References on the Administration of Opioids
Using ALZET® Osmotic Pumps

1. Apomorphine

15155 Yan, T.T., Xiong, W.W., Huang, F.R., Zheng, F., Ying, H.F., Chen, J.F., Qu, J., Zhou, X.T., Zhou, X.T. Daily Injection But Not Continuous Infusion of Apomorphine Inhibits Form-Deprivation Myopia in Mice. INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY&VISUAL SCIENCE 2015; 56(--):2475-2485. >>> Apomorphine; SC; Mice; 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, C57Bl6, 4 weeks old); functionality of mp verified by residual volume; pumps replaced every 2 weeks; comparison of injection vs mp;.

11030 Sarkis, R., Saade, N., Atweh, S., Jabbur, S., Al-Amin, H. Chronic dizocilpine or apomorphine and development of neuropathy in two rat models I: Behavioral effects and role of nucleus accumbens. Experimental Neurology 2011; 228(-1-):19-29. >>> MK-801; apomorphine HCL hemihydrate; Saline; ascorbic acid; CSF/CNS (nucleus accumbens); Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (adult, female, Sprague Dawley, 200-300 g); post op. care (dexamethasone injections to prevent brain edema); behavioral testing (mechanical allodynia, Paw withdrawal latency, cold allodynia, hotplate test, spontaneous motor activity); cannula placement verified by picomicrograph of brain section; CCI, chronic constriction injury; SNI, spared nerve injury.

7105 Fornai, F., Schlueter, O.M., Lenzi, P., Gesi, M., Ruffoli, R., Ferrucci, M., Lazzeri, G., Busceti, C.L., Pontarelli, F., Battaglia, G., Pellegrini, A., Nicoletti, F., Ruggieri, S., Paparelli, A., Suedhof, T.C. Parkinson-like syndrome induced by continuous MPTP infusion: Convergent roles of the ubiquitin-proteasome system and alpha-synuclein. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 2005; 102(-9-):3413-3418. >>> MPTP; L-dopa; apomorphine; IP; SC; Mice; 2004; Controls received mp w/ saline; comparison of IP injections vs. mp; neurodegenerative (Parkinson's disease); L-dopa and apomorphine group had SC implanted pumps; route is unclear for the MPTP group;"Continuous MPTP infusions thus recreate a disease state that mimics human PD better than acute MPTP bolus injections."(p. 3417); MPTP group received IP pumps (2004 model), verified by e-mailing author.

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2. Buprenorphine

15934 Mundt, Sarah, Marcus Groettrup, and Michael Basler. Analgesia in mice with experimental meningitis reduces pain without altering immune parameters. Altex 2015; 32(-3-):183-189. >>> Buprenorphine; SC; Mice; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ PBS; animal info (female, C57BL6, 8 weeks old); behavioral testing (pain score);“we used subcutaneously implanted ALZET®osmotic pumps to apply the analgesic buprenorphine. We ob¬served strongly reduced pain scores in diseased mice receiving analgesics, whereas the immune response was not altered in these mice. Hence, our study offers a new treatment option to improve wellbeing of mice used to study LCMV-induced meningitis without grossly altering immune parameters” pg 184;"In this study, we subcutane¬ously implanted ALZET®osmotic pumps releasing the anal¬gesic agent buprenorphine. Continuous delivery with osmotic pumps ensures constant compound levels for maximized thera-peutic efficacy and reduced adverse effects. Additionally, un¬necessary stressful animal handling due to repeated injection is not required."pg 188; Dose (0.15 mg/kg/day);.

15771 Rob Hill, Abi Lyndon, Sarah Withey, Joanne Roberts, Yvonne Kershaw, John MacLachlan, Anne Lingford-Hughes, Eamonn Kelly, Chris Bailey, Matthew Hickman, Graeme Henderson. Ethanol Reversal of Tolerance to the Respiratory Depressant Effects of Morphine. Neuropsychopharmacology 2016; 41(--):762-773. >>> Buprenorphine; methadone; Saline; SC; Mice; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, CD-1, 30g); behavioral testing (tail flick latencies, mouse locomotion); dependence; Dose (Buprenorphine 5 mg/kg/day; methadone 60 mg/kg/day);.

11097 Yamdeu, R.S., Shaqura, M., Mousa, S.A., Schaefer, M., Droese, J. p38 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Activation by Nerve Growth Factor in Primary Sensory Neurons Upregulatesμ-Opioid Receptors to Enhance Opioid Responsiveness Toward Better Pain Control. Anesthesiology 2011; 114(-1-):150-161. >>> Fentanyl propionanilide; buprenorphine hydrochloride; Saline, isotonic; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male Wistar, 200-250 g); pain.

