 days (p. 145); peptides; ALZET Brain Infusion Kit used; CART is Cocaine-and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript; pumps primed for at least 20 hours (p. 144).

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3. Corticotropin-Releasing Factor

13656 Park, A.J., Collins, J., Blennerhassett, P.A., Ghia, J.E., Verdu, E.F., Bercik, P., Collins, S.M. Altered colonic function and microbiota profile in a mouse model of chronic depression. NEUROGASTROENTEROLOGY AND MOTILITY 2013; 25(-9-):733-E575. >>> Corticotropin releasing hormone; Saline; CSF/CNS; Mice; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, C57BL/6, 8-10 weeks old); behavioral testing (Step down test, tail suspension test, open field); peptides; cyanoacrylate adhesive; Corticotropin-rel. factor aka Corticotropin releasing hormone; Plastics 1 cannula, DURECT PE 60 tubing..

10376 Kinsey-Jones, J.S., Li, X.F., Knox, A.M.I., Lin, Y.S., Milligan, S.R., Lightman, S.L., O'Byrne, K.T. Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Alters the Timing of Puberty in the Female Rat. Journal of Neuroendocrinology 2010; 22(-2-):102-109. >>> Corticotrophin-releasing factor; astressin-B; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2002; Controls received no treatment/surgery; peptides; no stress (see pg. 105); animal info (female, Sprague-Dawley, 28 days old); dose-response (fig. 1); neuroendocrinology.

10190 Bosch, O.J., Nair, H.P., Ahern, T.H., Neumann, I.D., Young, L.J. The CRF System Mediates Increased Passive Stress-Coping Behavior Following the Loss of a Bonded Partner in a Monogamous Rodent. Neuropsychopharmacology 2009; 34(-6-):1406-1415. >>> Corticotrophin-releasing factor, d-phe; CP-154526; astressin-2b; CSF/CNS; Prairie vole; 1007D; ALZET brain infusion kit 3 used; cyanoacrylate adhesive; animal info (naive, adult, male, female, 70-100 g); catheter contained ringers solution for delayed delivery of 44 hours.

9379 Teitelbaum, A.A., Gareau, M.G., Jury, J., Yang, P.C., Perdue, M.H. Chronic peripheral administration of corticotropin-releasing factor causes colonic barrier dysfunction similar to psychological stress. American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 2008; 295(-3-):G452-G459. >>> Corticotropin-releasing factor; Stressin1; sauvagine, anti-; urocortin III; Saline; SC; Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; peptides; multiple pumps per animal (2); animal info (mast cell-deficient, +/+, 10 wks old, 200-250 g.);"The use of the minipump avoids daily interactions with the animals, possibly causing less variability in the results."pg G458; stressin1 is a selective CFR-R1 agonist; urocortin III is a CFR-R2 agonist; antisauvagine is a CRF-R2 antagonist.

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4. Dexfenfluramine

11155 Banas, S.M., Doly, S., Boutourlinsky, K., Diaz, S.L., Belmer, A., Callebert, J., Collet, C., Launay, J.M., Maroteaux, L. Deconstructing Antiobesity Compound Action: Requirement of Serotonin 5-HT(2B) Receptors for Dexfenfluramine Anorectic Effects. Neuropsychopharmacology 2011; 36(-2-):423-433. >>> Dexfenfluramine; SC; Mice; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (8 wks old, male, 8-12 wks old, 5-HT2B-/-); obesity.

10090 Desbuards, N., Antier, D., Rochefort, G.Y., Apfeldorfer, C.S., Schenck, E., Hanton, G., Hyvelin, J.M. Dexfenfluramine discontinuous treatment does not worsen hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling but activates RhoA/ROCK pathway: Consequences on pulmonary hypertension. European Journal of Pharmacology 2009; 602(-2-3-):355-363. >>> Dexfenfluramine; Water, sterile; IV (jugular); Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, Wistar, 250-275 g.).

8037 Callebert, J., Esteve, J.M., Herve, P., Peoc'h, K., Tournois, C., Drouet, L., Launay, J.M., Maroteaux, L. Evidence for a control of plasma serotonin levels by 5-hydroxytryptamine2B receptors in mice. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 2006; 317(-2-):724-731. >>> Dexfenfluramine; RS-127445; Mice; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; comparison of IP injections vs. mp; cardiovascular; animal info (129PAS wt or 5-HT2B-R(-/-), 6wk old, 20-25g, male, female).

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5. Ghrelin

16143 Nojiri, T., Hosoda, H., Kimura, T., Tokudome, T., Miura, K., Takabatake, H., Miyazato, M., Okumura, M., Kangawa, K. Protective effects of ghrelin on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice. Peptides 2016; 82(--):85-91. >>> Ghrelin; Saline; SC; Mice; 1003D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; toxicology; cardiovascular; Dose 0.8 ug/kg/min;.

15825 Veronique St-Onge, AlexanderWatts, Alfonso Abizaid. Ghrelin enhances cue-induced bar pressing for high fat food. Horm. Behav 2016; 78(--):141-149. >>> Ghrelin; growth hormone-releasing peptide 6, [D-Lys-3]; Saline; CSF/CNS (ventral tegmental area); Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Long evans, 216-375g); post op. care (SC injection of meloxicam; feed of mashed food); behavioral testing (food operant responses); used Plastics One cannula; obesity;.

15177 Zhang, Y.Y., Fang, F., Goldstein, J.L., Brown, M.S., Zhao, T.J., Goldstein, J.L. Reduced autophagy in livers of fasted, fat-depleted, ghrelin-deficient mice: Reversal by growth hormone. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 2015; 112(--):1226-1231. >>> Ghrelin, recombinant rat; Sodium bicarbonate; NaCl; albumin, rat; SC; Mice; 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Goat -/-, 8 weeks old); diabetes; obesity;.

15168 Zeng, W.W., Lu, Y.H., Lee, J., Friedman, J.M., Friedman, J.M. Reanalysis of parabiosis of obesity mutants in the age of leptin. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 2015; 112(--):E3874-E3882. >>> Leptin; acyl-ghrelin; growth hormone; SC; Mice; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (C57BL6J or db or clusterin KO, 6-8 weeks old); functionality of mp verified by leptin plasma levels; obesity;.

15121 Trivedi, C., Shan, X.Y., Tung, Y.C.L., Kabra, D., Holland, J., Amburgy, S., Heppner, K., Kirchner, H., Yeo, G.S.H., Perez-Tilve, D., Perez-Tilve, D. Tachykinin-1 in the Central Nervous System Regulates Adiposity in Rodents. ENDOCRINOLOGY 2015; 156(--):1714-1723. >>> Ghrelin; neuropeptide K; Saline; CSF/CNS (fourth ventricle); CSF/CNS; Rat; mice; 1002;1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (rat male, Wistar, 260-290g; mice male, C57Bl6, 12-16 weeks old); ALZET brain infusion kit used; dose-response (pg 1718); post op. care (analgesics); behavioral testing (locomotor activity); neuropeptide K aka NPK;.

