References Where the ALZET® Osmotic Pumps Were Used In Various Animal Models for Spinal Cord Injury Research

16338 Figueroa, J. D., Serrano-Illan, M., Licero, J., Cordero, K., Miranda, J. D., De Leon, M. Fatty Acid Binding Protein 5 Modulates Docosahexaenoic Acid-Induced Recovery in Rats Undergoing Spinal Cord Injury. J Neurotrauma 2016; 33(-15-):1436-49. >>> Oligonucleotides, scramble nontargeting; siRNA; Ethanol; Intrathecal; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Young adult female Sprague-dawley rats); good methods (pg 1443); spinal cord injury;“Pumps were primed with DHA-albumin complex (DHA), FABP5 siRNA, and vehicle controls” (pg 1443); ALZET rat intrathecal catheter used;.

16307 Biardeau, X., Przydacz, M., Aharony, S., Loutochin, G., Campeau, L., Kyheng, M., Corcos, J. Early Fesoterodine Fumarate Administration Prevents Neurogenic Detrusor Overactivity in a Spinal Cord Transected Rat Model. PLoS One 2017; 12(-1-):e0169694. >>> Fesoterodine Fumarate; SC; Rat; 2006; spinal cord injury; Dose (0.12, 0.18 mg/kg/day);.

16292 Clancy, M. M., Newton, A. L., Sykes, J. M. Management of Osteomyelitis Caused by Salmonella Enterica Subsp. Houtenae in a Taylor's Cantil (Agkistrodon Bilineatus Taylori) Using Amikacin Delivered Via Osmotic Pump. J Zoo Wildl Med 2016; 47(-2-):691-4. >>> Amikacin; SC; snake; 2002; animal info (adult female Taylor’s cantil, 6 yr old); good methods; spinal cord injury; long-term study; “This study demonstrates that the infection can be suppressed and the animal’s life extended by long-term continuous infusion of amikacin and that such treatment did not result in renal compromise in this individual.” pg 694; Veterinary Application; temperature adjusted pumping rate for snake; Industry authored (American Association of Zoo Veterinarians); Interesting (Veterinary use presented for treating animal with antibiotics for extended duration; minimizing need for animal handling); Dose (26ug/kg/hr);.

16264 Tsenkina, Y., Ricard, J., Runko, E., Quiala-Acosta, M. M., Mier, J., Liebl, D. J. EphB3 receptors function as dependence receptors to mediate oligodendrocyte cell death following contusive spinal cord injury. Cell Death Dis 2015; 6(--):e1922. >>> EphrinB3; PBS; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Mice; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Female wild type (WT), EphB3 knockout EphB3−/−55), PLP-GFP-WT, PLP-GFP-EphB3−/− mice (2–3 months of age, weighing 26±6 g)); ALZET brain infusion kit 3 used; good methods (pg. 8); spinal cord injury; behavioral testing (locomotor behavior); Dose (100 ug/ml);.

16199 Li, R., Qi, F., Zhang, J., Ji, Y., Zhang, D., Shen, Z., Lei, W. Antinociceptive effects of dexmedetomidine via spinal substance P and CGRP. Transl Neurosci 2015; 6(-1-):259-264. >>> Dexmedetomidine, BRL44408; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info: Wistar rats (both male and female) weighing 200-250 g; functionality of mp verified by levels of behavior from rats; dose-response (xpg 260-261); spinal cord injury; behavioral testing (mechanical sensitivity of the hindpaw); Intrathecal catheter used; BRL44408 is anǝ2-AR antagonist; Dose: 20, 50ǨM (DEX); 15,50ǨM (BRL44408).

16179 Shigyo, M., Tohda, C. Extracellular vimentin is a novel axonal growth facilitator for functional recovery in spinal cord-injured mice. Sci Rep 2016; 6(--):28293. >>> Vimentin, recombinant human; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS; Mice; 1004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, ddY, 6-7 weeks old); ALZET brain infusion kit 3 used; spinal cord injury; behavioral testing (open field locomotion); cyanoacrylate adhesive; Therapeutic indication (spinal cord injury); Brain coordinates (bregma−0.22 mm, lateral to the left +1 mm and −2.5 mm depth);.

16111 Dabrowski, W., Kwiecien, J. M., Rola, R., Klapec, M., Stanisz, G. J., Kotlinska-Hasiec, E., Oakden, W., Janik, R., Coote, M., Frey, B. N., Turski, W. A. Prolonged Subdural Infusion of Kynurenic Acid Is Associated with Dose-Dependent Myelin Damage in the Rat Spinal Cord. PLoS One 2015; 10(-11-):e0142598. >>> Kynurenic Acid; PBS; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); rat; 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info: 42 healthy adult rats; spinal cord injury; post op. care (ketoprofen); Rat intrathecal catheter used; Dose: 0.0002 pmol/min, 0.01 nmol/min, 0.1 nmol/min, 1 nmol/min and 10 nmol/min of Kynurenic acid.

