References on Opioid Receptor Research Using ALZET® Osmotic Pumps

16203 Lockie, S. H., Stefanidis, A., Tschop, M. H., Oldfield, B. J. Combination cannabinoid and opioid receptor antagonists improves metabolic outcomes in obese mice. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2015; 417(--):10-19. >>> Naloxone; Saline, normal; SC; mice; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info: obesity induced, C57black/6J male mice, 6 wks old; functionality of mp verified by behavioral test; dose-response (pg 13, 14); dose-response (pg 13, 14); behavioral testing (Porsolt forced swim, Elevated Plus Maze, Dowel Gnawing); delayed delivery (24 hours via a 1.5 cm vinyl catheter); Isoflurane anesthesia used; minipump combined with a dose of 1 mg/kg/day of rimonabant (rim nal) injected IP; Dose: 0.5 mg/mouse/day.

15983 Jackson, K. J., Jackson, A., Carroll, F. I., Damaj, M. I. Effects of orally-bioavailable short-acting kappa opioid receptor-selective antagonist LY2456302 on nicotine withdrawal in mice. Neuropharmacology 2015; 97(--):270-4. >>> Nicotine hydrogen tartrate salt; Saline; SC; Mice; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, ICR, 8-10 weeks old); behavioral testing (elevated plus maze; hyperalgesia); dependence; Dose (24 mg/kg/day);.

15777 Zongming Jiang, Shaoyong Wu, Xiujuan Wu, Junfeng Zhong, Anqing Lv, Jing Jiao, Zhonghua Chen  International Journal of Cancer 2016; 138(--):2013-2020. >>> Rapamycin; CTOP; LY297002; DMSO; saline; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (Wistar, 200-250g); 50% DMSO used; cancer (breast; bone); dose-response (pg 2015); behavioral testing (hindpaw withdrawal latency); Rapamycin is an mTOR antagonist; CTOP is an MOR antagonist; LY297002 an a PI3K inhibitor;.

15773 Lara S. Hwa, Akiko Shimamoto, Tala Kayyali, Kevin J. Norman, Rita J. Valentino, Joseph F. DeBold, Klaus A. Miczek  Addiction Biology 2016; 21(--):111-124. >>> CP154526; naltrexone; DMSO; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS; Mice; 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, C58BL/6J, 8 weeks old); functionality of mp verified by IAA drinking test or morphine-sensitive tail withdrawal; ALZET brain infusion kit 3 used; 4% DMSO used; Cannula placement verified via Nissl staining;.

14837 Bao, Y.J., Gao, Y.B., Hou, W., Yang, L.P., Kong, X.Y., Zheng, H.G., Li, C.H., Hua, B.J., Hua, B.J. Engagement of signaling pathways of protease-activated receptor 2 and -opioid receptor in bone cancer pain and morphine tolerance. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER 2015; 137(--):1475-1483. >>> FSLLRY-NH2; Saline; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Wistar 200-250g); cancer (bone); no stress (see pg. 1476); behavioral testing (mechanical paw withdrawal, thermal hyperalgesia); peptides;.

13843 Lantero, A., Tramullas, M., Pilar-Cuellar, F., Valdizan, E., Santillan, R., Roques, B.P., Hurle, M.A., Hurle, M.A. TGF-beta and Opioid Receptor Signaling Crosstalk Results in Improvement of Endogenous and Exogenous Opioid Analgesia under Pathological Pain Conditions. Journal of Neuroscience 2014; 34(--):5385-5395. >>> Transforming growth factor-B1; HCl; albumin; SC; Mice (transgenic); 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, BAMBI-KO or WT, 14-18 weeks old); behavioral testing (von Frey monofiliments; formalin test); Transforming growth factor-B1 aka TGF-B1; sciatic nerve crush injury;.

13552 Nakahara, T., Uenoyama, Y., Iwase, A., Oishi, S., Nakamura, S., Minabe, S., Watanabe, Y., Deura, C., Noguchi, T., Fuji, N., Kikkawa, F., Maeda, K., Tsukamura, H. Chronic Peripheral Administration of Kappa-Opioid Receptor Antagonist Advances Puberty Onset Associated with Acceleration of Pulsatile Luteinizing Hormone Secretion in Female Rats. JOURNAL OF REPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT 2013; 59(-5-):479-484. >>> Nor-binaltorphimine; senktide; Sodium bicarbonate; IP; Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, Wistar-Imamichi, 20 days old); Nor-binaltorphimine aka nor-BNI; Nor-binaltorphimine is a KOR agonist; senktide NK3R agonist;.