15089 Stark, R., Reichenbach, A., Lockie, S.H., Pracht, C., Wu, Q.L., Tups, A., Andrews, Z.B., Andrews, Z.B. Acyl Ghrelin Acts in the Brain to Control Liver Function and Peripheral Glucose Homeostasis in Male Mice. ENDOCRINOLOGY 2015; 156(--):858-868. >>> Ghrelin, acyl; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS (third ventricle); Mice; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, C57BL6); ALZET brain infusion kit 3 used; tissue perfusion (third ventricle);.

15005 Li, B., Zeng, M., He, W.M., Huang, X.B., Luo, L., Zhang, H.W., Deng, D.Y.B., Zeng, M. Ghrelin Protects Alveolar Macrophages Against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Apoptosis Through Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor 1a-Dependent c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase and Wnt/beta-Catenin Signaling and Suppresses Lung Inflammation. ENDOCRINOLOGY 2015; 156(--):182-192. >>> Ghrelin; Saline; IV (jugular); Rat; 2001D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 6-7 weeks old, 300 +/- 20g); immunology; pumps primed for 3 hours in 37C saline;.

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6. Glucagon-like Peptide

14825 Aravindhan, K., Bao, W.K., Harpel, M.R., Willette, R.N., Lepore, J.J., Jucker, B.M., Jucker, B.M. Cardioprotection Resulting from Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Administration Involves Shifting Metabolic Substrate Utilization to Increase Energy Efficiency in the Rat Heart. PLoS One 2015; 10(--):U1979-U1996. >>> Glucagon-like peptide-1; Saline; SC; Rat; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 250-300g); ischemia (cardiac); post op. care (Saline IP, 37C incubator until fully ambulatory); cardiovascular;.

13337 Sueyoshi, R., Ralls, M.W., Teitelbaum, D.H. Glucagon-like peptide 2 increases efficacy of distraction enterogenesis. Journal of Surgical Research 2013; 184(-1-):365-373. >>> Glucagon-like peptide 2 analog;; PEG; SC; Mice; 1007D; Control animals received mp w/ GLP-2 w/o PEG; animal info (C57BL/6, 22 g, 10 wks old).

13296 Nguyen, T.D., Shingu, Y., Amorim, P.A., Schwarzer, M., Doenst, T. Glucagon-like peptide-1 reduces contractile function and fails to boost glucose utilization in normal hearts in the presence of fatty acids. International Journal of Cardiology 2013; 168(-4-):4085-4092. >>> Glucagon-like peptide-1; Saline; IV (jugular vein); Rat; 2ML4; Cardiovascular; peptides; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley rats, 250-350g, 110-130g); functionality verified by residual volume; diabetes;.

12664 Ma, T., Du, X.L., Pick, J.E., Sui, G.Z., Brownlee, M., Klann, E. Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Cleavage Product GLP-1(9-36) Amide Rescues Synaptic Plasticity and Memory Deficits in Alzheimer's Disease Model Mice. Journal of Neuroscience 2012; 32(-40-):13701-13708. >>> Glucagon-like peptide-1 (9-36), amide; Mice; 1002; Animal info (APP/PS1, male, female, 12 mo old); behavioral testing (Morris water maze test); neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's disease).

11924 Moreno, P., Nuche-Berenguer, B., Gutierrez-Rojas, I., Acitores, A., Sancho, V., Valverde, I., Gonzalez, N., Villanueva-Penacarrillo, M.L. Normalizing action of exendin-4 and GLP-1 in the glucose metabolism of extrapancreatic tissues in insulin-resistant and type 2 diabetic states. Journal of Molecular Endocrinology 2012; 48(-1-):37-47. >>> Glucagon-like peptide-1; exendin-4; Saline; SC; Rat; 1003D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Wistar, male, 8 wks old).

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7. Glucagon-like Peptide-1

Q4308 Aravindhan,K., Bao,W.K., Harpel,M.R., Willette,R.N., Lepore,J.J., Jucker,B.M., Jucker,B.M. Cardioprotection Resulting from Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Administration Involves Shifting Metabolic Substrate Utilization to Increase Energy Efficiency in the Rat Heart. PLoS One 2015; 10(--):U1979-U1996. >>> Glucagon-like peptide-1; Saline; SC; Rat; 2ML2; ; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 250-300g); ischemia (cardiac); post op. care (Saline IP, 37C incubator until fully ambulatory); cardiovascular;.

Q3007 Nguyen,T.D., Shingu,Y., Amorim,P.A., Schwarzer,M., Doenst,T. Glucagon-like peptide-1 reduces contractile function and fails to boost glucose utilization in normal hearts in the presence of fatty acids. International Journal of Cardiology 2013; 168(-4-):4085-4092. >>> Glucagon-like peptide-1; Saline; IV (jugular vein); Rat; 2ML4; 28 Days; Cardiovascular; peptides; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley rats, 250-350g, 110-130g); functionality verified by residual volume; diabetes;.

Q2378 Ma,T., Du,X.L., Pick,J.E., Sui,G.Z., Brownlee,M., Klann,E. Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Cleavage Product GLP-1(9-36) Amide Rescues Synaptic Plasticity and Memory Deficits in Alzheimer's Disease Model Mice. Journal of Neuroscience 2012; 32(-40-):13701-13708. >>> Glucagon-like peptide-1 (9-36), amide; Mice; 1002; 2 weeks; Animal info (APP/PS1, male, female, 12 mo old); behavioral testing (Morris water maze test); neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's disease).

Q1718 Tomas,E., Wood,J.A., Stanojevic,V., Habener,J.F. GLP-1-derived nonapeptide GLP-1(28-36)amide inhibits weight gain and attenuates diabetes and hepatic steatosis in diet-induced obese mice. REGULATORY PEPTIDES 2011; 169(-1-3-):43-48. >>> Glucagon-like peptide-1 (28-36); Saline; albumin, human serum; acetic acid; SC; Mice; 1004; 4, 8 weeks; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (C57BL/6, male, 10-17 wks old); peptides; pumps replaced after 4 weeks; long-term study.

Q1653 Moreno,P., Nuche-Berenguer,B., Gutierrez-Rojas,I., Acitores,A., Sancho,V., Valverde,I., Gonzalez,N., Villanueva-Penacarrillo,M.L. Normalizing action of exendin-4 and GLP-1 in the glucose metabolism of extrapancreatic tissues in insulin-resistant and type 2 diabetic states. Journal of Molecular Endocrinology 2012; 48(-1-):37-47. >>> Glucagon-like peptide-1; exendin-4; Saline; SC; Rat; 1003D; 3 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Wistar, male, 8 wks old).