16106 Cheng, P., Chen, K., Yu, W., Gao, S., Hu, S., Sun, X., Huang, H. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activation promotes axonal growth and recovery in the CNS. J Neurol Sci 2015; 359(-1-2-):48-56. >>> Sphingosine, D-erythro; saline; SC; rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; sham operation; animal info: adult Sprague–Dawley (SD) male rats, 240 - 260 g; spinal cord injury; tissue perfusion (spinal cord); D-erythro-sphingosine aka DES; Dose: DES (200Ǩl 1Ǩg/ml solution).

16025 Hu, J. Z., Huang, J. H., Zeng, L., Wang, G., Cao, M., Lu, H. B. Anti-apoptotic effect of microRNA-21 after contusion spinal cord injury in rats. J Neurotrauma 2013; 30(-15-):1349-60. >>> AntagomiR-21; saline; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); rat; 1003D; gene-therapy; animal info: rat moderate contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) model, male, Sprague-Dawley, 180-220g; good methods; neurodegenerative (spinal cord injury); miRNA-21, anti-apoptotic. MiR-21 was inhibited via Antagomir-21 to study its effect on spinal cord injury. Inhibition triggered activation of caspases, and increased apoptotic cell death. miR-21 has a protective role in spinal cord injury by inhibiting neuronal cell death; dose: 20 nmol/ml.

16022 Hodgetts, S. I., Simmons, P. J., Plant, G. W. A comparison of the behavioral and anatomical outcomes in sub-acute and chronic spinal cord injury models following treatment with human mesenchymal precursor cell transplantation and recombinant decorin. Exp Neurol 2013; 248(--):343-59. >>> Decorin; PBS; CSF/CNS; Rat (nude); 2004; Controls received mp w/ control isoform; animal info (female, CBH-rnu/Arc, athymic, 120-150g); ALZET brain infusion kit 3 used; spinal cord injury;“Infusion of factors using pumps is currently the most effective available method of delivering physiologically appropriate amounts of decorin for sustained periods of time which eliminates the need for multiple direct injections into the spinal cord every few days.” pg 357; pumps removed after2 weeks;.

15980 Iorgulescu, J. B., Patel, S. P., Louro, J., Andrade, C. M., Sanchez, A. R., Pearse, D. D. Acute Putrescine Supplementation with Schwann Cell Implantation Improves Sensory and Serotonergic Axon Growth and Functional Recovery in Spinal Cord Injured Rats. Neural Plast 2015; 2015(--):186385. >>> Putrescine; Saline; SC; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, Fischer, adult, 180-200g); pumps replaced every week; spinal cord injury; behavioral testing (locomotor activity);.

15913 Karalija, A., Novikova, L. N., Kingham, P. J., Wiberg, M., Novikov, L. N. The effects of N-acetyl-cysteine and acetyl-L-carnitine on neural survival, neuroinflammation and regeneration following spinal cord injury. Neuroscience 2014; 269(--):143-51. >>> L- N-acetyl-cysteine; O-acetyl-L-canitine; saline; Intrathecal; rats; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (adult, 10-12 week female Sprague-Dawley rats); pumps replaced every 2 weeks; spinal cord injury; stab wound in dorsal root entry zone of C3 spinal cervical segment; post op. care (given analgesic Finadyne, normal saline, and benzylpenicillin; each animal housed alone); Peptides ALC, NAC; NAC aka N-Acetyl-cysteine; ALC aka acetyl-L-carnitine; Dose: 2.4 mg/day for NAC, 0.9 mg/day for ALC.

15905 Flora, G., Joseph, G., Patel, S., Singh, A., Bleicher, D., Barakat, D. J., Louro, J., Fenton, S., Garg, M., Bunge, M. B., Pearse, D. D. Combining neurotrophin-transduced schwann cells and rolipram to promote functional recovery from subacute spinal cord injury. Cell Transplant 2013; 22(-12-):2203-17. >>> Rolipram; Saline; ethanol; SC; Rat; 2001; animal info (female, Fischer, adult, 180-200g); pumps replaced every week; pumps replaced every week; spinal cord injury; Multiple pumps per animal (2); stress/adverse reaction: (see pg.2205); post op. care (gentamicin 5 mg/kg IM QD for 7 days; Buprenex 0.3 mg/kg SC QD for 2 days; lactated ringer's solution 5ml BID PRN, bladders expressed BID); Dose (0.5 mg/kg);.

15881 Wu, D., Klaw, M. C., Connors, T., Kholodilov, N., Burke, R. E., Tom, V. J. Expressing Constitutively Active Rheb in Adult Neurons after a Complete Spinal Cord Injury Enhances Axonal Regeneration beyond a Chondroitinase-Treated Glial Scar. J Neurosci 2015; 35(-31-):11068-80. >>> Chondroitinase ABC; PBS; trehalos; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, Wistar, adult, 225-250g); spinal cord injury; post op. care (buprenorphine, cefazolin, Lactated Ringer's solution, bladders manually expressed BID);"Because ChABC alone is thermolabile, we mixed it with the sugar trehalos to thermostabilize it"pg 11069; pumps primed in 37C saline evernight;.