10049 Virk, M.S., Arttamangkul, S., Birdsong, W.T., Williams, J.T. Buprenorphine Is a Weak Partial Agonist That Inhibits Opioid Receptor Desensitization. Journal of Neuroscience 2009; 29(-22-):7341-7348. >>> Buprenorphine; DMSO; water; Rat; 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by plasma drug levels; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 150-200 g.); 40% DMSO used;"the osmotic minipump delivered buprenorphine efficiently and predictably"pg. 7342.

9567 Placenza, F.M., Rajabi, H., Stewart, J. Effects of chronic buprenorphine treatment on levels of nucleus accumbens glutamate and on the expression of cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization in rats. Psychopharmacology 2008; 200(-3-):347-355. >>> Buprenorphine; SC; Rat; 2ML2; Controls received sham surgery; animal info (male, Long-Evans, 350-375 g.).

8502 Sorge, R.E., Stewart, J. The effects of long-term chronic buprenorphine treatment on the locomotor and nucleus accumbens dopamine response to acute heroin and cocaine in rats. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 2006; 84(-2-):300-305. >>> Buprenorphine HCL; SC; Rat; 2ML2; Controls received sham surgery; dose-response (fig. 2); pumps replaced after 14 days; half-life (pg. 300) long half-life; tolerance; animal info (male, Long-Evans, 325-350g.).

8501 Sorge, R.E., Stewart, J. The effects of chronic buprenorphine on intake of heroin and cocaine in rats and its effects on nucleus accumbens dopamine levels during self-administration. Psychopharmacology 2006; 188(-1-):28-41. >>> Buprenorphine; SC; Rat; 2ML2; Controls received sham surgery; functionality of mp verified by plasma buprenorphine levels; dose-response (fig. 1); pumps replaced after 14 days; no stress (see pg. 29); dependence; animal info (male, Long-Evans, 300-350g.).

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3. Butorphanol

16108 Meredith M. Clancy DVM, MPH, Butch KuKanich DVM, PhD, John M. Sykes IV DVM. Pharmacokinetics of butorphanol delivered with an osmotic pump during a seven-day period in common peafowl (Pavo cristatus). American Journal of Veterinary Research 2015; 76(-12-):1070-1076. >>> Butorphanol; SC; Bird (peafowl); 2ML1; animal info: 14 healthy adult male common peafowl; functionality of mp verified by plasma levels; good methods (pg. 1071-1072);“Use of these osmotic pumps may provide options for avian analgesia.” pg 1070; analgesic administration to avian species; Pharmacokinetics; Dose: 247 ug/kg/h); Resultant plasma level ((mean, 106.4 ug/L; range, 61.8 to 133.0 ug/L)); Industry authored (Wildlife Conservation Society); Interesting (Plasma concentrations of butorphanol in common peafowl were maintained at or above reported efficacious analgesic concentrations; Use of these osmotic pumps may provide options for avian analgesia) pg. 1070.

12097 Mitra, A., Kotz, C.M., Kim, E.M., Grace, M.K., Kuskowski, M.A., Billington, C.J., Levine, A.S. Effects of butorphanol on feeding and neuropeptide Y in the rat. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 2012; 100(-3-):575-580. >>> Butorphanol tartrate; SC; Rat; 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (Sprague Dawley, male, 302 g);"Implantation of the pumps took less than 1 min per rat, and the length of the anesthesia was approximately 5 min per rat."pg 576; functionality of mp verified via residual volume.

9568 Tian, Y.H., Lee, K.W., You, I.J., Lee, S.Y., Jang, C.G. 7-nitroindazole, nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, attenuates physical dependence on Butorphanol in rat. Synapse 2008; 62(-8-):582-589. >>> Butorphanol tartrate; nitroindazole, 7-; Saline; DMSO; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2001; Enzyme inhibitor (nitric oxide synthase, NOS); animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 250-275 g.); pump connected to catheter after 1 week recovery period; 10% DMSO used; PE60 tubing used.

7872 Lee, S.Y., Jang, C.G. Increases in 3H-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid AMPA receptor binding and mRNA expression of AMPA-sensitive glutamate receptor A GluR-A subunits in rats withdrawn from butorphanol. JOURNAL OF TOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH-PART A-CURRENT ISSUES 2005; 68(-23-24-):2163-2174. >>> Butorphanol tartrate; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ saline; dependence; animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley 230-250 g).