Q1519 Nagashima,M., Watanabe,T., Terasaki,M., Tomoyasu,M., Nohtomi,K., Kim-Kaneyama,J., Miyazaki,A., Hirano,T. Native incretins prevent the development of atherosclerotic lesions in apolipoprotein E knockout mice. Diabetologia 2011; 54(-10-):2649-2659. >>> Glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) amide; glucagon-like peptide-1 (9-36) amide; exendin (9-39) amide; glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (1-42); glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (3-42); glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, pro 3; Saline; Mice; 1007D; 4 weeks; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (apoE -/-, 17 wks old); peptides.

Q1348 Shen,C.A., Fagan,S., Fischman,A.J., Carter,E.E., Chai,J.K., Lu,X.M., Yu,Y.M., Tompkins,R.G. Effects of glucagon-like peptide 1 on glycemia control and its metabolic consequence after severe thermal injury-studies in an animal model. Surgery 2011; 149(-5-):635-644. >>> Glucagon-like peptide-1, (7-36); SC; Rat; ; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (male, CD, 400 g); peptides.

Q0808 Poornima,I., Brown,S.B., Bhashyam,S., Parikh,P., Bolukoglu,H., Shannon,R.P. Chronic Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Infusion Sustains Left Ventricular Systolic Function and Prolongs Survival in the Spontaneously Hypertensive, Heart Failure-Prone Rat. Circulation-Heart Failure 2008; 1(-3-):153-160. >>> Glucagon-like peptide-1; Rat; ; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (9 mo old, SHHF); long-term study; pumps replaced every 21 days; obesity; diabetes; peptides.

Q0780 Borkiewicz,P., Pawlak,M., Mackowiak,P. The Results of Prolonged Action of GLP-1 on Some Metabolic Parameters. FOLIA BIOLOGICA-KRAKOW 2011; 59(-1-2-):13-17. >>> Glucagon-like peptide-1; IP; Rat; 13 days; Controls received mp w/ NaCl; animal info (male, Wistar, 150 g); comparison of IP injections vs. mp; "We concur that the pumps are more correct for long-term metabolic experiments because of the sustenance of stable amounts of used substances, previously placed in the body of animals." pg 14; "Stable and continuous maintenance of a proper concentration of the peptide using Alzet osmotic minipumps can probably achieve a stronger biological effect compared with repeatable application." pg 16; obesity.

Q0766 Liu,Q., Adams,L., Broyde,A., Fernandez,R., Baron,A.D., Parkes,D.G. The exenatide analogue AC3174 attenuates hypertension, insulin resistance, and renal dysfunction in Dahl salt-sensitive rats. Cardiovascular Diabetology 2010; 9(-;-):1-10. >>> AC3174; glucagon-like peptide-1; SC; Rat; 4 weeks; Animal info (7 wks old, Dahl salt-sensitive (DSS), 209 g); peptides; antihypertensive; cardiovascular; AC3174 is an exenatide analogue.

Q0765 Liu,Q., Anderson,C., Broyde,A., Polizzi,C., Fernandez,R., Baron,A., Parkes,D.G. Glucagon-like peptide-1 and the exenatide analogue AC3174 improve cardiac function, cardiac remodeling, and survival in rats with chronic heart failure. Cardiovascular Diabetology 2010; 9(-;-):U1-U14. >>> Glucagon-like peptide-1; AC3174; DMSO; water; SC; Rat; 11 weeks; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 200-225 g); long-term study; peptides; behavioral testing (treadmill test); 25% DMSO used; myocardial infarction; AC3174 is a exenatide analogue.

P9821 Wideman,R.D., Gray,S.L., Covey,S.D., Webb,G.C., Kieffer,T.J. Transplantation of PC1/3-Expressing alpha-cells Improves Glucose Handling and Cold Tolerance in Leptin-resistant Mice. MOLECULAR THERAPY 2009; 17(-1-):191-198. >>> Glucagon-like peptide-2, rat; glucagon-like peptide-1, human (7-36) amide; oxytomodulin; Saline; IP; Mice; 1004; ; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; peptides; animal info (db/db, 6 wks old).

P9652 Nogueiras,R., Perez-Tilve,D., Veyrat-Durebex,C., Morgan,D.A., Varela,L., Haynes,W.G., Patterson,J.T., Disse,E., Pfluger,P.T., Lopez,M., Woods,S.C., DiMarchi,R., Dieguez,C., Rahmouni,K., Rohner-Jeanrenaud,F., Tschoep,M.H. Direct Control of Peripheral Lipid Deposition by CNS GLP-1 Receptor Signaling Is Mediated by the Sympathetic Nervous System and Blunted in Diet-Induced Obesity. Journal of Neuroscience 2009; 29(-18-):5916-5925. >>> Glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36); exendin (9-39); CSF/CNS; Mice; 1003D; 1007D; 7 days; 48 hours; Controls received mp w/Saline; ALZET brain infusion kit 3 used; post op. care (buprenorphine); animal info (8 wks old, wt, eTKO); peptides.

P9358 Nuche-Berenguer,B., Moreno,P., Esbrit,P., Dapia,S., Caeiro,J.R., Cancelas,J., Haro-Mora,J.J., Villanueva-Penacarrillo,M.L. Effect of GLP-1 Treatment on Bone Turnover in Normal, Type 2 Diabetic, and Insulin-Resistant States. Calcified Tissue International 2009; 84(-6-):453-461. >>> Glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) amide; Saline; Rat; 3 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Wistar); peptides.

P8567 Zhang,J., Tokui,Y., Yamagata,K., Kozawa,J., Sayama,K., Iwahashi,H., Okita,K., Miuchi,M., Konya,H., Hamaguchi,T., Namba,M., Shimomura,I., Miyagawa,J.I. Continuous stimulation of human glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) amide in a mouse model (NOD) delays onset of autoimmune type 1 diabetes. Diabetologia 2007; 50(-9-):1900-1909. >>> Glucagon-like peptide-1; Acetic acid buffer, 5%; SC; Mice (NOD); 2004; 4 or 8 weeks; Controls received mp w/ saline; functionality of mp verified by GLP-1 plasma levels; long-term study; pumps replaced after 4 weeks; animal info (female, NOD mice, 8 weeks old); diabetes; "plasma concentrations of active GLP-1...after pump implantation were significantly elevated and about 1.5 fold higher than before the pump implantation. We therefore considered this delivery system to be appropriate for this experiment." (p. 1903); peptides.