15780 Brigitte Koenig, Daniel Pape, Owen Chao, Jordana Bauer, Barbara Grimpe  Experimental Neurology 2016; 276(--):51-58. >>> DNAXT-1as; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ control enzyme or PBS; animal info (female, Wistar, 200-250g); pumps replaced every week; pumps replaced every week; spinal cord injury; post op. care (Baytril; manual bladder emptying; Rimadyl); behavioral testing (horizontal ladder task); used self-made intrathecal catheter from 32-gauge polyurethane; enzyme inhibitor (DNA enzyme of mRNA of xylosyltransferase-1);.

15760 Eric E. Ewan, Theo Hagg  journal of Neurotrauma 2016; 33(--):269-277. >>> Carnitine, acetyl-L-; PBS; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 2001; animal info (female, Sprague Dawley, 200g); spinal cord injury; post op. care (wound rinced in steril saline, bacitracin applied topically, gentamicin IM 0, 2 or 4 days later, buprenorphine IM every 12 hours, bladders manually expressed BID); behavioral testing (locomotor function, grid walking, open field); pumps primed overnight; pumps removed after 6 days; Dose (1 mg/day);.

15233 Sharp, K.G., Yee, K.M., Stiles, T.L., Aguilar, R.M., Steward, O. A re-assessment of the effects of treatment with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (ibuprofen) on promoting axon regeneration via RhoA inhibition after spinal cord injury. EXPERIMENTAL NEUROLOGY 2013; 248(-;-):321-337. >>> Ibuprofen; Saline; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, Sprague-Dawley, 9-10 weeks old); spinal cord injury; post op. care (bladders expressed BID); behavioral testing (hindlimb locomotor function; gridwalk task, footprint analysis, girdle test, plantar von frey); immunology; pumps primed primed for 16h in 37C saline;.

15215 Hawryluk, G.W.J., Spano, S., Chew, D., Wang, S., Erwin, M., Chamankhah, M., Forgione, N., Fehlings, M.G. An Examination of the Mechanisms by Which Neural Precursors Augment Recovery Following Spinal Cord Injury: A Key Role for Remyelination. CELL TRANSPLANTATION 2014; 23(-3-):365-380. >>> Epithelial growth factor; fibroblast growth factor; platelet-derived growth factor; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 1007D; Animal info (female, Wistar, 10-12 weeks old); spinal cord injury; post op. care (bladders manually evacuated TID, Minocycline 50 mg/kg 10 days, cyclosporine 10 mg/kg); behavioral testing (open field test); immunology;.

15129 Wang, J., Wang, X.F., Wei, J., Wang, M.Y., Wang, M.Y. Hyaluronan Tetrasaccharide Exerts Neuroprotective Effect and Promotes Functional Recovery After Acute Spinal Cord Injury in Rats. NEUROCHEMICAL RESEARCH 2015; 40(--):98-108. >>> Hyaluronan tetrasaccharide; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Sprague Dawley, 12 weeks old, 250-300g); spinal cord injury; post op. care (Baytril antibacterial applied SC for 3 days); behavioral testing (locomotor activity); immunology;.

15105 Tashiro, S., Shinozaki, M., Mukaino, M., Renault-Mihara, F., Toyama, Y., Liu, M.G., Nakamura, M., Okano, H., Okano, H. BDNF Induced by Treadmill Training Contributes to the Suppression of Spasticity and Allodynia After Spinal Cord Injury via Upregulation of KCC2. NEUROREHABILITATION AND NEURAL REPAIR 2015; 29(--):677-689. >>> TrkB/Fc, recombinant human; PBS; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, Sprague Dawley, 8-9 weeks old, 190-220g); spinal cord injury; used ALZET intrathecal cathters; pumps removed after 2 weeks;.

14975 Ishikawa, Y., Imagama, S., Ohgomori, T., Ishiguro, N., Kadomatsu, K., Kadomatsu, K. A combination of keratan sulfate digestion and rehabilitation promotes anatomical plasticity after rat spinal cord injury. NEUROSCIENCE LETTERS 2015; 593(--):13-18. >>> Keratanase II; chondroitinase ABC; Saline; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 2006; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, Sprague Dalwey, 200-230g); spinal cord injury; behavioral testing (single pellet reaching task); used silicone tubing; long-term study;.

14969 Hu, J.Z., Zeng, L., Huang, J.H., Wang, G., Lu, H.B., Lu, H.B. miR-126 promotes angiogenesis and attenuates inflammation after contusion spinal cord injury in rats. BRAIN RESEARCH 2015; 1608(--):191-202. >>> miR-126; Saline; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 1003D; Controls received mp w/ control agomir; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 180-220g); spinal cord injury; post op. care (Ringer's solution administered IP 5 ml, penicillin G 40000 U IM QD for 3 days, bladders manually expressed BID); behavioral testing (locomotor testing, open field); immunology; pumps primed overnight at 37C.

14780 Zhu, Y., Soderblom, C., Krishnan, V., Ashbaugh, J., Bethea, J.R., Lee, J.K., Lee, J.K. Hematogenous macrophage depletion reduces the fibrotic scar and increases axonal growth after spinal cord injury. NEUROBIOLOGY OF DISEASE 2015; 74(--):114-125. >>> Sunitinib malate; DMSO; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Mice; 1002; Animal info (female, 8 weeks old); functionality of mp verified by use of evans blue dye; 2.5% DMSO used; spinal cord injury; immunology; used ALZET mouse IT catheter;.