7843 Tanaka, S., Fan, L.W., Tien, L.T., Park, Y., Liu-Chen, L.Y., Rockhold, R.W., Ho, I.K. Butorphanol dependence increases hippocampal kappa-opioid receptor gene expression. Journal of Neuroscience Research 2005; 82(-2-):255-263. >>> Butorphanol tartrate; Saline, physiological; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; dependence; post op. care (procaine penicillin G; animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 250-275 g).

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4. Dynorphin (all)

P8160 Baskin,D.S., Hosobuchi,Y., Loh,H.H., Lee,N.M. Dynorphin (1-13) improves survival in cats with focal cerebral ischaemia. Nature 1984; 312(-5994-):551-552. >>> Enkephalin, Leu-; dynorphin; dynorphin (3-13); Saline; SC; Cat; 2ML1; 7 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; peptides; post op. care (penicillin E, lactated ringer's solution); ischemia (cerebral); animal info (adult, male, MCAO).

P3465 Jonsdottir,I.H., Johansson,C., Asea,A., Hellstrand,K., Thoren,P., Hoffmann,P. Chronic intracerebroventricular administration of b-endorphin augments natural killer cell cytotoxicity in rats. Regul.Pept. 1996; 62(--):113-118. >>> Endorphin, B-; Enkephalin, leucine-; Enkephalin, methionine-; Dynorphin A; SC; CSF/CNS; rat; 2001; 2ML1; 6 days; controls received saline infusion; peptides; ALZET brain infusion kit used.

P2616 Baskin,D.S., Widmayer,M.A., Browning,J.L., Heizer,M.L., Schmidt,W.K. Evaluation of delayed treatment of focal cerebral ischemia with three selective kappa-opioid agonists in cats. Stroke 1994; 25(-10-):2047-2054. >>> Dynorphin A (1-13); U-50,488; DuP E3800; SC; cat; 2ML1; 7 days; controls received mp w/ saline; no stress (see pg. 2048); ischemia (cerebral).

P1261 Long,J.B., Petras,J.M., Holaday,J.W. Neurologic deficits and neuronal injury in rats resulting from nonopioid actions of the delta opioid receptor antagonist ICI 174864. J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther. 1988; 244(-3-):1169-1177. >>> Dynorphin A (1-13); ICI-174,864; DMSO; CSF/CNS (spinal cord, intrathecal); rat; 2001; 7 days; controls received mp w/saline; mp connected to catheter i.t.; DMSO is vehicle for ICI-174864; functionality of mp verified; comparison of ICV vs. i.t. injections vs. mp infusion; stability.

P0887 Hoskins,B., Ho,I.K. Lack of effect of dynorphin on consummatory behaviors in obese and normal rats. Life Sci. 1986; 39(--):589-593. >>> Dynorphin; Saline; rat; 2002; 7 days; controls received mp w/saline; food consumption; comparison of injections vs. mp infusion; peptides.

P0591 Spampinato,S., Candeletti,S. Characterization of dynorphin A-induced antinociception at spinal level. Eur.J.Pharmacol. 1985; 110(--):21-30. >>> Dynorphin A; Calcium chloride; Magnesium chloride; Potassium chloride; Saline; CSF/CNS (spinal cord, intrathecal); rat; 2001; 1 week; peptides.

P0482 Schulz,R., Wuster,M., Herz,A. Receptor preference of dynorphin A fragments in the mouse vas deferens determined by different techniques. J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther. 1984; 230(-1-):200-204. >>> Dynorphin A(1-8); Bestatin; Captopril; Dynorphin A; Enkephalin agonist DADL; Fentanyl; Thiorphan; Saline; SC; vas deferens; Mice; 2001; 2ML1; no duration posted; Comparison of agents effects; 2ML1 pump used w/ captopril, thiorphan, and bestatin; DADL&FEN admin. sc; peptides; antihypertensive.

P0454 Kiang,J.G., Wei,E.T. Sensitivity to morphine-evoked bradycardia in rats is modified by dynorphin (1-13), leu- and met-enkephalin. J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther. 1984; 229(-2-):469-473. >>> Dynorphin (1-13); Morphine sulfate; SC; rat; 2001; 2 days; comparison of agents effects; agents given by mp alone and in combination; peptides.