P8399 Perry,T., Holloway,H.W., Weerasuriya,A., Mouton,P.R., Duffy,K., Mattison,J.A., Greig,N.H. Evidence of GLP-1-mediated neuroprotection in an animal model of pyridoxine-induced peripheral sensory neuropathy. Experimental Neurology 2007; 203(-2-):293-301. >>> Glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36)-amide; exendin-4; exendin (9-39); peptide, inactive; SC; Rat; 14 days; Controls received mp w/ scrambled, inactive, 30aa peptide; functionality of mp verified by plasma GLP-1 levels; dose-response (fig. 3); half-life (pg. 293) 1.5 min. in rodents (GLP-1), 120 min. in rodents (Ex4); peptides; multiple pumps per animal (2); animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 300-350g.).

P6648 Nikolaidis,L.A., Hentosz,T., Stolarski,C., Elahi,D., Shannon,R.P. Recombinant glucagon like peptide-1 (rGLP-1) improves survival in spontaneously hypertensive heart failure (SHHF) rats. Circulation 2003; 108(-17-):93-94. >>> Glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) amide; Saline; SC; Rat; ; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; peptides.

P6185 Farilla,L., Hui,H.X., Bertolotto,C., Kang,E., Bulotta,A., Di Mario,U., Perfetti,R. Glucagon-like peptide-1 promotes islet cell growth and inhibits apoptosis in Zucker diabetic rats. Endocrinology 2002; 143(-11-):4397-4408. >>> Glucagon-like peptide-1; Saline; SC; Rat; 2 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; peptides.

P5478 Hui,H.X., Farilla,L., Merkel,P., Perfetti,R. The short half-life of glucagon-like peptide-1 in plasma does not reflect its long-lasting beneficial effects. European Journal of Endocrinology 2002; 146(-6-):863-869. >>> Glucagon-like peptide-1; SC; Rat; 2 days; Dose-respose (figure 2, p. 146); half-life (p. 863) 1.5 - 5 min; peptides; agent is human recombinant.

P5320 Perry,T., Haughey,N.J., Mattson,M.P., Egan,J.M., Greig,N.H. Protection and reversal of excitotoxic neuronal damage by glucagon-like peptide-1 and exendin-4. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 2002; 302(-3-):881-888. >>> Glucagon-like peptide-1; Exendin-4; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS; Rat; 1002; 14 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; Exendin-4 half-life (p. 882) approx 120 mins; peptides; ALZET brain infusion kit used.

P4482 Wang,Y, Perfetti,R, Greig,N.H, Hooloway,H.W, Deore,K.A, Montrose-Rafizadeh,C, Elahi,D, Egan,J.M. Glucagon-like peptide-1 can reverse the age-related decline in glucose tolerance in rats.. The Journal of Clinical Investigation 1997/6; 99(-12-):2883-2889. >>> Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1); Saline; SC; Rat; 48 hours; Controls received mp w/vehicle; functionality of mp verified by plasma GLP-1 levels; peptides.

P4217 Donahey,J.C.K., van Dijk,G., Woods,S.C., Seeley,R.J. Intraventricular GLP-1 reduces short- but not long-term food intake or body weight in lean and obese rats. Brain Research 1998; 779(--):75-83. >>> Glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) amide; Saline; CSF/CNS (third ventricle); rat; 2002; 4 days; controls received mp w/saline; functionality of mp verified by movement of air bubble along tubing; one week recovery after cannula placement; cannula placement confirmed by administration of angiotensin II; pump filled with saline and agent and loaded in catheter tubing; air bubble used to separate solutions; Lynch coil technique; peptides.

P3837 Mizuno,A., Kuwajima,M., Ishida,K., Noma,Y., Murakami,T., Tateishi,K., Sato,I., Shima,K. Extrapancreatic action of truncated glucagon-like peptide-1 in otsuka long-evans tokushima fatty rats, an animal model for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Metabolism 1997; 46(-7-):745-749. >>> Glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) amide; SC; rat; 2002; 4 weeks; controls received mp w/vehicle; functionality of mp verified by plasma GLP-1 assays at days 0 and 12; peptides.

P3287 Kawai,K., Ohashi,S. Long-term (1-month) administration of GLP-1(7-36)amide to normal and diabetic rats. Digestion 1993; 54(-6-):359-360. >>> Glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) amide; SC; rat; 2ML4; 4 weeks; controls received sham operation; peptides.

P3172 Hargrove,D.M., Nardone,N.A., Persson,L.M., Parker,J.C., Stevenson,R.W. Glucose-dependent action of glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-37) in vivo during short- or long- term administration. Metabolism 1995; 44(-9-):1231-1237. >>> Glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-37); Tween 80; Saline; SC; rat; 5 days; controls received mp with vehicle; comparison of acute infusion vs. mp; peptides; "... it is likely that only a portion of the GLP-1(7-37) administered subcutaneously was absorbed..." (p. 1235).

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8. Leptin

16298 Jeremie Boucher,, Samir Softic,, Abdelfattah El Ouaamari,, Megan T. Krumpoch,, Andre Kleinridders,, Rohit N. Kulkarni,, Brian T. O’Neill,, C. Ronald Kahn1. Differential Roles of Insulin and IGF-1 Receptors in Adipose Tissue Development and Function. Diabetes 2016; 66(--):2201-2213. >>> Leptin; Saline; SC; Mice; 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Fat-specific IR, IGF1R, and IR/IGF1R knockout mice; 3 month old); functionality of mp verified by blood glucose levels; dose-response (pg 2204-2206); behavioral testing (cold-resistance testing); replacement therapy (leptin); Lipoatrophic diabetes; Dose (10 ug/mouse/d);.

16286 Denroche, H. C., Glavas, M. M., Tuduri, E., Karunakaran, S., Quong, W. L., Philippe, M., Britton, H. M., Clee, S. M., Kieffer, T. J. Disrupted Leptin Signaling in the Lateral Hypothalamus and Ventral Premammillary Nucleus Alters Insulin and Glucagon Secretion and Protects Against Diet-Induced Obesity. Endocrinology 2016; 157(-7-):2671-85. >>> Leptin, recombinant mouse; SC; mice; 1007D, 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Male Leprflox/flox and Leprflox/flox Syn-cre mice, 12-14 wks); functionality of mp verified by plasma levels; pumps replaced after day 10; dose-response (pg. 2679); diabetes; Dose (10 ug/d or 20 ug/d);.

16187 Talton, O. O., Pennington, K. A., Pollock, K. E., Bates, K., Ma, L., Ellersieck, M. R., Schulz, L. C. Maternal Hyperleptinemia Improves Offspring Insulin Sensitivity in Mice. Endocrinology 2016; 157(-7-):2636-48. >>> Leptin; Saline; SC; Mice (pregnant); 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, WT); stress/adverse reaction: (see pg. 2645); teratology; diabetes; Dose (350 ng/h);.