14538 Zoerner, B., Bachmann, L.C., Filli, L., Kapitza, S., Gullo, M., Bolliger, M., Starkey, M.L., Rothlisberger, M., Gonzenbach, R.R., Schwab, M.E., Zoerner, B. Chasing central nervous system plasticity: the brainstem's contribution to locomotor recovery in rats with spinal cord injury. Brain 2014; 137(--):1716-1732. >>> Antibody, anti-Nogo-A; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 2ML2; Animal info (female, Lewis, 10 weeks old, 200-250g); spinal cord injury; behavioral testing (locomotor tasks);.

14492 Xu, C., Klaw, M.C., Lemay, M.A., Baas, P.W., Tom, V.J., Tom, V.J. Pharmacologically inhibiting kinesin-5 activity with monastrol promotes axonal regeneration following spinal cord injury. Experimental Neurology 2015; 263(--):172-176. >>> Chondroitinase ABC; Trehalos; PBS; monastrol; DMSO; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, Sprague Dawley, 225-250g, adult); spinal cord injury; behavioral testing (open field testing); use ReCathCo IT catheter;.

14465 Wang, X.X., Yigitkanli, K., Kim, C.Y., Sekine-Komo, T., Wirak, D., Frieden, E., Bhargava, A., Maynard, G., Cafferty, W.B.J., Strittmatter, S.M., Strittmatter, S.M. Human NgR-Fc Decoy Protein via Lumbar Intrathecal Bolus Administration Enhances Recovery from Rat Spinal Cord Contusion. Journal of Neurotrauma 2014; 31(--):1955-1966. >>> NgR1(310)-Fc, human; PBS; CSF/CNS; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, Sprague Dawley, 10-11 weeks old, 220-240g); spinal cord injury; behavioral testing (BBB locomotor scale, grid walking); cyanoacrylate adhesive; used Rat IT catheter for IT infusion; PBS pumps initially implanted, and then replaced 3 days after SCI with vehicle or agent;.

14433 Tassew, N.G., Mothe, A.J., Shabanzadeh, A.P., Banerjee, P., Koeberle, P.D., Bremner, R., Tator, C.H., Monnier, P.P., Monnier, P.P. Modifying Lipid Rafts Promotes Regeneration and Functional Recovery. CELL REPORT 2014; 8(--):1146-1159. >>> Neogenin; PBS; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, Wistar, adult); spinal cord injury; post op. care (bladders evacuated manually 3 times daily; Clavomax PO BID 62.5 mg); behavioral testing (locomotor function, ladder walk analysis); used ALZET IT catheter; pumps primed in 37C sterile saline overnight;"catheter and pump were sutured extensively to the subcutaneous tissues"pg 11 of supplement;.

14343 Patel, S.P., Sullivan, P.G., Pandya, J.D., Goldstein, G.A., VanRooyen, J.L., Yonutas, H.M., Eldahan, K.C., Morehouse, J., Magnuson, D.S.K., Rabchevsky, A.G., Rabchevsky, A.G. N-acetylcysteine amide preserves mitochondrial bioenergetics and improves functional recovery following spinal trauma. Experimental Neurology 2014; 257(--):95-105. >>> Acetylcysteine amide, N-; Saline; SC; Rat; 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, Sprague Dawley, 225-250g); spinal cord injury; behavioral testing (locomotor activity, gait analysis); pumps removed after 7 days;.

14327 Novrup, H.G., Bracchi-Ricard, V., Ellman, D.G., Ricard, J., Jain, A., Runko, E., Lyck, L., Yli-Karjanmaa, M., Szymkowski, D.E., Pearse, D.D., Lambertsen, K.L., Bethea, J.R., Lambertsen, K.L. Central but not systemic administration of XPro1595 is therapeutic following moderate spinal cord injury in mice. Journal of Neuroinflammation 2014; 11(--):U13-U26. >>> XPro1595; etanercept; Saline; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Mice; 1003D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, C57BL6J, adult); ALZET brain infusion kit 3 used; spinal cord injury; post op. care (SC injection of 1 ml lactated Ringer's Fluid; manual bladder expression twice a day; gentamicin 40 mg/kg for 7 days); behavioral testing (catwalk test, gridwalk test, thermal hyperalgesia, open field test); used methylcyano acrylate to affix catheter to T10;.

14276 Liang, P., Liu, J.R., Xiong, J.S., Liu, Q., Zhao, J.X., Liang, H.S., Zhao, L.W., Tang, H.T., Liang, P. Neural Stem Cell-Conditioned Medium Protects Neurons and Promotes Propriospinal Neurons Relay Neural Circuit Reconnection After Spinal Cord Injury. CELL TRANSPLANTATION 2014; 23(--):S45-S56. >>> Neural stem cell-conditioned medium, human fetal; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ NSC culture medium; animal info (female, Wistar, 8-10 weeks old, 260-300g); pumps replaced every week; spinal cord injury; post op. care (Bicillin injection 20000 U/day, bladder massage); behavioral testing (locomotor activity); pumps primed in 37C saline overnight; pumps removed after 4 weeks of infusion;.