13452 Shaqura, M., Khalefa, B.I., Shakibaei, M., Winkler, J., Al-Khrasani, M., Fuerst, S., Mousa, S.A., Schaefer, M. Reduced Number, G Protein Coupling, and Antinociceptive Efficacy of Spinal Mu-Opioid Receptors in Diabetic Rats Are Reversed by Nerve Growth Factor. JOURNAL OF PAIN 2013; 14(-7-):720-730. >>> Nerve growth factor; Cerebrospinal fluid, artificial; rat serum albumin; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Wistar, 225g); behavioral testing (paw pressure test); peptides; used PE-10 attached to PE-60 catheter.

13377 Gibbons, C.R., Liu, S.L., Zhang, Y.M., Sayre, C.L., Levitch, B.R., Moehlmann, S.B., Shirachi, D.Y., Quock, R.M. Involvement of brain opioid receptors in the anti-allodynic effect of hyperbaric oxygen in rats with sciatic nerve crush-induced neuropathic pain. Brain Research 2013; 1537(-;-):111-116. >>> Naltrexone HCl; Saline; CSF/CNS; Rat; 1007D; Animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, albino, 160-180g); ALZET brain infusion kit used; post op. care (ampicillin 100 mg/kg IM; meloxicam 2.0 mg/kg IM); behavioral testing (flexion reflex, flinch response, mechanical threshold pressure); Incision closed with wound clip.

13348 Armstrong, S.R., Campbell, C.B., Richardson, C.L., Vickery, R.G., Tsuruda, P.R., Long, D.D., Hegde, S.S., Beattie, D.T. The in vivo pharmacodynamics of the novel opioid receptor antagonist, TD-1211, in models of opioid-induced gastrointestinal and CNS activity. NAUNYN-SCHMIEDEBERGS ARCHIVES OF PHARMACOLOGY 2013; 386(-6-):471-478. >>> Morphine; Saline; SC; Mice; 2001; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (male, Swiss Webster, 20-35g); Pump not mentioned much only pg.473.

12873 Sato, K.L., King, E.W., Johanek, L.M., Sluka, K.A. Spinal cord stimulation reduces hypersensitivity through activation of opioid receptors in a frequency-dependent manner. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PAIN 2013; 17(-4-):551-561. >>> Naloxone; naltrindole; Saline; SC; Rat; 1007D; Control animals received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Sprague Dawley, 250-350 g).

12857 Mousa, S.A., Shaqura, M., Khalefa, B.I., Zoellner, C., Schaad, L., Schneider, J., Shippenberg, T.S., Richter, J.F., Hellweg, R., Shakibaei, M., Schaefer, M. Rab7 Silencing Prevents mu-Opioid Receptor Lysosomal Targeting and Rescues Opioid Responsiveness to Strengthen Diabetic Neuropathic Pain Therapy. Diabetes 2013; 62(-4-):1308-1319. >>> Nerve growth factor, beta; CSF, artificial; albumin, rat serum; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 2001; Control animals received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Wistar, male, STZ induced diabetes).

12742 Tejeda, H.A., Natividad, L.A., Orfila, J.E., Torres, O.V., O'Dell, L.E. Dysregulation of kappa-opioid receptor systems by chronic nicotine modulate the nicotine withdrawal syndrome in an age-dependent manner. Psychopharmacology 2012; 224(-2-):289-301. >>> Nicotine; SC; Rat; 2ML2; Animal info (adolescent, adult, Wistar, male).

12706 Berrendero, F., Plaza-Zabalala, A., Galeote, L., Flores, A., Bura, S.A., Kieffer, B.L., Maldonado, R. Influence of delta-Opioid Receptors in the Behavioral Effects of Nicotine. Neuropsychopharmacology 2012; 37(-10-):2332-2344. >>> Nicotine; SC; Mice; 2001; Animal info (C57BL/6, male, DOR KO, 8-12 wks old).