16099 Bruder-Nascimento, T., Butler, B. R., Herren, D. J., Brands, M. W., Bence, K. K., Belin de Chantemele, E. J. Deletion of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1b in proopiomelanocortin neurons reduces neurogenic control of blood pressure and protects mice from leptin- and sympatho-mediated hypertension. Pharmacol Res 2015; 102(--):235-44. >>> Leptin; Phenylephrine; SC; mice; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info: POMC Ptp1b−/− and Ptp1b+/+ mice; functionality of mp verified by blood pressure; cardiovascular; antihypertensive; Dose: leptin (10 ug/d); phenylephrine (7.2 and 20 mg/kg/day).

16072 Xu, S., Zhu, X., Li, H., Hu, Y., Zhou, J., He, D., Feng, Y., Lu, L., Du, G., Hu, Y., Liu, T., Wang, Z., Ding, G., Chen, J., Gao, S., Wu, F., Xue, Z., Li, Y., Fan, G. The 14th Ile residue is essential for Leptin function in regulating energy homeostasis in rat. Sci Rep 2016; 6(--):28508. >>> Leptin, rat recombinant; Saline, sterile; SC; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, Lep114/114 or Wt); animal info (female, Lep114/114 or Wt); obesity.

15809 H. Pho,, A. B. Hernandez,, R. S. Arias,, E. B. Leitner,, S. Van Kooten,, J. P. Kirkness,, H. Schneider,, P. L. Smith,, V. Y. Polotsky,, A. R. Schwartz. The effect of leptin replacement on sleep-disordered breathing in theleptin-deficient ob/ob mouse. J Appl. Physiol 2016; 120(--):78-86. >>> Leptin, recombinant; Saline; SC; Mice; 1003D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, ob/ob, 23 weeks old); functionality of mp verified by leptin plasma levesl; stress/adverse reaction: (see pg. 81); pumps explanted after 3 days; Dose (30 ug/day);.

15185 Palei, A.C., Spradley, F.T., Granger, J.P., Granger, J.P. Chronic hyperleptinemia results in the development of hypertension in pregnant rats. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-REGULATORY INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE PHYSIOLOGY 2015; 308(--):R855-R861. >>> Leptin; IP; Rat (pregnant); 2ML1; Animal info (female, Sprague Dawley, GD14); cardiovascular; bp measured using indwelling catheter;.

15184 Ottaway, N., Mahbod, P., Rivero, B., Norman, L.A., Gertler, A., D'Alessio, D.A., Perez-Tilve, D., Perez-Tilve, D. Diet-Induced Obese Mice Retain Endogenous Leptin Action. Cell Metabolism 2015; 21(--):877-882. >>> Leptin receptor antagonist, non-pegylated; PBS; CSF/CNS; Mice; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (C57BL6J, Mc4r -/-, Lep ob/ob); Leptin receptor antagonist, non-pegylated aka LA;.

15168 Zeng, W.W., Lu, Y.H., Lee, J., Friedman, J.M., Friedman, J.M. Reanalysis of parabiosis of obesity mutants in the age of leptin. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 2015; 112(--):E3874-E3882. >>> Leptin; acyl-ghrelin; growth hormone; SC; Mice; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (C57BL6J or db or clusterin KO, 6-8 weeks old); functionality of mp verified by leptin plasma levels; obesity;.

15149 Yan, C.L., Yang, Y.J., Saito, K.J., Xu, P.W., Wang, C.M., Hinton, AO Jr, Yan, X.F., Wu, Q., Tong, Q.C., Elmquist, J.K., Fukuda, M., Xu, Y., Xu, Y. Meta-chlorophenylpiperazine enhances leptin sensitivity in diet-induced obese mice. BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY 2015; 172(--):3510-3521. >>> Leptin; meta-chlorophenylpiperazine; Saline; SC; Mice; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, C57BL6, 8 weeks old); obesity; meta-chlorophenylpiperazine aka mCPP;.

15131 Wang, M.Y., Yan, H., Shi, Z.Q., Evans, M.R., Yu, X.X., Lee, Y., Chen, S., Williams, A., Philippe, J., Roth, M.G., Unger, R.H., Roth, M.G. Glucagon receptor antibody completely suppresses type 1 diabetes phenotype without insulin by disrupting a novel diabetogenic pathway. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 2015; 112(--):2503-2508. >>> Leptin, recombinant; pramlintide acetate; liraglutide; exenatide; SC; Mice (NOD); 2001; Controls received mp w/ PBS; animal info (female, NOD/ShiLtJ, 8 weeks old); pumps replaced every 7 days; long-term study; diabetes;.

15702 Jussara M. do Carmo,, Alexandre A. da Silva,, Zhen Wang,, Nathan J. Freeman,, Ammar J. Alsheik,, Ahmad Adi,, John E. Hall. Regulation of Blood Pressure, Appetite, and Glucose by Leptin After Inactivation of Insulin Receptor Substrate 2 Signaling in the Entire Brain or in Proopiomelanocortin Neurons. Hypertension 2016; (-67-):378-386. >>> Leptin; Saline; IP; Mice; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (RIS2 flox/flox or Nestin-cre, 22 weeks old); functionality of mp verified by leptin plasma levels; behavioral testing (air jet stress test; motor activity); cardiovascular; Dose (4 ug/kg/min);.

15111 Thieme, K., Oliveira-Souza, M., Thieme, K. Renal Hemodynamic and Morphological Changes after 7 and 28 Days of Leptin Treatment: The Participation of Angiotensin II via the AT(1) Receptor. PLoS One 2015; 10(--):U2677-U2695. >>> Leptin, recombinant rat; SC; Rat; 2ML1; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (male, Wistar, 150-250g); cardiovascular; peptides; bp measured using tail cuff;.

14916 Denroche, H.C., Kwon, M.M., Quong, W.L., Neumann, U.H., Kulpa, J.E., Karunakaran, S., Clee, S.M., Brownsey, R.W., Covey, S.D., Kieffer, T.J., Kieffer, T.J. Leptin induces fasting hypoglycaemia in a mouse model of diabetes through the depletion of glycerol. DIABETOLOGIA 2015; 58(--):1100-1108. >>> Leptin, recombinant murine; Water; SC; Mice; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, C57BL6J, 8-10 weeks old, STZ); functionality of mp verified by plasma levels; diabetes;.

14904 da Silva, A.A., Spradley, F.T., Granger, J.P., Hall, J.E., do Carmo, J.M., da Silva, A.A. Brain-mediated antidiabetic, anorexic, and cardiovascular actions of leptin require melanocortin-4 receptor signaling. JOURNAL OF NEUROPHYSIOLOGY 2015; 113(--):2786-2791. >>> Leptin; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2001; Animal info (male, Wistar, 14-16 weeks old, STZ); diabetes; after 7 days of infusion, ICV cannula was severed;.

