References on the Microperfusion of Solid Tissue Using ALZET® Osmotic Pumps

16293 Chen, L., Joseph, G., Zhang, F. F., Nguyen, H., Jiang, H., Gotlinger, K. H., Falck, J. R., Yang, J., Schwartzman, M. L., Guo, A. M. 20-HETE contributes to ischemia-induced angiogenesis. Vascul Pharmacol 2016; 83(--):57-65. >>> DDMS; 6,15-20-HEDGE; IM (hindlimb gracilis); Mice; 2002, 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Balb/c mice, 12 wk old); functionality of mp verified by blood pressure and blood perfusion scans; dose-response (pg. 61); good methods (pg. 58); ischemia (peripheral); tissue perfusion (intramuscular); Polyethylene catheter tubing used (inner ID 0.8 mm); Dose (5 mg/kg/day);.

16119 Favero, M., Cangiano, A., Busetto, G. The timing of activity is a regulatory signal during development of neural connections. J Mol Neurosci 2014; 53(-3-):324-9. >>> Tetrodotoxin; CSF/CNS (sciatic nerve); rat; animal info: rat strain AO; functionality of mp verified by establishment of a chronic conduction block; tissue perfusion (sciatic nerve);.

16062 Wang, X., Shi, C., Zhang, L., Bodman, A., Guo, D., Wang, L., Hall, W. A., Wilkens, S., Luo, J. Affinity-controlled protein encapsulation into sub-30 nm telodendrimer nanocarriers by multivalent and synergistic interactions. Biomaterials 2016; 101(--):258-71. >>> Telodendrimer nanoparticles, peptide-incorporated; Intratumoral; Mice (nude); Controls received mp w/ free peptide; animal info (female, athymic nude NCRU-Sp/Sp, 8 weeks old); cancer (glioblastoma U87); tissue perfusion (intratumoral); pumps primed overnight at 37C; Dose (0.5 ug/h); Brain coordinates (0.5 mm anterior to bregma and 2.5 mm lateral of midline);.

16051 Urra, J., Blohberger, J., Tiszavari, M., Mayerhofer, A., Lara, H. E. In vivo blockade of acetylcholinesterase increases intraovarian acetylcholine and enhances follicular development and fertility in the rat. Sci Rep 2016; 6(--):30129. >>> Huperzine A; Intraovarian (ovarian bursa); Rat; 2004; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (female, Sprague Dawley, 250-300g, hemi-OVX); tissue perfusion (ovarian bursa); enzyme inhibitor (acetylcholine esterase);.

14442 Tona, Y., Hamaguchi, K., Ishikawa, M., Miyoshi, T., Yamamoto, N., Yamahara, K., Ito, J., Nakagawa, T., Nakagawa, T. Therapeutic potential of a gamma-secretase inhibitor for hearing restoration in a guinea pig model with noise-induced hearing loss. BMC NEUROSCIENCE 2014; 15(--):U1-U8. >>> MDL28170; DMSO; PBS; Ear (cochlea); Guinea pig; 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Hartley strain, 350-400g); 0.3% DMSO used; tissue perfusion (cochlea); used Tefron tube with inner diameter of 180 um to cannulate cochlea; MDL28170 is a gamma-secretase inhibitor;.

14264 Lee, J., Stanley, J.A., McCracken, J.A., Banu, S.K., Arosh, J.A., Arosh, J.A. Intrauterine Coadministration of ERK1/2 Inhibitor U0126 Inhibits Interferon TAU Action in the Endometrium and Restores Luteolytic PGF(2alpha) Pulses in Sheep. Biology of Reproduction 2014; 91(--):U177-U185. >>> U0126; serum protein, ovine; interferon tau, recombinant ovine; DMSO; Intrauterine (uterine horn); Sheep (ewe); 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, Suffolk Ovis aries); 3% DMSO used; tissue perfusion (uterine horn); cyanoacrylate adhesive; used cyanoacrylate glue to anchor pump; interferon tau aka IFNT;.

14651 Aghazadeh, Y., Martinez-Arguelles, D.B., Fan, J.J., Culty, M., Papadopoulos, V., Papadopoulos, V. Induction of Androgen Formation in the Male by a TAT-VDAC1 Fusion Peptide Blocking 14-3-3epsilon Protein Adaptor and Mitochondrial VDAC1 Interactions. MOLECULAR THERAPY 2014; 22(--):1779-1791. >>> TVG167; TVS167; Water; IP; intratesticular; Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley); tissue perfusion (testis); peptide; TVS167 and TVG167; pump infused at 1.0 ul/hr;.