12150 Lamb, K., Tidgewell, K., Simpson, D.S., Bohn, L.M., Prisinzano, T.E. Antinociceptive effects of herkinorin, a MOP receptor agonist derived from salvinorin A in the formalin test in rats: New concepts in mu opioid receptor pharmacology: From a symposium on new concepts in mu-opioid pharmacology. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2012; 121(-3-):181-188. >>> Morphine hydrochloride; Saline; SC; Rat; Animal info (Sprague Dawley, male, 250-275 g).

12084 Vadizan, E.M., Diaz, A., Pilar-Cuellar, F., Lantero, A., Mostany, R., Villar, A.V., Laorden, M.L., Hurle, M.A. Chronic treatment with the opioid antagonist naltrexone favours the coupling of spinal cord mu-opioid receptors to G-alphaz protein subunits. Neuropharmacology 2012; 62(-2-):757-764. >>> Naltrexone; SC; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (Sprague Dawley, male, 250-300 g).

11712 Peart, J.N., Hoe, L.E.S., Gross, G.J., Headrick, J.P. Sustained Ligand-Activated Preconditioning via delta-Opioid Receptors. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 2011; 336(-1-):274-281. >>> Naloxone; BW373U86; U50,488H; morphine-6-glucuronide; morphine-3-glucuronide; wortmannin; PKI-(14-22)-amide; SC; Mice; 1007D; Animal info (7-12 wks old, C57/BL6, male);BW373U86 also known as ()-4-[(R)--[(2S,5R)-4-allyl-2,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl]-3-hydroxy-hydroxybenzyl]-N,N-diethylbenzamide is a delta opioid receptor selective agonist; U50,488H also known as trans-()-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-(2-(1-pyrrolidin)cyclohexyl)-benzeneacetamide methane sulfonate hydrate is a kappa opioid selective receptor agonist.

11677 Wu, Y., Chen, R., Zhao, X.J., Li, A.P., Li, G., Zhou, J.W. JWA regulates chronic morphine dependence via the delta opioid receptor. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 2011; 409(-3-):520-525. >>> Oligonucleotide, sense, JWA; oligonucleotide, antisense JWA; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS; Rat; Animal info (adult, male, Wistar, 190 g); antisense (JWA).

11097 Yamdeu, R.S., Shaqura, M., Mousa, S.A., Schaefer, M., Droese, J. p38 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Activation by Nerve Growth Factor in Primary Sensory Neurons Upregulatesμ-Opioid Receptors to Enhance Opioid Responsiveness Toward Better Pain Control. Anesthesiology 2011; 114(-1-):150-161. >>> Fentanyl propionanilide; buprenorphine hydrochloride; Saline, isotonic; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male Wistar, 200-250 g); pain.

11071 Zheng, H., Zeng, Y., Zhang, X.X., Chu, J., Loh, H.H., Law, P.Y. μ-Opioid Receptor Agonists Differentially Regulate the Expression of miR-190 and NeuroD. MOLECULAR PHARMACOLOGY 2010; 77(-1-):102-109. >>> Morphine; fentanyl; Mice; 1003D; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (CD1 (ICR), 6-8 wks old).

10997 Horvath, R.J., Romero-Sandoval, E.A., De Leo, J.A. Inhibition of microglial P2X(4) receptors attenuates morphine tolerance, Iba1, GFAP andμ opioid receptor protein expression while enhancing perivascular microglial ED2. Pain 2010; 150(-3-):401-413. >>> Morphine sulfate; naloxone; SC; Rat; 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 175-200 g); one pump contained morphine plus naloxone;"All morphine pumps were filled with 0.833 mg/kg/hr morphine to deliver the equivalent of twice daily 10 mg/kg injections over the course of 24 h"pg 402; tolerance.

10977 Waxman, A.R., Arout, C., Caldwell, M., Dahan, A., Kest, B. Acute and chronic fentanyl administration causes hyperalgesia independently of opioid receptor activity in mice. Neuroscience Letters 2009; 462(-1-):68-72. >>> Fentanyl; Saline; SC; Mice; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (adult, male, CD-1); comparison of SC injections vs. mp;"Although acute fentanyl injection (0.25 mg/kg) caused hyperalgesia within 15 min, hyperalgesia was not similarly evident on infusion Day 1 even though pumps were filled with a fentanyl dose (10mg/kg/24 h) that dispenses ~0.42 mg/kg/h, almost double the dose given by bolus injection."pg 71.