14855 Burgos-Ramos, E., Canelles, S., Rodriguez, A., Gomez-Ambrosi, J., Frago, L.M., Chowen, J.A., Fruehbeck, G., Argente, J., Barrios, V., Barrios, V. Chronic central leptin infusion modulates the glycemia response to insulin administration in male rats through regulation of hepatic glucose metabolism. MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR ENDOCRINOLOGY 2015; 415(--):157-172. >>> Leptin; BSA; CSF/CNS; SC; Rat; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (male, Wistar, adult, 250 +/-10g); 1% BSA used; diabetes;.

14709 Desai, B.N., Harris, R.B.S., Harris, R.B.S. Leptin in the hindbrain facilitates phosphorylation of STAT3 in the hypothalamus. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-ENDOCRINOLOGY AND METABOLISM 2015; 308(--):E351-E361. >>> Leptin; CSF/CNS (third ventricle; fourth ventricle); Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 275-300g); Multiple pumps per animal (2); tissue perfusion (third ventricle; fourth ventricle); bilateral infusion; one cannula to third ventricle second cannula to fourth ventricle; used plastics one cannula;.

14635 Dodd, G.T., Decherf, S., Loh, K., Simonds, S.E., Wiede, F., Balland, E., Merry, T.L., Muenzberg, H., Zhang, Z.Y., Kahn, B.B., Neel, B.G., Bence, K.K., Andrews, Z.B., Cowley, M.A., Tiganis, T., Tiganis, T. Leptin and Insulin Act on POMC Neurons to Promote the Browning of White Fat. Cell 2015; 160(--):88-104. >>> Leptin; insulin, human; CSF/CNS; CSF/CNS (intra-arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus); Mice; 1002; Control animals received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (8 wks old, C57BL/6); ALZET brain infusion kit (3) used; Plastics One bilateral cannula used with PEG tubing and a Y connector.

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9. Melanin-Concentrating Hormone

12887 Imbernon, M., Beiroa, D., Vazquez, M.J., Morgan, D.A., Veyrat-Durebex, C., Porteiro, B., az-Arteaga, A., Senra, A., Busquets, S., Velasquez, D.A., Al-Massadi, O., Varela, L., Gandara, M., Lopez-Soriano, F.J., Gallego, R., Seoane, L.M., Argiles, J.M., Lopez, M., Davis, R.J., Sabio, G., Rohner-Jeanrenaud, F., Rahmouni, K., Dieguez, C., Nogueiras, R. Central Melanin-Concentrating Hormone Influences Liver and Adipose Metabolism Via Specific Hypothalamic Nuclei and Efferent Autonomic/JNK1 Pathways. Gastroenterology 2013; 144(-3-):636-U254. >>> Melanin-concentrating hormone; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2001; 1007D; Control animals received mp w/ saline; animal info (Sprague Dawley, male, 8-10 wks old, 250-300 g).

10681 Glick, M., Segal-Lieberman, G., Cohen, R., Kronfeld-Schor, N. Chronic MCH infusion causes a decrease in energy expenditure and body temperature, and an increase in serum IGF-1 levels in mice. Endocrine 2009; 36(-3-):479-485. >>> Melanin-concentrating hormone; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS; Mice; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; peptides; cyanoacrylate adhesive; animal info (12 wks old, C57BL/6); cannula placement verified post morten with Evans Blue dye; endocrinology.

9511 Ito, M., Gomori, A., Suzuki, J., Tsujioka, S., Sasaki, M., Matsuda, M., Bednarek, M.A., Ito, M., Ishihara, A., Iwaasa, H., MacNeil, D.J., Kanatani, A. Antagonism of central melanin-concentrating hormone 1 receptor alleviates steatohepatitis in mice. Journal of Endocrinology 2008; 198(-2-):309-315. >>> Melanin-concentrating hormone 1, receptor antagonist; Water, distilled; propylene glycol; CSF/CNS; Mice; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; long-term study; pumps replaced after 2 or 4 weeks; no stress (see pg. 311, 314); ALZET brain infusion kit used; peptides; post op. care (Cefamezin); animal info (male, C57BL/6, 10 wks old, 16 wks old, 1 year old); animals received mp w/vehicle for 2 or 4 weeks, then mp with agent or vehicle for 2 or 4 more weeks; dental cement used; cannula placement confirmed at end of experiment with Evans blue dye.

8714 Gomori, A., Ishihara, A., Ito, M., Matsushita, H., Ito, M., Mashiko, S., Iwaasa, H., Matsuda, M., Bednarek, M.A., Qian, S., MacNeil, D.J., Kanatani, A. Blockade of MCH1 receptor signalling ameliorates obesity and related hepatic steatosis in ovariectomized mice. Br. J. Pharmacol 2007; 151(-6-):900-908. >>> Melanin-concentrating hormone 1, receptor antagonist; Propylene glycol; water, distilled; CSF/CNS; Mice; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; long-term study; pumps replaced after 4 weeks of vehicle delivery; ALZET brain infusion kit used; post op. care (cefamezin-a); animal info (female, C57BL/6J, 12 weeks old, female Mch1r KD, 14-16 weeks old, 22 g); cannula placement confirmed with Evans Blue dye; obesity.

8507 Messina, M.M., Overton, J.M. Cardiovascular effects of melanin-concentrating hormone. REGULATORY PEPTIDES 2007; 139(-1-3-):23-30. >>> Melanin-concentrating hormone; PBS; BSA; CSF/CNS; Rat; 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; dose-response (fig. 1); comparison of acute icv infusion vs. mp; peptides; post op. care (Bupivacaine); animal info (male, Long-Evans, 330g.).

7455 Mashiko, S., Ishihara, A., Gomori, A., Moriya, R., Ito, M., Iwaasa, H., Matsuda, M., Feng, Y., Shen, Z., Marsh, D.J., Bednarek, M.A., MacNeil, D.J., Kanatani, A. Antiobesity effect of a melanin-concentrating hormone 1 receptor antagonist in diet-induced obese mice. Endocrinology 2005; 146(-7-):3080-3086. >>> Melanin-concentrating hormone 1 receptor antagonist; Propylene glycol; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS; CSF/CNS (third ventricle); Mice; 1007D; 2002; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; long-term study; pumps replaced after 1 or 4 weeks of vehicle; ALZET brain infusion kit used; peptides; cyanoacrylate adhesive; post op. care (cefamedin); DEXA; cannula placement confirmed by Evans blue dye injection; animal info (C57BL/6); pumps used in lateral ventricle for one group of animals, and third ventricle for others. Third ventricle group used Plastics One cannulae.