P0173 Schulz,R., Wuster,M. Are there sybtypes (isoreceptors) of multiple opiate receptors in the mouse vas deferens. Eur.J.Pharmacol. 1981; 76(--):61-66. >>> Endorphin, a-neo-; DsThr; Dynorphin; Enkephalin analog DADLE; FK-33824; MR-2034; MRZ; Normorphine; Sufentanil; Water; SC; mice; 2001; 6 days; peptides; MRZ is 5,9-dimethyl,2'S-5,9-dimethyl-2'-hydroxy-2-(2-methoxy-propyl)-6,7-benzomorphan, a kappa opioid agonist.

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5. Dynorphin A

3573 Jonsdottir, I.H., Johansson, C., Asea, A., Hellstrand, K., Thoren, P., Hoffmann, P. Chronic intracerebroventricular administration of b-endorphin augments natural killer cell cytotoxicity in rats. Regul. Pept 1996; 62(--):113-118. >>> Endorphin, B-; Enkephalin, leucine-; Enkephalin, methionine-; Dynorphin A; SC; CSF/CNS; rat; 2001; 2ML1; controls received saline infusion; peptides; ALZET brain infusion kit used.

2704 Baskin, D.S., Widmayer, M.A., Browning, J.L., Heizer, M.L., Schmidt, W.K. Evaluation of delayed treatment of focal cerebral ischemia with three selective kappa-opioid agonists in cats. Stroke 1994; 25(-10-):2047-2054. >>> Dynorphin A (1-13); U-50,488; DuP E3800; SC; cat; 2ML1; controls received mp w/ saline; no stress (see pg. 2048); ischemia (cerebral).

1261 Long, J.B., Petras, J.M., Holaday, J.W. Neurologic deficits and neuronal injury in rats resulting from nonopioid actions of the delta opioid receptor antagonist ICI 174864. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther 1988; 244(-3-):1169-1177. >>> Dynorphin A (1-13); ICI-174,864; DMSO; CSF/CNS (spinal cord, intrathecal); rat; 2001; controls received mp w/saline; mp connected to catheter i.t.; DMSO is vehicle for ICI-174864; functionality of mp verified; comparison of ICV vs. i.t. injections vs. mp infusion; stability.

591 Spampinato, S., Candeletti, S. Characterization of dynorphin A-induced antinociception at spinal level. Eur. J. Pharmacol 1985; 110(--):21-30. >>> Dynorphin A; Calcium chloride; Magnesium chloride; Potassium chloride; Saline; CSF/CNS (spinal cord, intrathecal); rat; 2001; peptides.

482 Schulz, R., Wuster, M., Herz, A. Receptor preference of dynorphin A fragments in the mouse vas deferens determined by different techniques. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther 1984; 230(-1-):200-204. >>> Dynorphin A(1-8); Bestatin; Captopril; Dynorphin A; Enkephalin agonist DADL; Fentanyl; Thiorphan; Saline; SC; vas deferens; Mice; 2001; 2ML1; Comparison of agents effects; 2ML1 pump used w/ captopril, thiorphan, and bestatin; DADL&FEN admin. sc; peptides; antihypertensive.

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6. Endorphin, B-

12629 Dutia, R., Meece, K., Dighe, S., Kim, A.J., Wardlaw, S.L. beta-Endorphin Antagonizes the Effects of alpha-MSH on Food Intake and Body Weight. Endocrinology 2012; 153(-9-):4246-4255. >>> Endorphin, beta, (1-31); Saline, sterile; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2001; 1003D; Animal info (Sprague Dawley, male, 200-250 g); pumps replaced.

8104 Boyadjieva, N., Advis, J.P., Sarkar, D.K. Role of beta-endorphin, corticotropin-releasing hormone, and autonomic nervous system in mediation of the effect of chronic ethanol on natural killer cell cytolytic activity. ALCOHOLISM-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH 2006; 30(-10-):1761-1767. >>> Endorphin, B; corticotropin releasing hormone; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS (paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus); Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; peptides; animal info (male, Fischer, 160-175g.).

7526 Dokur, M., Chen, C.P., Advis, J.P., Sarkar, D.K. Beta-endorphin modulation of interferon-gamma, perforin and granzyme B levels in splenic NK cells: Effects of ethanol. Journal of Neuroimmunology 2005; 166(-1-2-):29-38. >>> Endorphin, B-; CSF/CNS (paraventricular nucleus); Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ aCSF; immunology; peptides.