10946 Mathew, B., Lennon, F.E., Siegler, J., Mirzapoiazova, T., Mambetsariev, N., Sammani, S., Gerhold, L.M., LaRiviere, P.J., Chen, C.T., Garcia, J.G.N., Salgia, R., Moss, J., Singleton, P.A. The Novel Role of the Mu Opioid Receptor in Lung Cancer Progression: A Laboratory Investigation. Anesthesia and Analgesia 2011; 112(-3-):558-567. >>> Naltrexone, methyl; SC; Mice; 1002; Controls received mp w/ PBS; animal info (MOR KO, C57BL/6 wt); cancer (lung); Methylnaltrexone (also known as MNTX) is a mu opioid receptor inhibitor.

10943 Quillinan, N., Lau, E.K., Virk, M., von Zastrow, M., Williams, J.T. Recovery from mu-Opioid Receptor Desensitization after Chronic Treatment with Morphine and Methadone. Journal of Neuroscience 2011; 31(-12-):4434-4443. >>> Morphine; methadone; Water; SC; Rat; 2ML1; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; tolerance; animal info (adult (150-250 g, male, Sprague Dawley).

10521 van Dorp, E.L.A., Kest, B., Kowalczyk, W.J., Morariu, A.M., Waxman, A.R., Arout, C.A., Dahan, A., Sarton, E.Y. Morphine-6 beta-glucuronide Rapidly increases Pain Sensitivity Independently of Opioid Receptor Activity in Mice and Humans. Anesthesiology 2009; 110(-6-):1356-1363. >>> Morphine-6 beta-glucuronide; MK-801; Saline; SC; Mice; 2001; Animal info (adult, male, CD-1, TrKO, B6129F1);"Osmotic pumps afford continuous opioid infusions and control for hyperalgesia associated with withdrawal in opioid-dependent subjects that potentially confounds experiments in which chronic opioid treatment is accomplished via repeated acute injections."pg 1357.

10323 Jackson, K.J., Carroll, F.I., Negus, S.S., Damaj, M.I. Effect of the selective kappa-opioid receptor antagonist JDTic on nicotine antinociception, reward, and withdrawal in the mouse. Psychopharmacology 2010; 210(-2-):285-294. >>> Nicotine; Mice; 1007D; Animal info (8-10 wks old, 20-25 g); 28-day pumps used; withdrawal.

10049 Virk, M.S., Arttamangkul, S., Birdsong, W.T., Williams, J.T. Buprenorphine Is a Weak Partial Agonist That Inhibits Opioid Receptor Desensitization. Journal of Neuroscience 2009; 29(-22-):7341-7348. >>> Buprenorphine; DMSO; water; Rat; 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by plasma drug levels; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 150-200 g.); 40% DMSO used;"the osmotic minipump delivered buprenorphine efficiently and predictably"pg. 7342.

9687 Sirohi, S., Dighe, S.V., Walker, E.A., Yoburn, B.C. The analgesic efficacy of fentanyl: Relationship to tolerance and mu-opioid receptor regulation. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 2008; 91(-1-):115-120. >>> Fentanyl hydrochloride; Saline; SC; Mice; Controls received placebo pellets; dose-response (fig. 3); comparison of SC injections vs. mp; tolerance; animal info (male, Swiss Webster, 23-35 g.).

9397 Kumar, P., Sunkaraneni, S., Sirohi, S., Dighe, S.V., Walker, E.A., Yoburn, B.C. Hydromorphone efficacy and treatment protocol impact on tolerance and mu-opioid receptor regulation. European Journal of Pharmacology 2008; 597(-1-3-):39-45. >>> Hydromorphone; Saline; SC; Mice; 2001; Controls received inert placebo pellet; tolerance; animal info (male, Swiss Webster, 22-30 g.);"There was substantially more tolerance with infusion treatment compared to injection treatment."pg. 43.

9095 Hesketh, S.A., Brennan, A.K., Jessop, D.S., Finn, D.P. Effects of chronic treatment with citalopram on cannabinoid and opioid receptor-mediated G-protein coupling in discrete rat brain regions. Psychopharmacology 2008; 198(-1-):29-36. >>> Citalopram; SC; Rat; 2ML2; Comparison of IP injections vs. mp; animal info (adult, male, Sprague Dawley, 200g.); paper incorrectly states 2ML2 pump model as 2002.