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10. Melanotan

14300 Meek, T.H., Matsen, M.E., Damian, V., Cubelo, A., Chua, SC Jr, Morton, G.J., Morton, G.J. Role of Melanocortin Signaling in Neuroendocrine and Metabolic Actions of Leptin in Male Rats With Uncontrolled Diabetes. Endocrinology 2014; 155(--):4157-4167. >>> SHU9119; leptin; melanotan-II;; Saline; PBS; water, sterile; CSF/CNS; SC; Rat; mice; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (rat - male, Wistar, adult; mice - STZ-DM, AgRP-deficient or WT); functionality of mp verified by decreased insulin plasma levels; Multiple pumps per animal (2); diabetes; melanotan-II aka MTII; delayed delivery - catheters filled with saline; received drug on day 5; bilateral infusion for rat;.

8888 Strader, A.D., Shi, H., Ogawa, R., Seeley, R.J., Reizes, O. The effects of the melanocortin agonist (MT-II) on subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue in rodents. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 2007; 322(-3-):1153-1161. >>> Melanotan-II; PBS; SC; Rat; mice; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; MRI; animal info (male, Long Evans, 225-250g; male, C57BL/6J, 5 wks old); Melanocortin receptor agonist.

7264 Li, G., Zhang, Y., Wilsey, J.T., Scarpace, P.J. Unabated anorexic and enhanced thermogenic responses to melanotan II in diet-induced obese rats despite reduced melanocortin 3 and 4 receptor expression. Journal of Endocrinology 2004; 182(-1-):123-132. >>> Leptin, recomb. mouse; melanotan II; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; ALZET brain infusion kit 2 used.

7086 Zhang, Y., Matheny, M., Tuemer, N., Scarpace, P.J. Aged-obese rats exhibit robust responses to a melanocortin agonist and antagonist despite leptin resistance. NEUROBIOLOGY OF AGING 2004; 25(-10-):1349-1360. >>> Melanotan II; SHU9119; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS; Rat; pumps replaced after 7 days; all animals received an initial 7 day aCSF infusion.

7083 Banno, R., Arima, H., Sato, I., Hayashi, M., Goto, M., Sugimura, Y., Murase, T., Oiso, Y. The melanocortin agonist melanotan II increases insulin sensitivity in OLETF rats. Peptides 2004; 25(-8-):1279-1286. >>> Melanotan II; Saline; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle.

6226 Scarpace, P.J., Matheny, M., Zolotukhin, S., Tumer, N., Zhang, Y. Leptin-induced leptin resistant rats exhibit enhanced responses to the melanocortin agonist MT II. Neuropharmacology 2003; 45(-2-):211-219. >>> Leptin; melanotan II; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS; Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; leptin plasma levels taken; ALZET brain infusion kit used; obesity; melanotan II (MT II) is a melanocortin receptor agonist; leptin was infused for 7 days, then the pump was replaced with MTII for another 7 days; pump model was not listed.

6012 Raposinho, P.D., White, R.B., Aubert, M.L. The melanocortin agonist Melanotan-II reduces the orexigenic and adipogenic effects of neuropeptide Y (NPY) but does not affect the NPY-driven suppressive effects on the gonadotropic and somatotropic axes in the male rat. Journal of Neuroendocrinology 2003; 15(-2-):173-181. >>> Melanotan-II; Neuropeptide Y; PBS; Ascorbic Acid; BSA; CSF/CNS; Rat; Peptides; Melanotan II or MTII (a melanocortin receptor agonist)&neuropeptide were dissolved in PBS, 0.01% ascorbic acid, 0.1% bovine serum albumin adjusted to ph 7.4; pump model not listed.

5381 Lindblom, J., Kask, A., Hagg, E., Harmark, L., Bergstrom, L., Wikberg, J. Chronic infusion of a melanocortin receptor agonist modulates dopamine receptor binding in the rat brain. Pharmacol Res 2002; 45(-2-):119-124. >>> Melanotan-II; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; good methods (p.120); ALZET brain infusion kit used; Melanotan-II is a melanocortin receptor agonist.

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11. Melanotan II

Q3999 Meek,T.H., Matsen,M.E., Damian,V., Cubelo,A., Chua,SC Jr, Morton,G.J., Morton,G.J. Role of Melanocortin Signaling in Neuroendocrine and Metabolic Actions of Leptin in Male Rats With Uncontrolled Diabetes. Endocrinology 2014; 155(--):4157-4167. >>> SHU9119; leptin; melanotan-II;; Saline; PBS; water, sterile; CSF/CNS; SC; Rat; mice; 11 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (rat - male, Wistar, adult; mice - STZ-DM, AgRP-deficient or WT); functionality of mp verified by decreased insulin plasma levels; Multiple pumps per animal (2); diabetes; melanotan-II aka MTII; delayed delivery - catheters filled with saline; received drug on day 5; bilateral infusion for rat;.

P8659 Strader,A.D., Shi,H., Ogawa,R., Seeley,R.J., Reizes,O. The effects of the melanocortin agonist (MT-II) on subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue in rodents. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 2007; 322(-3-):1153-1161. >>> Melanotan-II; PBS; SC; Rat; mice; 14 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; MRI; animal info (male, Long Evans, 225-250g; male, C57BL/6J, 5 wks old); Melanocortin receptor agonist.

P7055 Li,G., Zhang,Y., Wilsey,J.T., Scarpace,P.J. Unabated anorexic and enhanced thermogenic responses to melanotan II in diet-induced obese rats despite reduced melanocortin 3 and 4 receptor expression. Journal of Endocrinology 2004; 182(-1-):123-132. >>> Leptin, recomb. mouse; melanotan II; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2001; 6 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; ALZET brain infusion kit 2 used.

P6877 Zhang,Y., Matheny,M., Tuemer,N., Scarpace,P.J. Aged-obese rats exhibit robust responses to a melanocortin agonist and antagonist despite leptin resistance. NEUROBIOLOGY OF AGING 2004; 25(-10-):1349-1360. >>> Melanotan II; SHU9119; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS; Rat; 14,21 days; pumps replaced after 7 days; all animals received an initial 7 day aCSF infusion.

P6874 Banno,R., Arima,H., Sato,I., Hayashi,M., Goto,M., Sugimura,Y., Murase,T., Oiso,Y. The melanocortin agonist melanotan II increases insulin sensitivity in OLETF rats. Peptides 2004; 25(-8-):1279-1286. >>> Melanotan II; Saline; SC; Rat; 2ML4; 25 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle.

P6066 Scarpace,P.J., Matheny,M., Zolotukhin,S., Tumer,N., Zhang,Y. Leptin-induced leptin resistant rats exhibit enhanced responses to the melanocortin agonist MT II. Neuropharmacology 2003; 45(-2-):211-219. >>> Leptin; melanotan II; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS; Rat; 7 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; leptin plasma levels taken; ALZET brain infusion kit used; obesity; melanotan II (MT II) is a melanocortin receptor agonist; leptin was infused for 7 days, then the pump was replaced with MTII for another 7 days; pump model was not listed.

