References on the Administration of Progesterone Using ALZET® Osmotic Pumps

16031 Kim, I. D., Ahn, K. H., Lee, S., Hong, S. C., Kim, S. H., Kim, T. Effect of ovariectomy, 17-beta estradiol, and progesterone on histology and estrogen receptors of bladder in female partial bladder outlet obstruction rat model. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2013; 39(-7-):1259-67. >>> estrogen; progesterone; dehydroepiandrosterone; DMSO; SC; rat; animal info: Sprague-Dawley,bladder outlet obstruction model, ovariectomized model; functionality of mp verified by plasma measurement ; mp used to infuse estrogen, progesterone, and DHEA to examine their effect on angiogenesis of the bladder detrusor; dose: E2 (0.1 mg/kg/day); P4 (1mg/kg/day); P4 and DHEA (300 ug/kg/day);.

15940 Morris, D. J., Latif, S. A., Brem, A. S. An alternative explanation of hypertension associated with 17alpha-hydroxylase deficiency syndrome. Steroids 2014; 79(--):44-8. >>> corticosterone; progesterone, hydroxy-; Propylene glycol; sc; rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info: adrenally intact rats; functionality of mp verified by measuring systolic blood pressure pg 46; replacement therapy (the agents infused); Dose: 5 ug/hr of both agents.

14481 Wong, R., Gibson, C.L., Kendall, D.A., Bath, P.M.W., Gibson, C.L. Evaluating the translational potential of progesterone treatment following transient cerebral ischaemia in male mice. BMC NEUROSCIENCE 2014; 15(--):U1-U10. >>> Progesterone; DMSO; SC; Mice; 1003D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, C57BL6 or BPH2/2, 15-25 weeks old, 25.9-41.2g)); 100% DMSO used; ischemia (cerebral); behavioral testing (Foot fault test, t-maze test);" delivery could offer a more suitable dosing method with the advantages of reducing peaks and troughs in drug levels, the stress associated with repeated injections, and diminishing levels of release over time as seen with pellet implants. Infusion methods are commonly used clinically to maintain drug concentrations and osmotic mini-pump release of agents at a constant rate mimics this approach."pg 2;"Our previous pharmacokinetic study demonstrated that progesterone delivered via i.p. injection has a very short half-life in both plasma and brain but high progesterone concentrations in the brain can be achieved via mini pump infusion."pg 6; pumps primed overnight in 37C saline;.

14618 Marcouiller, F., Boukari, R., Laouafa, S., Lavoie, R., Joseph, V., Joseph, V. The Nuclear Progesterone Receptor Reduces Post-Sigh Apneas during Sleep and Increases the Ventilatory Response to Hypercapnia in Adult Female Mice. PLoS One 2014; 9(--):U765-U776. >>> Progesterone; SC; Mice; 1007D; Control animals received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (PRKO, wt, adult, female, 3-5 mo old).

12672 Wong, R., Ray, D., Kendall, D.A. Progesterone pharmacokinetics in the mouse: implications for potential stroke therapy. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 2012; 64(-11-):1614-1620. >>> Progesterone; DMSO; SC; Mice; 1003D; animal info (C57BL/6, male, wks old); 100% DMSO used;"AUC shows that far higher progesterone concentrations were reached and maintained in both plasma and brain using osmotic minipump delivery with loading dose compared with a bolus dose alone."pg 1616; comparison of bolus dosing vs mp;"Osmotic minipumps were used as the method of infusion as they release progesterone at a constant rate, therefore avoiding diminishing release levels over time as is the case with pellet implants."pg 1617; pk study; comparison of mp vs pellet;.

11561 Quintela, T., Goncalves, I., Martinho, A., Alves, C.H., Saraiva, M.J., Rocha, P., Santos, C.R.A. Progesterone Enhances Transthyretin Expression in the Rat Choroid Plexus In Vitro and In Vivo via Progesterone Receptor. Journal of Molecular Neuroscience 2011; 44(-3-):152-158. >>> Progesterone; Polypropylene glycol; ethanol; DMSO; SC; Rat; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Wistar); 1% ethanol used; 1% DMSO used; replacement therapy (ovariectomy).