14251 Kwiecien, J.M., Jarosz, B., Urdzikova, L.M., Rola, R., Dabrowski, W., Kwiecien, J.M. Subdural infusion of dexamethasone inhibits leukomyelitis after acute spinal cord injury in a rat model. FOLIA NEUROPATHOLOGICA 2015; 53(--):41-51. >>> Dexamethasone; PBS; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Long Evans); spinal cord injury; post op. care (ketoprofen 0.3 ml of 10 mg/ml injection, saline administration 1-2 times daily); behavioral testing (Open field testing);"Subdural infusion of dexamethasone, a powerfully anti-inflammatory, stable, synthetic analogue of glucocorticoids, allowed for circumvention of the blood-brain barrier and apparently for achieving a sufficiently high concentration of this drug in the cerebrospinal fluid in proximity of the crush lesion to prevent severe, phagocyte-rich inflammation."pg 48; used rat IT catheter; dose: 2 mg/ml.

14204 Frias, B., Santos, J., Morgado, M., Sousa, M.M., Gray, S.M.Y., McCloskey, K.D., Allen, S., Cruz, F., Cruz, C.D., Cruz, C.D. The Role of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in the Development of Neurogenic Detrusor Overactivity (NDO). Journal of Neuroscience 2015; 35(--):2146-2160. >>> Brain-derived neurotropic factor; TrkB-Ig2; Tris buffer; glycerol; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 2001; 2004; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (female, Wistar, 250-275g); 10% glycerol used; spinal cord injury; no stress (see pg. 2154); post op. care (ciprofloxacin 1 mg/kg IP injection; bladders manually emptied twice a day); used silicone catheter;.

14689 Chehrehasa, F., Cobcroft, M., Young, Y.W., kay-Sim, A., Goss, B., kay-Sim, A. An Acute Growth Factor Treatment that Preserves Function after Spinal Cord Contusion Injury. Journal of Neurotrauma 2014; 31(--):1807-1813. >>> Vascular endothelial growth factor; platelet-derived growth factor-BB; PBS; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (female, Wistar, 20-25 weeks, 300g); spinal cord injury; post op. care (cephalothin; buprenorphine; manual bowel and bladder expression BID); behavioral testing (locomotor behavior; gaid and footprint analysis); used Rat intrathecal catheter; pumps primed in 37C saline overnight;.

14655 Alluin, O., ivet-Mongrain, H., Gauthier, M.K., Fehlings, M.G., Rossignol, S., Karimi-Abdolrezaee, S., Karimi-Abdolrezaee, S. Examination of the Combined Effects of Chondroitinase ABC, Growth Factors and Locomotor Training following Compressive Spinal Cord Injury on Neuroanatomical Plasticity and Kinematics. PLoS One 2014; 9(--):U603-U621. >>> Chondroitinase ABC; platelet-derived growth factor-AA; basic fibroblast growth factor; epidermal growth factor;; Saline; rat serum albumin; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, Wistar, adult, 250-275g); spinal cord injury; behavioral testing (treadmill locomotion; coordination); used ALZET rat intrathecal catheter;.

14602 Grosso, M.J., Matheus, V., Clark, M., van Rooijen, N., Iannotti, C.A., Steinmetz, M.P., Steinmetz, M.P. Effects of an Immunomodulatory Therapy and Chondroitinase After Spinal Cord Hemisection Injury. Neurosurgery 2014; 75(--):461-471. >>> Rolipram; SC; Rat; 1007D; Control animals received mp w/ PBS; animal info (adult, female, Sprague Dawley, 250-300 g); spinal cord injury; pumps replaced after one week.

14599 Pan, H.C., Shen, Y.Q., Loers, G., Jakovcevski, I., Schachner, M., Schachner, M. TEGASEROD, A SMALL COMPOUND MIMETIC OF POLYSIALIC ACID, PROMOTES FUNCTIONAL RECOVERY AFTER SPINAL CORD INJURY IN MICE. Neuroscience 2014; 277(--):356-366. >>> Tegaserod; DMSO; PBS; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Mice; 1002; Control animals received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, 3-4 mo old, C57BL/6J); 0.3% DMSO used:"The pump was placed subcutaneously and the catheter was fixed to the tissue with a 6-0 filament"; spinal cord injury; no stress or adverse effects"During the six-week experimental time period, no infections, overall paralyses or abnormal behavior of implanted mice were observed."pg 358.

14562 Loers, G., Cui, Y.F., Neumaier, I., Schachner, M., Skerra, A., Schachner, M. A Fab fragment directed against the neural cell adhesion molecule L1 enhances functional recovery after injury of the adult mouse spinal cord. Biochemical Journal 2014; 460(--):437-446. >>> alpha, L1 Fab; PBS; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Mice; 1002; animal info (female, C57BL6J, 3-4 months old); spinal cord injury; behavioral testing (locomotor activity); used flame streteched vinyl catheter tubing; no stress"During the 6-week behavioural observation period, no adverse effects of the pump implantation, such as infection, paralysis or aberrant behaviour, were observed."pg 439; post op. care (tacrolimus PO IP injection 1 mg/kg 6 weeks);.