8938 Sirohi, S., Kumar, P., Yoburn, B.C. mu-opioid receptor up-regulation and functional supersensitivity are independent of antagonist efficacy. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 2007; 323(-2-):701-707. >>> Naltrexol HCl, 6B-; naloxone HCl; Saline, physiological; SC; Mice; 2001; Controls received placebo pellets; dose-response (fig 3, 5); comparison of pellets, SC injections vs. mp; animal info (male, Swiss-Webster, 22-30g).

8695 Stoller, D.C., Sim-Selley, L.J., Smith, F.L. Role of kappa and delta opioid receptors in mediating morphine-induced antinociception in morphine-tolerant infant rats. Brain Research 2007; 1142(--):28-36. >>> Morphine; SC; Rat (neonate); 1003D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; tolerance; post op. care (10% povidone iodine swab); animal info (P14, 30 g); Vetbond tissue adhesive used to close incision.

7843 Tanaka, S., Fan, L.W., Tien, L.T., Park, Y., Liu-Chen, L.Y., Rockhold, R.W., Ho, I.K. Butorphanol dependence increases hippocampal kappa-opioid receptor gene expression. Journal of Neuroscience Research 2005; 82(-2-):255-263. >>> Butorphanol tartrate; Saline, physiological; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; dependence; post op. care (procaine penicillin G; animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 250-275 g).

7554 Zhang, Q.Y., Purohit, V., Yoburn, B.C. Continuous opioid agonist treatment dose-dependently regulates mu-opioid receptors and dynamin-2 in mouse spinal cord. Synapse 2005; 56(-3-):123-128. >>> Etorphine; Saline; SC; Mice; 2001; Controls received placebo pellet; dose-response (p. 125, 126).

7221 Yoburn, B.C., Purohit, V., Patel, K., Zhang, Q.Y. Opioid agonist and antagonist treatment differentially regulates immunoreactive mu-opioid receptors and dynamin-2 in vivo. European Journal of Pharmacology 2004; 498(-1-3-):87-96. >>> Naloxone; etorphine hcl; morphine sulfate; Saline, normal; SC; Mice; 2001; Controls received inert, placebo pellets or saline injections; comparison of SC injections vs. pellets vs. mp; tolerance;"Intermittent naloxone and etorphine treatment did not regulate u-opioid receptor or dynamin-2, despite the fact that the total amount of drug administered was the same as continuous treatment."(pg. 94); animal info (m, 22-30 grams).

7115 Roy, S., Guo, X.H., Kelschenbach, J., Liu, Y.X., Loh, H.H. In vivo activation of a mutant mu-opioid receptor by naltrexone produces a potent analgesic effect but no tolerance: role of mu-receptor activation and omega-receptor blockade in morphine tolerance. Journal of Neuroscience 2005; 25(-12-):3229-3233. >>> Naltrindole; SNC-80; SC; Mice; 1003D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle.

6881 Rajashekara, V., Patel, C.N., Patel, K., Purohit, V., Yoburn, B.C. Chronic opioid antagonist treatment dose-dependently regulates mu-opioid receptors and trafficking proteins in vivo. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 2003; 75(-4-):909-913. >>> Naloxone HCL; Saline; SC; Mice; 2001; Controls received placebo pellets; dose-response (fig.2).

6628 Hummel, M., Ansonoff, M.A., Pintar, J.E., Unterwald, E.M. Genetic and pharmacological manipulation of mu opioid receptors in mice reveals a differential effect on behavioral sensitization to cocaine. Neuroscience 2004; 125(-1-):211-220. >>> Naltrexone; Saline; SC; Mice (knockout); 1002; Pumps replaced at day 13; behavioral study.

6597 Bailey, A., Davis, L., Lesscher, H.M.B., Kelly, M.D.W., Ledent, C., Hourani, S.M.O., Kitchen, I. Enhanced morphine withdrawal and mu-opioid receptor G-protein coupling in A2A adenosine receptor knockout in mice. Journal of Neurochemistry 2004; 88(-4-):827-834. >>> Morphine; Saline; SC; Mice (knockout); 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; dependence.