11255 Braden, B.B., Talboom, J.S., Crain, I.D., Simard, A.R., Lukas, R.J., Prokai, L., Scheldrup, M.R., Bowman, B.L., Bimonte-Nelson, H.A. Medroxyprogesterone acetate impairs memory and alters the GABAergic system in aged surgically menopausal rats. NEUROBIOLOGY OF LEARNING AND MEMORY 2010; 93(-3-):444-453. >>> Progesterone; medroxyprogesterone acetate; Propylene glycol; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (18 mo old, female, Fischer 344); functionality of mp verified by blood serum levels of MPA; pumps replaced every 31-32 days; behavioral testing (Morris maze test); replacement therapy (ovariectomy).

10890 Suresh, P.S., Jayachandra, K.C., Medhamurthy, R. The effect of progesterone replacement on gene expression in the corpus luteum during induced regression and late luteal phase in the bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata). Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology 2011; 9(-;-):U1-U16. >>> Progesterone; Ethanol; propylene glycol; Monkey; 2ML1; Animal info (adult, female, bonnet, macaca radiata, 3.3-5.1 kg); multiple pumps per animal (3); replacement therapy (corpus leuteum); endocrinology.

10621 Pallares, P., Gonzalez-Bulnes, A. A new method for induction and synchronization of oestrus and fertile ovulations in mice by using exogenous hormones. Laboratory Animals 2009; 43(-3-):295-299. >>> Progesterone; Saline; SC; Mice; Animal info (adult, 6-8 wks old, BALB/cAnNCrl, C57BL/6, CD1(ICR)); pumps replaced after 3 days.

10030 Lefter, R., Doan, V.D., Joseph, V. Contrasting effects of estradiol and progesterone on respiratory pattern and hypoxic ventilatory response in newborn male rats. RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY&NEUROBIOLOGY 2008; 164(-3-):312-318. >>> Estradiol; progesterone; Propylene glycol; SC; Rat; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (adult, female, male, multiparous, Sprague Dawley); estradiol and progesterone in same pump; replacement therapy (ovariectomy).

9745 Armaiz-Pena, G.N., Mangala, L.S., Spannuth, W.A., Lin, Y.G., Jennings, N.B., Nick, A.M., Langley, R.R., Schmandt, R., Lutgendorf, S.K., Cole, S.W., Sood, A.K. Estrous Cycle Modulates Ovarian Carcinoma Growth. Clinical Cancer Research 2009; 15(-9-):2971-2978. >>> Estradiol, 17b-; progesterone; megestrol acetate; Cyclodextrin, b-; water; SC; Mice (nude); Replacement therapy (ovariectomy); animal info (female, athymic); cancer (ovarian).

8469 Lefter, R., Morency, C.E., Joseph, V. Progesterone increases hypoxic ventilatory response and reduces apneas in newborn rats. RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY&NEUROBIOLOGY 2007; 156(-1-):9-16. >>> Progesterone; Propylene glycol; SC; Rat (lactating); 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, postnatal day 1, lactating);"This approach ensures adequate hormonal exposure in pups since steroids are excreted through the milk, and prevents the potential confounding influences of pup's manipulation on respiratory or metabolic variables."(p. 14).

7410 Robichaud, M., Debonnel, G. Oestrogen and testosterone modulate the firing activity of dorsal raphe nucleus serotonergic neurones in both male and female rats. Journal of Neuroendocrinology 2005; 17(-3-):179-185. >>> Estradiol, 17B-; testosterone; progesterone; pregnane-3, 20 dione, 5B-; pregnane-3a-ol, 20-one, 5a-; dehydroepiandrosterone; testosterone, 5a-dihydroxy; Ethanol; water, distilled; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; ALZET brain infusion kit used; 3% ethanol; animal info (Sprague-Dawley, 250-325 g).