13847 Li, Z.W., Li, J.J., Wang, L., Zhang, J.P., Wu, J.J., Mao, X.Q., Shi, G.F., Wang, Q., Wang, F., Zou, J., Li, Z.W. Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor ameliorates excessive astrogliosis and improves the regeneration microenvironment and functional recovery in adult rats following spinal cord injury. Journal of Neuroinflammation 2014; 11(--):U1-U16. >>> PD168393; DMSO; Hank's balanced salt solution; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle or surgery only; animal info (adult, Sprague Dawley, adult, 220-250g); 5% DMSO used; spinal cord injury; post op. care (bladders expressed twice daily); used 32g catheter; pumps removed after 14 days;.

13830 Kim, D., Zai, L.L., Liang, P., Schaffling, C., Ahlborn, D., Benowitz, L.I. Inosine Enhances Axon Sprouting and Motor Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury. PLoS One 2013; 8(-12-):U1143-U1156. >>> Inosine; Saline; CSF/CNS; IV; Rat; 2002; 2ML1; Animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, adult, 250-300g); pumps replaced biweekly or weekly; ALZET brain infusion kit 2 used; dose-response (pg.8); spinal cord injury; post op. care (buprenex 0.05 mg/kg; enrofloxacin 2.5 mg/kg, bladders expressed manually BID, SC bolus of lactated Ringer's solution BID); behavioral testing (ladder rung waking; hindlimb function; open field behavior); pumps primed; IV catheters flushed weekly during pump change;.

13829 Karalija, A., Novikova, L.N., Kingham, P.J., Wiberg, M., Novikov, L.N., Karalija, A. THE EFFECTS OF N-ACETYL-CYSTEINE AND ACETYL-L-CARNITINE ON NEURAL SURVIVAL, NEUROINFLAMMATION AND REGENERATION FOLLOWING SPINAL CORD INJURY. Neuroscience 2014; 269(--):143-151. >>> N-acetyl-cysteine ; acetyl-l-carnitine hydrochloride; Saline; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 2002; Animal info (female, Sprague Dawley, 10-12 weeks); pumps replaced every 14 days; good methods (p144); spinal cord injury;.

13643 Ishii, H., Tanabe, S., Ueno, M., Kubo, T., Kayama, H., Serada, S., Fujimoto, M., Takeda, K., Naka, T., Yamashita, T. ifn-gamma-dependent secretion of IL-10 from Th1 cells and microglia/macrophages contributes to functional recovery after spinal cord injury. Cell Death&Disease 2013; 4(-;-):U100-U108. >>> Antibody, anti interleukin-10; CSF/CNS; Mice; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ control IgG; animal info (female, C57BL6, 7-9 weeks old); ALZET brain infusion kit 3 used; spinal cord injury; behavioral testing (open field, grid walk, inclined plane);.

13559 O'Carroll, S.J., Gorrie, C.A., Velamoor, S., Green, C.R., Nicholson, L.F.B. Connexin43 mimetic peptide is neuroprotective and improves function following spinal cord injury. NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH 2013; 75(-3-):256-267. >>> Peptide5, mimetic; Cerebrospinal fluid, artificial; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 2001D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley); spinal cord injury; post op. care (Cephalothin sodium 10 mg twice a day until urine cleared, Carpofen 0.5 mg twice a day for 3 days, Hartman's replacement solution 3 ml twice a day for 3 days, Bladders expressed twice a day for 1-2 weeks); behavioral testing (Open field test); peptides;.

13551 Muradov, J.M., Hagg, T. Intravenous Infusion of Magnesium Chloride Improves Epicenter Blood Flow during the Acute Stage of Contusive Spinal Cord Injury in Rats. Journal of Neurotrauma 2013; 30(-10-):840-852. >>> Magnesium chloride; PEG; IV (jugular); Rat; 2001D; 1003D; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, Sprague Dawley, young adult, 180-220g); functionality of mp verified by residual volume; spinal cord injury; post op. care (Bacitracin ointment, saline injection SC, heating pad, twice daily bladder expression); behavioral testing (open field test, grid walk); Primed overnight in saline 37C.

13550 Muramoto, A., Imagama, S., Natori, T., Wakao, N., Ando, K., Tauchi, R., Hirano, K., Shinjo, R., Matsumoto, T., Ishiguro, N., Kadomatsu, K. Midkine overcomes neurite outgrowth inhibition of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan without glial activation and promotes functional recovery after spinal cord injury. Neuroscience Letters 2013; 550(-;-):150-155. >>> Midkine, recombinant human; Saline; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, Sprague Dawley, adult, 200-230g); spinal cord injury; behavioral testing (BBB open field locomotion, grip test);.

13439 Takeuchi, K., Yoshioka, N., Onaga, S.H., Watanabe, Y., Miyata, S., Wada, Y., Kudo, C., Okada, M., Ohko, K., Oda, K., Sato, T., Yokoyama, M., Matsushita, N., Nakamura, M., Okano, H., Sakimura, K., Kawano, H., Kitagawa, H., Igarashi, M. Chondroitin sulphate N-acetylgalactosaminyl-transferase-1 inhibits recovery from neural injury. Nature Communications 2013; 4(-;-):U91-U101. >>> Chondroitinase ABC; heparitinase; Saline; bovine serum albumin; PBS; SC; Mice; 2004; 2006; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, C57BL6, 8-10 week old); spinal cord injury; agents are bacterial enzymes.