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7. Enkephalin

13558 Normandin, A., Luccarini, P., Molat, J.L., Gendron, L., Dallel, R. Spinal mu and delta Opioids Inhibit Both Thermal and Mechanical Pain in Rats. Journal of Neuroscience 2013; 33(-28-):11703-11714. >>> [D-Ala2, N-Me-Phe4, Gly5-ol]-enkephalin; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; mice; animal info (rat - male, adult, Sprague Dawley, 250-300g; good methods (intrathecal catheter placement pg.11704); mice - male, adult, C57BL/6, 20-25g); No pump used, catheter only for lumbar catherization.

7818 Feng, P., Rahim, R.T., Cowan, A., Liu-Chen, L.Y., Peng, X.H., Gaughan, J., Meissler, JJ Jr, Adler, M.W., Eisenstein, T.K. Effects of mu, kappa or delta opioids administered by pellet or pump on oral Salmonella infection and gastrointestinal transit. European Journal of Pharmacology 2006; 534(-1-3-):250-257. >>> Morphine sulfate; enkephalin analog DPDPE; U50,488H; deltorphin II, D-ala2-; Saline, pyrogen free; SC; Mice; 1003D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; dose-response (fig 1); comparison of pellets vs. mp; immunology; animal info (female, 6 wk old); mp primed 4 hours in 37 C saline;"morphine pellet potently exacerbated oral salmonella infection, but morphine given by pump, at doses which were immunosuppresive had a substantially lesser effect (of infection)."(p. 251)."Further, we and others have found that morphine pellets induce sepsis in mice."(p. 251).

6689 McLaughlin, P.J., Stack, BC Jr, Braine, K.M., Ruda, J.D., Zagon, I.S. Opioid growth factor inhibition of a human squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in nude mice: Dependency on the route of administration. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ONCOLOGY 2004; 24(-1-):227-232. >>> Enkephalin; Saline; SC; Mice (nude); 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; OGF plasma levels taken; comparison of IP and intratumoral injections vs. SC mp; adverse reaction: (see pg. 229)"within 2 days...3 minipumps containing saline were spotaneously dislodged."[possible pocket too small]; cancer (carcinoma); peptides; enkephalin was met-5 and termed OGF or opioid growth factor.

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8. Etorphine

10914 Madia, P.A., Dighe, S.V., Sirohi, S., Walker, E.A., Yoburn, B.C. Dosing protocol and analgesic efficacy determine opioid tolerance in the mouse. Psychopharmacology 2009; 207(-3-):413-422. >>> Etorphine; oxycodone; hydrocodone; methadone; Saline; DMSO; SC; Mice; 2001; Controls received placebo pellets wrapped in nylon mesh; animal info (Male, Swiss Webster, 23-30 g); tolerance; comparison of SC injections vs mp;"Higher doses of hydrocodone, oxycodone, and methadone could not be infused due to solubility issues."pg 415; 20% DMSO used;"infusion with hydrocodone or methadone produced greater tolerance than acute or intermittent treatment"pg 417.

7554 Zhang, Q.Y., Purohit, V., Yoburn, B.C. Continuous opioid agonist treatment dose-dependently regulates mu-opioid receptors and dynamin-2 in mouse spinal cord. Synapse 2005; 56(-3-):123-128. >>> Etorphine; Saline; SC; Mice; 2001; Controls received placebo pellet; dose-response (p. 125, 126).

7221 Yoburn, B.C., Purohit, V., Patel, K., Zhang, Q.Y. Opioid agonist and antagonist treatment differentially regulates immunoreactive mu-opioid receptors and dynamin-2 in vivo. European Journal of Pharmacology 2004; 498(-1-3-):87-96. >>> Naloxone; etorphine hcl; morphine sulfate; Saline, normal; SC; Mice; 2001; Controls received inert, placebo pellets or saline injections; comparison of SC injections vs. pellets vs. mp; tolerance;"Intermittent naloxone and etorphine treatment did not regulate u-opioid receptor or dynamin-2, despite the fact that the total amount of drug administered was the same as continuous treatment."(pg. 94); animal info (m, 22-30 grams).