7306 Robichaud, M., Debonnel, G. Modulation of the firing activity of female dorsal raphe nucleus serotonergic neurons by neuroactive steroids. Journal of Endocrinology 2004; 182(-1-):11-21. >>> NE-100; progesterone; pregnenolone; dehydroepiandrosterone; pregnane -3,20-dione, 5B; pregnane -3-ol,20-one, 5a; pregnane -3,20-dione, 5a; pregnane -5B-ol,20-one, 3a; pregnane -3B-ol,20-one, 5B; pregnane -3B-ol,20-one, 5a; Water, distilled; ethanol; SC; CSF/CNS; Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle, or saline; replacement therapy (ovariectomy); NE-100 is N,N-dipropyl-2-(4-methoxy-3-(2-phenylethoxy) phenyl)-ethylamine; allopregnanolone; DHP and THP metabolite stereoisomers.

6839 Pazol, K., Wilson, M.E., Wallen, K. Medroxyprogesterone acetate antagonizes the effects of estrogen treatment on social and sexual behavior in female macaques. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2004; 89(-6-):2998-3006. >>> Progesterone acetate, medroxy-; progesterone; DMSO; SC; Monkey; 2ML1; Controls received placebo; functionality of mp verified by serum hormone levels; replacement therapy (ovariectomy); pumps replaced animals received mp w/ agent 1 for 1 week, mp removed, 3 week washout period and then new mp w/ agent 2 for 1 week; peptides.

6672 Traish, A.M., Kim, N.N., Huang, Y.H., Min, K., Munarriz, R., Goldstein, I. Sex steroid hormones differentially regulate nitric oxide synthase and arginase activities in the proximal and distal rabbit vagina. International Journal of Impotence Research 2003; 15(-6-):397-404. >>> Testosterone; dehydroepiandrosterone; dihydrotestosterone, 5-alpha-; androstenediol, delta 5-3B, 17B; estradiol; progesterone; PEG; SC; Rabbit; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; replacement therapy (ovariectomy); multiple pumps per animal (2).

6089 Shao, T.C., Li, H.L., Eid, W., Ittmann, M., Unni, E., Cunningham, G.R. In vivo preservation of steroid specificity in CWR22 xenografts having a mutated androgen receptor. PROSTATE 2003; 57(-1-):1-7. >>> Testosterone; estradiol; progesterone; flutamide; Cylodextrin, 2-beta-hydroxypropl; SC; Mice (nude); 2004; Replacement therapy (castration); cancer (prostate); CWR22 xenograft used; flutamide is an anti-androgen; animal info (5-6 week old, nude ,ORX).

5439 Gomez-Sanchez, E.P., Gomez-Sanchez, C.E. Maternal hypertension and progeny blood pressure: role of aldosterone and 11beta-HSD. Hypertension 1999; 33(-6-):1369-1373. >>> Aldosterone; Hydroxyprogesterone, 11a; Carbenolone; SC; CSF/CNS; Rat (pregnant); 2002; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; stress/adverse reaction (p.1370); seroma around pump assembly in systemic carbenolone and hydroxyprogesterone high dose groups; some pumps became disconnected from cannula; glucocorticoids; comparison of sc vs. icv infusion.

4740 Zhang, L., Fishman, M.C, Huang, P.L  Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol 1999; 19(--):2059-2065. >>> Estradiol, 17B-; Progesterone; Gonadotrophin, human chorionic; SC; Mice; 2002; Controls received sham operation; functionality of mp verified by serum levels; replacement therapy (ovariectomy); vascular cuff injury; B human chorionic gonadotrophin used;.