13419 Zhao, R.R., Andrews, M.R., Wang, D.F., Warren, P., Gullo, M., Schnell, L., Schwab, M.E., Fawcett, J.W. Combination treatment with anti-Nogo-A and chondroitinase ABC is more effective than single treatments at enhancing functional recovery after spinal cord injury. European Journal of Neuroscience 2013; 38(-6-):2946-2961. >>> Antibody, anti-Nogo-A 11C7; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Mice; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ control antibody (anti cyclosporin A); animal info (male, Lister hooded, adult, 150-200g); good methods (pg 2947, schematic of positioning of pumps p2948); spinal cord injury; neurodegenerative (spinal cord injury); behavioral testing (staircase task, ladder walking, gait analysis, grip strength, heat sensation, von Frey hair test); used 32 gauge catheter from ReCathco.

13417 Mantilla, C.B., Gransee, H.M., Zhan, W.Z., Sieck, G.C. Motoneuron BDNF/TrkB signaling enhances functional recovery after cervical spinal cord injury. Experimental Neurology 2013; 247(-;-):101-109. >>> Brain-derived neurotrophic factor;; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 2002; Animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, adult); spinal cord injury; post op. care (Acetominophen orally and buprenorphine IM for 3 days); pulsed delivery (delayed delivery for 3 days - aCSF only in catheter); tissue perfusion (C4 segment of spine); peptides;"Mini-osmotic pumps were successfully implanted for intrathecal delivery at the C4 level and functioned properly throughout the 14 day duration of the experiment."pg 103"Differences in survival rates across groups were likely unrelated to the possible additional morbidity associated with intrathecal catheter and miniosmotic pump implantation, as the survival rate was 70% (28 out of 40) compared to 84% (26 out of 31) in rats not implanted with an intrathecal pump (p = 0.17)."pg 103; PE-10 intrathecal cannula, 10 cm.

13404 Kwon, M.J., Kim, J., Shin, H., Jeong, S.R., Kang, Y.M., Choi, J.Y., Hwang, D.H., Kim, B.G. Contribution of Macrophages to Enhanced Regenerative Capacity of Dorsal Root Ganglia Sensory Neurons by Conditioning Injury. Journal of Neuroscience 2013; 33(-38-):15095-15108. >>> Minocycline; PBS; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, Sprague Dawley, 250-300g); spinal cord injury; immunology; used PE-10 catheter. Pump sutured to paravertebral muscles..

13375 Cantinieaux, D., Quertainmont, R., Blacher, S., Rossi, L., Wanet, T., Noel, A., Brook, G., Schoenen, J., Franzen, R. Conditioned Medium from Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Improves Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury in Rats: An Original Strategy to Avoid Cell Transplantation. PLoS One 2013; 8(-8-):U18-U32. >>> Conditioned medium, bone marrow-derived mesenchimal stem cells; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ control medium; animal info (female, Wistar, adult, 200g); spinal cord injury; post op. care (manually emptied bladder until rats regained control); behavioral testing (BBB open-field test, grid navagation test); tissue perfusion (spinal cord injury site); cardiovascular; immunology; Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells conditioned medium aka BMSC-CM; Pumps removed after 7 days.

13374 Gauthier, M.K., Kosciuczyk, K., Tapley, L., Karimi-Abdolrezaee, S. Dysregulation of the neuregulin-1-ErbB network modulates endogenous oligodendrocyte differentiation and preservation after spinal cord injury. European Journal of Neuroscience 2013; 38(-5-):2693-2715. >>> Neuregulin-lBl, human recombinant; ErbB-2/4 inhibitor; Saline; bovine serum albumin; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 1007D; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, Sprague Dawley, adult, 250g); spinal cord injury; post op. care (replaced bedding with soft paper, bladder expressed three times a day, saline 5 ml, meloxicam 2mg/kg, buprenorphine 0.5 mg/kg); immunology; Used ALZET intrathecal rat catheter. Pumps primed overnight.

13355 Brazda, N., Voss, C., Estrada, V., Lodin, H., Weinrich, N., Seide, K., Mueller, J., Mueller, H.W. A mechanical microconnector system for restoration of tissue continuity and long-term drug application into the injured spinal cord. Biomaterials 2013; 34(-38-):10056-10064. >>> Antibody, human IgG; Saline; CSF/CNS (spinal cord, intrathecal); Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Female, Wistar, 200-230g); spinal cord injury; post op. care (Baytril for one week, manual bladder emptying twice per day); behavioral testing (locomotor behavior); tissue perfusion (spinal cord); pump attached to mechanical microconnector system (mMS).