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9. Fentanyl

16259 Anand, J. P., Boyer, B. T., Mosberg, H. I., Jutkiewicz, E. M. The behavioral effects of a mixed efficacy antinociceptive peptide, VRP26, following chronic administration in mice. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2016; 233(-13-):2479-87. >>> VRP26, Fentanyl; Saline; SC; mice; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Male, female C57BL/6 wild-type, homozygous MOR knockout; 20-30 g, 8-16 wks); functionality of mp verified by in vitro testing (pg. 2481); dose-response (pg 2481); good methods (pg 2481); behavioral testing (tail suspension test, conditioned place preference and locomotor acitivities); behavioral testing (tail suspension test, conditioned place preference and locomotor acitivities); peptides; Primed for 4 hours, 37 degree Saline; antinociceptive peptide; Dose (0.3 mg/kg/day fentanyl or 10 mg/kg/day VRP26);.

13868 Mitzelfelt, J.D., Carter, C.S., Morgan, D. Thermal sensitivity across ages and during chronic fentanyl administration in rats. Psychopharmacology 2014; 231(-1-):75-84. >>> Fentanyl; Saline; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Fischer 344 x Brown Norway, 16, 20 and 24 months old); behavioral testing (temperature preference/heat and cold sensitvity, locomotor activity); Pumps removed after 4 weeks;.

11097 Yamdeu, R.S., Shaqura, M., Mousa, S.A., Schaefer, M., Droese, J. p38 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Activation by Nerve Growth Factor in Primary Sensory Neurons Upregulatesμ-Opioid Receptors to Enhance Opioid Responsiveness Toward Better Pain Control. Anesthesiology 2011; 114(-1-):150-161. >>> Fentanyl propionanilide; buprenorphine hydrochloride; Saline, isotonic; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male Wistar, 200-250 g); pain.

11071 Zheng, H., Zeng, Y., Zhang, X.X., Chu, J., Loh, H.H., Law, P.Y. μ-Opioid Receptor Agonists Differentially Regulate the Expression of miR-190 and NeuroD. MOLECULAR PHARMACOLOGY 2010; 77(-1-):102-109. >>> Morphine; fentanyl; Mice; 1003D; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (CD1 (ICR), 6-8 wks old).

11036 Mitzelfelt, J.D., DuPree, J.P., Seo, D.O., Carter, C.S., Morgan, D. Effects of chronic fentanyl administration on physical performance of aged rats. Experimental Gerontology 2011; 46(-1-):65-72. >>> Fentanyl; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (male, Fisher 344 x Brown Norway, 12, 24, 30 mo old); behavioral testing (open field activity, grip strength, rotarod).

10986 Raehal, K.M., Bohn, L.M. The role of beta-arrestin2 in the severity of antinociceptive tolerance and physical dependence induced by different opioid pain therapeutics. Neuropharmacology 2011; 60(-1-):58-65. >>> Morphine; methadone; fentanyl; oxycodone; Water, sterile, distilled; SC; Mice; Animal info (male, WT, barr2-KO); dependence; wound clips used.

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10. Morphine

16353 Gong, K., Bhargava, A., Jasmin, L. GluN2B N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor and excitatory amino acid transporter 3 are upregulated in primary sensory neurons after 7 days of morphine administration in rats: implication for opiate-induced hyperalgesia. Pain 2016; 157(-1-):147-58. >>> Morphine; Ro 25-6981; Saline; SC; Rat; 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Male Sprague-dawley rats, 220-250 g); functionality of mp verified by behavioral tests; good methods (pg. 148); post op. care (opiate administration using pumps); behavioral testing (Hargreaves plantar test); Dependence/tolerance induced; Opiate use; Dose ( 15 mg/ml Morphine, 5 mg/kg Ro 25-6981);.

16076 Zadina, J. E., Nilges, M. R., Morgenweck, J., Zhang, X., Hackler, L., Fasold, M. B. Endomorphin analog analgesics with reduced abuse liability, respiratory depression, motor impairment, tolerance, and glial activation relative to morphine. Neuropharmacology 2016; 105(--):215-27. >>> Morphine; endomorphine analog; Saline; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 250-400g); half-life (p. 219); behavioral testing (tail flick test; rotarod testing); stability verified by (internal testing; stability>1 year at 37C); pumps primed in 37C saline for 16 hours; used PE-8 IT catheter; Dose (2 ug/hr morphine; 0.056-0.075 ug/hr analog);.

16047 Tsai, R. Y., Wang, J. C., Chou, K. Y., Wong, C. S., Cherng, C. H. Resveratrol reverses morphine-induced neuroinflammation in morphine-tolerant rats by reversal HDAC1 expression. J Formos Med Assoc 2016; 115(-6-):445-54. >>> Morphine; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (male, Wistar); behavioral testing (tail-flick); Dose (15 ug/h);.