6529 Collins, S.L., Kunko, P.M., Ladenheim, B., Cadet, J.L., Carroll, F.I., Izenwasser, S. Chronic Cocaine Increases k-Opioid Receptor Density: Lack of Effect by Selective Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors. Synapse 2002; 45(--):153-158. >>> Cocaine; RTI-117; GBR 12909; Saline; DMSO; water, sterile; SC; Rat; 2ML1; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; brain tissue distribution; 50% DMSO used for GBR12909.

6368 Fan, L.W., Tanaka, S., Tien, L.T., Ma, T.G., Rockhold, R.W., Ho, I.K. Withdrawal from dependence upon butorphanol uniquely increases kappa1-opioid receptor binding in the rat brain. Brain Research Bulletin 2002; 58(-2-):149-160. >>> Butorphanol tartrate; morphine; Saline, sterile physiological; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by residual drug volume; good methods (p. 150); dependence; post op. care (sensorcaine, procaine penicillin G); guide cannula&stylet used; dental cement secured cannula.

6367 Fan, L.W., Tanaka, S., Park, Y., Sasaki, K., Ma, T.G., Tien, L.T., Rockhold, R.W., Ho, I.K. Butorphanol dependence and withdrawal decrease hippocampal K-2-opioid receptor binding. Brain Research 2002; 958(-2-):277-290. >>> Butorphanol tartrate; Saline, sterile physiological; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by residual volume; good methods (p. 279); dependence; post op. care (sensorcaine, procaine penicillin).

6132 Fan, L.W., Tien, L.T., Tanaka, S., Ma, T., Chudapongse, N., Sinchaisuk, S., Rockhold, R.W., Ho, I.K. Changes in the brain kappa-opioid receptor levels of rats in withdrawal from physical dependence upon butorphanol. Neuroscience 2003; 121(-4-):1063-1074. >>> Butorphanol; morphine; Saline, sterile; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; dependence; post op. care (penicillin, 0.5% sensorcaine in wound site); guide cannula with stylet was used; dental cement used to adhere cannula to skull; protective aluminuim cap was placed around the cannula; tygon tubing was used; solutions were filter sterilized during filling of the pumps; brain diagram (p. 1066).

6069 Morinville, A., Cahill, C.M., Esdaile, M.J., Aibak, H., Collier, B., Kieffer, B.L., Beaudet, A. Regulation of delta-opioid receptor trafficking via mu-opioid receptor stimulation: Evidence from mu-opioid receptor knock-out mice. Journal of Neuroscience 2003; 23(-12-):4888-4898. >>> Fentanyl Citrate; Saline; SC; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; analgesic;"because of its reported short half-life and duration of action, fentanyl citrate was also administered chronically via osmotic mini-pumps."p. 4889; multiple pumps per animal (2).

5891 Berrendero, F., Kieffer, B.L., Maldonado, R. Attenuation of nicotine-induced antinociception, rewarding effects, and dependence in mu-opioid receptor knock-out mice. Journal of Neuroscience 2002; 22(-24-):10935-10940. >>> Nicotine hydrogen tartrate; Saline; SC; Mice (knockout); 2001; Controls received mp w/ saline; dependence.

5633 Gomes, B.A., Shen, J., Stafford, K., Patel, M., Yoburn, B.C. mu-opioid receptor down-regulation and tolerance are not equally dependent upon G-protein signaling. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 2002; 72(-1-2-):273-278. >>> Etorphine HCl; morphine sulfate; Saline; SC; Mice; Tolerance.

5608 Sinchaisuk, S., Ho, I.K., Rockhold, R.W. Focal kappa-opioid receptor-mediated dependence and withdrawal in the nucleus paragigantocellularis. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 2002; 74(-1-):241-252. >>> Morphine sulfate; butorphanol tratrate; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ saline; dependence; minipumps were inserted 6-10 days after guide cannula implantation; stylet used.

5354 Wang, J., Charboneau, R., Balasubramanian, S., Barke, R.A., Loh, H.H., Roy, S. The immunosuppressive effects of chronic morphine treatment are partially dependent on corticosterone and mediated by the mu-opioid receptor. J Leukoc. Biol 2002; 71(-5-):782-790. >>> Corticosterone; PEG 400; SC; Mice; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by corticosterone plasma levels; dose-response (p. 784); immunology;.