15656 Souness, G.W., Morris, D.J. 11a- and 11b- hydroxyprogesterone, potent inhibitors of 11b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, possess hypertensinogenic activity in the rat. Hypertension 1996; 27(-pt 1-):421-425. >>> Progesterone, 11a; Hydroxyprogesterone, 11b; RU-28318; Corticosterone; Propylene glycol; SC; rat; 2002; controls received mp w/vehicle; functionality of mp verified by residual volume; replacement therapy (adrenalectomy); agents infused singly and concomitantly in same pump; cardiovascular.

4245 Souness, G.W., Morris, D.J. 11a- and 11b- hydroxyprogesterone, potent inhibitors of 11b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, possess hypertensinogenic activity in the rat. Hypertension 1996; 27(-pt 1-):421-425. >>> Progesterone, 11a; Hydroxyprogesterone, 11b; RU-28318; Corticosterone; Propylene glycol; SC; rat; 2002; controls received mp w/vehicle; functionality of mp verified by residual volume; replacement therapy (adrenalectomy); agents infused singly and concomitantly in same pump; cardiovascular.

3797 Nolan, C., Proietto, J. The effects of oophorectomy and female sex steroids on glucose kinetics in the rat. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract 1995; 30(--):181-188. >>> Estradiol, 17B-; Progesterone; Propylene glycol; SC; rat; 2ML1; controls received sham oophorectomy and/or mp w/ vehicle; replacement therapy (oophorectomy).

3347 Lobo, M.J., Remesar, X., Alemany, M. Effect of chronic intravenous injection of steroid hormones on body weight and composition of female rats. Biochem. Molec. Biol. Intl 1993; 29(-2-):349-358. >>> Progesterone; Cortisol; Cortisone; Corticosterone; Dehydroepiandrosterone; Androstenedione, 4-; Androstendiol, 5-; Testosterone; Nortestosterone, 19-; Estradiol, B-; Estrone; Estriol; Deoxycorticosterone; PEG 400; IV (lower cava); rat; 2002; controls received mp with PEG; no stress (see pg. 351); pumps placed into peritoneal cavity and sutured to musculature; surgical wound sprinkled with sulphathiazol.

3342 Lee, M.-Y., Clark, J.E., Williams, D.E. Induction of flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO B) in rabbit lung and kidney by sex steroids and glucocorticoids. Archives Biochem. Biophys 1993; 302(-2-):332-336. >>> Estradiol, B-; Progesterone; Propylene glycol; Ethanol; Ascorbic acid; IP; rabbit; 2001; controls received mp w/pg; functionality of mp verified by plasma levels; comparison of injections vs. mp.

1848 Dauvois, S., Geng, C.-S., Levesque, C., Merand, Y., Labrie, F. Additive inhibitory effects of an androgen and the antiestrogen EM-170 on estradiol-stimulated growth of human ZR-75-1 breast tumors in athymic mice. Cancer Res 1991; 51(--):3131-3135. >>> EM-170; Progesterone acetate, medroxy-; DMSO; mice; replacement therapy (ovariectomy); long-term study, pumps replaced every 20 days; cancer; antiestrogen.

1694 Mukai, S., Mori, Y., Nagashima, H., Hasegawa, Y., Hoshino, K. Changes in plasma gonadotropins, ovarian steroids and inhibin concentrations in gilts following progesterone treatment with implantable osmotic pumps. Anim. Reprod. Sci 1989; 20(--):287-297. >>> Progesterone; Ethanol; propylene glycol; SC; Pig; 2ML1; Multiple pumps per animal (12);"implanted pumps effectively suppressed follicular growth"(p. 296).

1271 Hatjis, C.G., Koritnik, D.R., Crews, A. Up-regulation of guinea pig myometrial b-adrenoreceptors by systemic estradiol and progesterone. Endocrinology 1988; 122(-4-):1455-1459. >>> Estradiol, 17B-; Progesterone; Propylene glycol; guinea-pig; Pump model not stated; controls received mp w/vehicle; separate and simultaneous infusion of agents; replacement therapy (oophorectomy).