16003 Plato Mak,, Jillian H. Broadbear,, Anton Kolosov,, Colin S. Goodchild,. Long-Term Antihyperalgesic and Opioid-Sparing Effects of 5-Day Ketamine and Morphine Infusion (“Burst Ketamine”) in Diabetic Neuropathic Rats. PAIN MEDICINE 2015; 16(--):1781-1793. >>> Ketamine; morphine; SC; Rat; 2ML1; Controls received dummy implant; animal info (male, Wistar); post op. care (carpofen IP injection); behavioral testing (nociception, rotarod, open field); diabetes; pumps removed after 5 days; Dose (20 mg/kg/day);.

15962 Lin, S. L., Chang, F. L., Ho, S. Y., Charoenkwan, P., Wang, K. W., Huang, H. L. Predicting Neuroinflammation in Morphine Tolerance for Tolerance Therapy from Immunostaining Images of Rat Spinal Cord. PLoS One 2015; 10(-10-):e0139806. >>> Morphine; gabapentin; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (male, WIstar, 320-400g); behavioral testing (anti-nociceptive test; ); dependence; Dose (Morphine 15 ug/h; gabapentin 15 ug/h);.

15155 Yan, T.T., Xiong, W.W., Huang, F.R., Zheng, F., Ying, H.F., Chen, J.F., Qu, J., Zhou, X.T., Zhou, X.T. Daily Injection But Not Continuous Infusion of Apomorphine Inhibits Form-Deprivation Myopia in Mice. INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY&VISUAL SCIENCE 2015; 56(--):2475-2485. >>> Apomorphine; SC; Mice; 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, C57Bl6, 4 weeks old); functionality of mp verified by residual volume; pumps replaced every 2 weeks; comparison of injection vs mp;.

15028 Malin, D.H., Henceroth, M.M., Izygon, J.J., Nghiem, D.M., Moon, W.D., Anderson, A.P., Madison, C.A., Goyarzu, P., Ma, J.N., Burstein, E.S., Malin, D.H. Reversal of morphine tolerance by a compound with NPFF receptor subtype-selective actions. NEUROSCIENCE LETTERS 2015; 584(--):141-145. >>> Morphine sulfate; SC; Rat; 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 405g); behavioral testing (tail flick apparatus); dependence;.

15010 Lilius, T.O., Jokinen, V., Neuvonen, M.S., Niemi, M., Kalso, E.A., Rauhala, P.V., Lilius, T.O. Ketamine coadministration attenuates morphine tolerance and leads to increased brain concentrations of both drugs in the rat. BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY 2015; 172(--):2799-2813. >>> Morphine; Saline, isotonic; SC; Rat; 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 300-350g); functionality of mp verified by serum levels; behavioral testing (tail flick, hot plate, rotarod test); pumps removed after 5 days; dependence;.

14848 Bojovic, O., Bramham, C.R., Tjolsen, A., Bojovic, O. Chronic morphine treatment enhances sciatic nerve stimulation-induced immediate early gene expression in the rat dorsal horn. ACTA NEUROBIOLOGIAE EXPERIMENTALIS 2015; 75(--):305-313. >>> Morphine; SC; Rat; 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (female, Sprague Dawley, 2-3 months old, 240-300g);.

14826 Arout, C.A., Caldwell, M., Rossi, G., Kest, B., Arout, C.A. Spinal and supraspinal N-methyl-D-aspartate and melanocortin-1 receptors contribute to a qualitative sex difference in morphine-induced hyperalgesia. PHYSIOLOGY&BEHAVIOR 2015; 147(--):364-372. >>> Morphine; SC; Mice; 2001; Animal info (CD-1, 6-10 weeks old); behavioral testing (warm water tail withdrawal test);“the use of osmotic pumps for morphine infusion eliminates the possibleoccurrence of withdrawal by providing uninterrupted, continuous morphine exposure over several days. Further, this is a commonly used and reliable method for sustained morphine delivery” pg 365; used staples;.

14280 Lin, C.P., Kang, K.H., Lin, T.H., Wu, M.Y., Liou, H.C., Chuang, W.J., Sun, W.Z., Fu, W.M., Fu, W.M. Role of Spinal CXCL1 (GROalpha) in Opioid Tolerance A Human-to-rodent Translational Study. Anesthesiology 2015; 122(--):666-676. >>> CXCL1; antibody, CXCL1; CXCR2 antileukine hexapeptide; morphine; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 250-275g, adult); behavioral testing (tail flick response); dependence; used PE10 intrathecal catheter tubing;.