5300 Glass, M.J., Briggs, J.E., Billington, C.J., Kotz, C.M., Levine, A.S. Opioid receptor blockade in rat nucleus tractus solitarius alters amygdala dynorphin gene expression. Am. J Physiol Regul. Integr. Comp Physiol 2002; 283(-1-):R161-R167. >>> Naltrexone; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS (nucleus of solitary tract); Rat; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; ALZET brain infusion kit used; 7-day recovery period; cannula placement verifyed by histological examination.

5079 Stafford, K., Gomes, A.B., Shen, J., Yoburn, B.C. Mu-opioid receptor downregulation contributes to opioid tolerance in vivo. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 2001; 69(--):233-237. >>> Etorphine hydrochloride; Morphine sulfate; Saline; SC; mice; 2001; controls received placebo pellet; functionality of mp verified by analgesia"tail-flick"dose-response test; comparison of morphine pellets vs. mp; tolerance; receptor downregulation; animal info (male, swiss webster, 22-40 grams).

5023 Hutcheson, D.M., Matthes, H.W.D., Valjent, E., Sanchez-Blazquez, P., Rodriguez-Diaz, M., Garzon, J., Kieffer, B.L., Maldonado, R. Lack of dependence and rewarding effects of deltorphin II in mu-opioid receptor-deficient mice. European Journal of Neuroscience 2001; 13(--):153-161. >>> Deltorphin II; CSF/CNS (third ventricle); mice; 2001; controls received mp w/ vehicle; comparison of ICV injections vs. mp; no stress (see pg. 154); good methods (mice ICV implant; p. 154); 5-day recovery period; competitive injection was by Hamilton microsyringe; histological analysis confirmed cannula placement and lack of tissue damage;.

4903 Holter, S.M., Henniger, M.S.H., Lipkowski, A.W., Spanagel, R. Kappa-opioid receptors and relapse-like drinking in long-term ethanol-experienced rats.. Psychopharmacology 2000; 153(--):93-102. >>> CI-977;; Saline;; SC;; rat;; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; tolerance; dependence; CI-977 is a K-opioid receptor antagonist, also called enadoline; Ci-977 has a very short duration of action, therefore this drug was given chronically by osmotic mini-pumps ..."(p. 94).

4837 Diaz, A, Pazos, A, Florez, J., Hurle, M.A. Autoradiographic mapping of m-opioid receptors during opiate tolerance and supersensitivity in the rat central nervous system.. Nauyn-Schmiedeberg's Arch Pharmacol 2000; 362(--):101-109. >>> Sufentanil citrate; Nimodipine;; Saline; Ethanol; Propylene glycol; Water;; SC;; rat;; 2001;; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; tolerance; Group 1 received sufentanil, Group 2 received sufentanil&nimodipine, Group 3 received nimodipine, Group 4 received vehicle; Nimodipine is a Ca channel blocker; sufentanil was diluted in saline; nimodipine was diluted in 10% ethanol / 20% propylene glycol / 70% water;.

4781 Shen, J, Gomes, B, Gallagher, A, Stafford, K, Yoburn, B.C. Role of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) in opioid agonist-induced m-opioid receptor downregulation and tolerance in mice.. Synapse 2000; 38(--):322-327. >>> Etorphine; Morphine;; SC;; mice;; 2001;; Controls received inert placebo pellet; opioid agonists; etorphine infused for 2 days; morphine infused for 3 days; morphine pellets also used in mp/morphine implanted mice;.


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“We found recently that 21 d of treatment of rats with SSRIs, at clinically relevant and stable serum concentrations (achieved by the use of osmotic minipumps), caused robust downregulation of the SERT.”... “Studies on the effects of chronic antidepressants on the SERT have resulted in inconsistent reports (Owens and Nemeroff, 1998). Among the factors that may contribute to such inconsistency is the route of drug administration. In most studies of chronic administration of Ads to rats, the drugs are given intraperitoneally or subcutaneously, either once or twice daily. As rats metabolize these drugs more rapidly than humans, such dosage schedules can result in appreciable fluctuations in the serum concentration of drug throughout the day. For certain pharmacologic effects, sustained drug action may be needed” Benmansour et al. The Journal of Neuroscience 2002; 22(15):6766-6772.