1224 Lavia, L.A., Shideler, C., Farley, N., Walker, N., Fields, W., Roberts, D.K. Uterine growth responses of the mature castrate rat to estradiol-17B. Steroids 1984; 43(-6-):663-675. >>> Estradiol, 17B-; Progesterone; SC; rat; 2001; separate and simultaneous infusion of agents; 2 doses of E2 infused; functionality of mp verified by radioimmunoassay.

566 Will, P.C., Cortright, R.N., DeLisle, R.C., Douglas, J.G., Hopfer, U. Regulation of amiloride-sensitive electrogenic sodium transport in the rat colon by steroid hormones. Am. J. Physiol 1985; 248(-1-):G124-G132. >>> Aldosterone; Corticosterone; Dexamethasone phosphate; Estradiol, 17B-; Progesterone; Testosterone; PEG 400; PEG 600; IP; rat; 1701; 2001; comparison of agents effects; replacement therapy (adrenalectomy&ovariectomy); controls received mp with solvent or glass rods of mp size; no stress implied G125, weight regained; functionality of mp verified.

498 Bochskanl, R., Thie, M., Kirchner, C. Progesterone dependent uptake of uteroglobin by rabbit endometrium. Histochemistry 1984; 80(--):581-589. >>> Progesterone; IP; rabbit; 2ML1; replacement therapy (ovariectomy).

238 Jellinck, P.H., Luine, V., McEwen, B.S. Differential effects of catechol estrogens, progestins and CI-628 administered by constant infusion on the central and peripheral action of estradiol. Neuroendocrinology 1982; 35(--):73-78. >>> CI-628; Progestins; R-5020; Catecholestrogens; Estradiol, 17B-; Progesterone; Ascorbic acid; PEG; SC; rat; 2001; organ replacement therapy (ovariectomy); agents used alone and/or in combination; Cl-628 is an anti-estrogen; R-5020 is a progestin.

161 Komanicky, P., Melby, J.C. Experimental hypertension induced by 19-nor-progesterone treatment in the rat. Endocrinology 1981; 109(-4-):1164-1167. >>> Aldosterone acetate; Progesterone, 19-nor-; Ethanol; Propylene glycol; Water; SC; rat; 1701; pumps replaced after 7 and 14 days.

146 Bochskanl, R., Kirchner, C. Uteroglobin and the accumulation of progesterone in the uterine lumen of the rabbit. Wilhelm Roux's Archives 1981; 190(--):127-131. >>> Progesterone; Ethanol; Propylene glycol; IP; rabbit; 2001; organ replacement therapy (ovariectomy); 1-2 pumps/animal.

100 Cervantes, M., Ruelas, R., Beyer, C. Progesterone facilitation of EEG synchronization in response to milk drinking in female cats. Psychoneuroendocrinology 1979; 4(-3-):245-251. >>> Progesterone; Ethanol; Propylene glycol; SC; cat; 1701; comparison of injections 2x/day vs. infusion; organ replacement therapy (ovariectomy).

61 Will, P.C., Cortright, R.N., Hopfer, U. Polyethylene glycols as solvents in implantable osmotic pumps. J. Pharm. Sci 1980; 69(-6-):747-749. >>> Aldosterone; Corticosterone; Deoxycorticosterone acetate; Dexamethasone acetate; Estradiol, 17B-; Hydrocortisone; Progesterone; Spironolactone; Testosterone; PEG; PEG 400; PEG 600; IP; rat; 1701; 3-7 days aldosterone, 6 days PEG only; replacement therapy (adrenalectomy).


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“Unlike injected nicotine, the infusion of nicotine via osmotic minipumps does not cause any overt signs of hypoxia/ischemia, such as blanching of the skin or cyanosis.” Xu et al., Brain Research 2002; 951:280-292.