13354 Bose, P., Hou, J.M., Nelson, R., Nissim, N., Parmer, R., Keener, J., Wacnik, P.W., Thompson, F.J. Effects of Acute Intrathecal Baclofen in an Animal Model of TBI-Induced Spasticity, Cognitive, and Balance Disabilities. Journal of Neurotrauma 2013; 30(-13-):1177-1191. >>> Baclofen; CSF/CNS (intrathecal, L2); Rat; 2004; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (42, young-adult, Sprague-Dawley, 260-285g); spinal cord injury; closed head Traumatic Brain Injury (cTBI); post op. care (buprenex 0.5mg/kg, ketoprofen 5mg/kg, one day postinjury, 5mL sc injection warmed 0.9% saline, heating pad); behavioral testing (Elevated Plus Maze, Morris Water Maze, grooming, rearing, spatial learning, retention); baclofen aka Lioresal;.

13238 Simard, J.M., Popovich, P.G., Tsymbalyuk, O., Caridi, J., Gullapalli, R.P., Kilbourne, M.J., Gerzanich, V. MRI evidence that glibenclamide reduces acute lesion expansion in a rat model of spinal cord injury. SPINAL CORD 2013; 51(-11-):823-827. >>> Glibenclamide; DMSO; SC; Rat; 2001; Animal Info (cervical hemicord impact, female, Long-Evans, 11 weeks, 250-300 g); neurodegenerative (spinal cord injury); behavioral testing (pg. 2); paper mentions ALZET pumps as a convinient alternative to constant IV infusion: Constantsubcutaneous infusion of glibenclamide was used in the preclinical studies as a convenient alternative to constant IV infusion, as is used with injectable glibenclamide (RP-1127) in clinical trials for other CNS indications (ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT01454154;NCT01268683; NCT01794182);.

13228 Streijger, F., Plunet, W.T., Lee, J.H.T., Liu, J., Lam, C.K., Park, S., Hilton, B.J., Fransen, B.L., Matheson, K.A.J., Assinck, P., Kwon, B.K., Tetzlaff, W. Ketogenic Diet Improves Forelimb Motor Function after Spinal Cord Injury in Rodents. PLoS One 2013; 8(-11-):U888-U906. >>> Cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate, alpha; Saline; SC; Rat; 1007D; Animal info (C5 hemi-contusion rat model, male, Sprague-Dawley, 350g); neurodegenerative (acute spinal cord injury, Alzheimer's, Epilepsy); behavioral testing (pg. 2, 3); Paper examines neuroprotective effect of ketogenic diet after spinal cord injury. Paper demonstrates this by blocking MCT transport via 4-CIN, which abolishes neuroprotection of KD.

13128 Petrosyan, H.A., Hunanyan, A.S., Alessi, V., Schnell, L., Levine, J., Arvanian, V.L. Neutralization of Inhibitory Molecule NG2 Improves Synaptic Transmission, Retrograde Transport, and Locomotor Function after Spinal Cord Injury in Adult Rats. Journal of Neuroscience 2013; 33(-9-):4032-4043. >>> Antibody, 69, mouse monoclonal; antibody, 147, mouse monoclonal; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 2ML2; Control animals received mp w/ control antibody; animal info (Sprague Dawley, female, wks old, 210 g); spinal cord injury; post op care (baytril, buprenorphine).

12962 Tao, F., Li, Q., Liu, S., Wu, H.Y., Skinner, J., Hurtado, A., Belegu, V., Furmanski, O., Yang, Y., McDonald, J.W., Johns, R.A. Role of Neuregulin-1/ErbB Signaling in Stem Cell Therapy for Spinal Cord Injury-Induced Chronic Neuropathic Pain. Stem Cells 2013; 31(-1-):83-91. >>> RNA, small interfering; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; 2004; Control animals received mp w/ non target RNA; animal info (Long Evans, female, 250 g); NRG1 siRNA; spinal cord injury.

12772 Hannila, S.S., Siddiq, M.M., Carmel, J.B., Hou, J.W., Chaudhry, N., Bradley, P.M.J., Hilaire, M., Richman, E.L., Hart, R.P., Filbin, M.T. Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor Reverses Inhibition by CNS Myelin, Promotes Regeneration in the Optic Nerve, and Suppresses Expression of the Transforming Growth Factor-beta Signaling Protein Smad2. Journal of Neuroscience 2013; 33(-12-):5138-5151. >>> SLPI, recomb. human; Saline, sterile; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; Control animals received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Long Evans, P28); enzyme inhibitor (secretory leukocyte protease); spinal cord injury.

 

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What researchers are saying...

“We found recently that 21 d of treatment of rats with SSRIs, at clinically relevant and stable serum concentrations (achieved by the use of osmotic minipumps), caused robust downregulation of the SERT.”... “Studies on the effects of chronic antidepressants on the SERT have resulted in inconsistent reports (Owens and Nemeroff, 1998). Among the factors that may contribute to such inconsistency is the route of drug administration. In most studies of chronic administration of Ads to rats, the drugs are given intraperitoneally or subcutaneously, either once or twice daily. As rats metabolize these drugs more rapidly than humans, such dosage schedules can result in appreciable fluctuations in the serum concentration of drug throughout the day. For certain pharmacologic effects, sustained drug action may be needed” Benmansour et al. The Journal of Neuroscience 2002; 22(15):6766-6772.