14208 Gamage, T.F., Ignatowska-Jankowsa, B.M., Muldoon, P.P., Cravatt, B.F., Damaj, M.I., Lichtman, A.H., Lichtman, A.H. Differential effects of endocannabinoid catabolic inhibitors on morphine withdrawal in mice. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2015; 146(--):7-16. >>> Morphine; Mice; Pumps mentioned in materials and methods section; dependence;.

14641 Micheli, L., Mannelli, L.D., Guerrini, R., Trapella, C., Zanardelli, M., Ciccocioppo, R., Rizzi, A., Ghelardini, C., Calo, G., Mannelli, L.D. Acute and subchronic antinociceptive effects of nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor agonists infused by intrathecal route in rats. European Journal of Pharmacology 2015; 754(--):79-87. >>> Morphine; UFP-112; UFP-113; Saline, sterile; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; Control animals received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, Wistar, NOP -/-, male); ALZET intrathecal catheter used; UFP-112 is a full NOP agonist (N/OFQ peptide ); UFP-113 is a partial NOP agonist.

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11. Pentazocine

3567 Bergeron, R., de Montigny, C., Debonnel, G. Effect of short-term and long-term treatments with sigma ligands on the N-methyl-D-aspartate response in the CA(3) region of the rat dorsal hippocampus. Br. J. Pharmacol 1997; 120(--):1351-1359. >>> Haloperidol; JO-1784; Pentazocine; DTG; SC; rat; controls received mp w/saline; DTG is di(2-tolyl)guanidin.

1907 Weissman, A.D., De Souza, E.B. Chronic treatment of rats with the specific sigma ligand D-pentazocine fails to modulate dopamine D2 and sigma binding in brain. Eur. J. Pharmacol 1991; 195(--):163-165. >>> Pentazocine, d-; Saline; SC; rat; 2ML4; no comment posted.

588 Schmidt, W.K., Tam, S.W., Shotzberger, G.S., Smith Jr, D.H., Clark, R., Vernier, V.G. Nalbuphine. Drug Alcohol Depend 1985; 14(--):339-362. >>> Ethylketocyclazocine; Heroin; Meperidine; Oxymorphone; Pentazocine; Propoxyphene; Bremazocine; Buprenorphine; Butorphanol; Methadone; Morphine; Nalbuphine; U-50,488H; SC; mice; comparison of sc morphine pellets vs. mp infusion; comparison of agents effects; controls received unspecified placebo infusion.

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12. Sufentanil

4838 Diaz, A, Florez, J., Pazos, A, Hurle, M.A. Opioid tolerance and supersensitivity induce regional changes in the autoradiographic density of dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels in the rat central nervous system.. Pain 2000; 86(--):227-235. >>> Sufentanil citrate; Nimodipine;; Saline; Ethanol; Propylene glycol; Water;; SC;; rat;; 2001;; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; tolerance; Group 1 received vehicle alone, Group 2 received chronic sufentanil, Group 3 received sufentanil&nimodipine, Group 4 received nimodipine alone; Nimodipine is a CA2+ antagonist opioid; sufentanil citrate was diluted in saline; nimodipine was diluted in 10% ethanol / 20% propylene glycol / 70% water.

4837 Diaz, A, Pazos, A, Florez, J., Hurle, M.A. Autoradiographic mapping of m-opioid receptors during opiate tolerance and supersensitivity in the rat central nervous system.. Nauyn-Schmiedeberg's Arch Pharmacol 2000; 362(--):101-109. >>> Sufentanil citrate; Nimodipine;; Saline; Ethanol; Propylene glycol; Water;; SC;; rat;; 2001;; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; tolerance; Group 1 received sufentanil, Group 2 received sufentanil&nimodipine, Group 3 received nimodipine, Group 4 received vehicle; Nimodipine is a Ca channel blocker; sufentanil was diluted in saline; nimodipine was diluted in 10% ethanol / 20% propylene glycol / 70% water;.

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What researchers are saying ...

“We switched to a 21-day minipumps paradigm using a dose that mimics serum antidepressant concentrations in humans because this regimen resulted in a more consistent and robust decrease in serotonin transporter levels in rats than what is observed with daily injections of serotonin reuptake inhibitors.” Weinshenker et al. 2002 Brain Research 946:239-246.