P5852 Raposinho,P.D., White,R.B., Aubert,M.L. The melanocortin agonist Melanotan-II reduces the orexigenic and adipogenic effects of neuropeptide Y (NPY) but does not affect the NPY-driven suppressive effects on the gonadotropic and somatotropic axes in the male rat. Journal of Neuroendocrinology 2003; 15(-2-):173-181. >>> Melanotan-II; Neuropeptide Y; PBS; Ascorbic Acid; BSA; CSF/CNS; Rat; 7 days; Peptides; Melanotan II or MTII (a melanocortin receptor agonist)&neuropeptide were dissolved in PBS, 0.01% ascorbic acid, 0.1% bovine serum albumin adjusted to ph 7.4; pump model not listed.

P5252 Lindblom,J., Kask,A., Hagg,E., Harmark,L., Bergstrom,L., Wikberg,J. Chronic infusion of a melanocortin receptor agonist modulates dopamine receptor binding in the rat brain. Pharmacol Res 2002/2; 45(-2-):119-124. >>> Melanotan-II; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2002; 2 weeks; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; good methods (p.120); ALZET brain infusion kit used; Melanotan-II is a melanocortin receptor agonist.

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12. Neuropeptide Y

15178 Zhang, R., Niu, H.F., Kang, X.H., Ban, T., Hong, H., Ai, J., Ai, J. Long-Term Administration of Neuropeptide Y in the Subcutaneous Infusion Results in Cardiac Dysfunction and Hypertrophy in Rats. CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY 2015; 37(--):94-104. >>> Neuropeptide Y; PBS; SC; Rat; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Wistar, 250-300g); functionality of mp verified by plasma levels; cardiovascular; peptides; pumps primed in 37C saline for 40 hours;.

13294 Matyal, R., Chu, L., Mahmood, F., Robich, M.P., Wang, A., Hess, P.E., Shahul, S., Pinto, D.S., Khabbaz, K., Sellke, F.W. Neuropeptide Y improves myocardial perfusion and function in a swine model of hypercholesterolemia and chronic myocardial ischemia. Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 2012; 53(-6-):891-898. >>> Neuropeptide Y; Heparin; BSA; IA; Swine; 2ML4; Animal info (swine model of metabolic syndrome with chronic myocardial ischemia, six-week-old, male; Yorkshire miniswine); ischemia (arterial).

12597 Morales-Medina, J.C., Dominguez-Lopez, S., Gobbi, G., Beck-Sickinger, A.G., Quirion, R. The selective neuropeptide Y Y(5) agonist [cPP(1-7),NPY(19-23),Ala(31),Aib(32),Gln(34)]hPP differently modulates emotional processes and body weight in the rat. Behavioural Brain Research 2012; 233(-2-):298-304. >>> Neuropeptide Y Y5 agonist; Saline; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2002; Control animals received mp w/ saline; animal info (Sprague Dawley, Wistar, male, 150-170 g, olfactory bulbectomized); neuropeptide Y Y5 agonist also known as [cPP1-7,NPY19-23,Ala31,Aib32,Gln34]hPP.

12133 Xie, F., Zhang, R., Yang, C., Xu, Y., Wang, N., Sun, L.H., Liu, J., Sun, L.Y., Wei, R., Ai, J. Long-term Neuropeptide Y Administration in the Periphery Induces Abnormal Baroreflex Sensitivity and Obesity in Rats. CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY 2012; 29(-1-2-):111-120. >>> Neuropeptide Y; PBS; SC; Rat; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Wistar, male, 230-270 g, 3-4 mo old); long-term study; pumps replaced monthly.

12132 Xie, F., Sun, L.H., Su, X.L., Wang, Y., Liu, J., Zhang, R., Wang, N., Zhao, J., Ban, T., Niu, H.F., Ai, J. Neuropeptide Y Reverses Chronic Stress-induced Baroreflex Hypersensitivity in Rats. CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY 2012; 29(-3-4-):463-474. >>> Neuropeptide Y; SC; Rat; 2004; Controls received mp w/ PBS; animal info (Wistar, male, adult, 230-250 g); long-term study; pumps replaced monthly.

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13. Peptide YY

15015 Dalboge, L.S., Pedersen, P.J., Hansen, G., Fabricius, K., Hansen, H.B., Jelsing, J., Vrang, N., Dalboge, L.S. A Hamster Model of Diet-Induced Obesity for Preclinical Evaluation of Anti-Obesity, Anti-Diabetic and Lipid Modulating Agents. PLoS One 2015; 10(--):U2299-U2312. >>> Peptide YY(3-36); neuromedin U; Saline; SC; Hamster; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Golden Syrian hamster, 6 weeks old); peptides; obesity;.

14992 Kilian, T.M., Kloeting, N., Bergmann, R., Els-Heindl, S., Babilon, S., Clement-Ziza, M., Zhang, Y.X., Beck-Sickinger, A.G., Chollet, C., Chollet, C. Rational Design of Dual Peptides Targeting Ghrelin and Y(2) Receptors to Regulate Food Intake and Body Weight. JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY 2015; 58(--):4180-4193. >>> Peptide 1a; peptide YY (3-36), peptide 2a, peptide 5a; SC; Mice; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (female, C57BL6JRj); peptides;.

12416 Sam, A.H., Gunner, D.J., King, A., Persaud, S.J., Brooks, L., Hostomska, K., Ford, H.E., Liu, B., Ghatei, M.A., Bloom, S.R., Bewick, G.A. Selective Ablation of Peptide YY Cells in Adult Mice Reveals Their Role in Beta Cell Survival. Gastroenterology 2012; 143(-2-):459-468. >>> Cells, pancreatic polypeptide; peptide YY (3-36); Water, sterile; acetic acid; saline; SC; Mice; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (DTR-BAC); peptides; diabetes.

11847 Pedersen, S.L., Sasikumar, P.G., Chelur, S., Holst, B., Artmann, A., Jensen, K.J., Vrang, N. Peptide hormone isoforms: N-terminally branched PYY3-36 isoforms give improved lipid and fat-cell metabolism in diet-induced obese mice. JOURNAL OF PEPTIDE SCIENCE 2010; 16(-11-):664-673. >>> Peptide YY (3-36); peptide YY (3-36), isoform 2; peptide YY (3-36), isoform 3; Saline; SC; Mice; 1003D; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, DIO C57BL/6J, NMRI, 8-9 wks old); incorrectly listed Model 1003 pumps used; stability verified pg 667 (2, 7,. 14 days via HPLC); wound clips used.

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"Utilizing continuous minipump administration enhances the knockdown to 63% of control." (p. 619) This compared with 40% by twice daily administration. "The results of the present study confirm the utility of osmotic minipump administration of antisense oligonucleotides." (p. 621) Falk et al., Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2002;72:617-622.