13512 Eberstaal, S., Sanden, E., Fritzell, S., Darabi, A., Visse, E., Siesjoe, P. Intratumoral COX-2 inhibition enhances GM-CSF immunotherapy against established mouse GL261 brain tumors. International Journal of Cancer 2014; 134(-11-):2748-2753. >>> Parecoxib; valdecoxib; IP; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Mice; 1004; Animal info (C57BL/6, female, 8-10 wks old); cancer; tissue perfusion (intratumoral).

13406 Lemley, C.O., Camacho, L.E., Vonnahme, K.A. Uterine Infusion of Melatonin or Melatonin Receptor Antagonist Alters Ovine Feto-Placental Hemodynamics During Midgestation. Biology of Reproduction 2013; 89(-2-):U24-U32. >>> Melatonin; Luzindole; DMSO; water; Intrauterine (uterine horn); Sheep (ewe); 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by serum levels of melatonin taken; 45% DMSO used; stress/adverse reaction: (see pg.2); post op. care (For two days: flunixin meglumine 50 mg/ml IM twice a day; Penicillin G procain 300,000 u/ml once per day); tissue perfusion (uterus mesometrium); cardiovascular;.

13405 Landry, T.G., Fallon, J.B., Wise, A.K., Shepherd, R.K. Chronic neurotrophin delivery promotes ectopic neurite growth from the spiral ganglion of deafened cochleae without compromising the spatial selectivity of cochlear implants. Journal of Comparative Neurology 2013; 521(-12-):2818-2832. >>> Neurotrophin; Brain-derived neurotrophic factor; Ear (cochlea); Guinea pig; 2004; Controls received mp w/ artificial perilymph; animal info (young adult, 300-600g); tissue perfusion (cochlea); peptides;.

13117 Yang, Y., Zhang, Y.R., Cuevas, S., Villar, V., Escano, C., Asico, L.D., Yu, P.Y., Grandy, D.K., Felder, R.A., Armando, I., Jose, P.A. Paraoxonase 2 decreases renal reactive oxygen species production, lowers blood pressure, and mediates dopamine D(2) receptor-induced inhibition of NADPH oxidase. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 2012; 53(-3-):437-446. >>> RNA, small interfering, D2R; RNA, small interfering, PON2; Kidney (renal capsule); Mice; 1007D; Control animals received mp w/ nonsilencing control RNA; animal info (D2R deficient, 6-8 mo old, uniphrectomy); PE tubing used (item #0007701);"The body of the minipump was placed in the area previously occupied by the kidney that was removed; stabilization was achieved by suturing (4-0 ethilon) the minipump to the lateral abdominal musculature close to it."; tissue perfusion (renal capsule).

12757 Villar, V.M., Jones, J.E., Armando, I., Asico, L.D., Escano, CS Jr, Lee, H., Wang, X.Y., Yang, Y., Pascua-Crusan, A.M., Palmes-Saloma, C.P., Felder, R.A., Jose, P.A. Sorting Nexin 1 Loss Results in D(5) Dopamine Receptor Dysfunction in Human Renal Proximal Tubule Cells and Hypertension in Mice. Journal of Biological Chemistry 2013; 288(-1-):152-163. >>> RNA, small interfering; Kidney; Mice; Control animals received mp w/ vehicle or non-silencing mock siRNA; animal info (C57BL/6, BALB/c, nephrectomized, adult, male); Snx-1 specific siRNA; infusion rate of 0.5 ul/hr; tissue perfusion (kidney); PE catheter used.

12711 Toyota, H., Shimogori, H., Sugahara, K., Yamashita, H. A novel treatment for vestibular disorder with FGLM-NH2 plus SSSR. Neuroscience Letters 2012; 526(-2-):128-132. >>> FGLM-NH2; SSSR; Ear (cochlea); Guinea pig; 2002; Control animals received mp w/ artificial perilymph; animal info (male, Hartley); FGLM-NH2 also known as Phenylalanine-Glycine-Leucine-Methionine-Amide; SSSR also known as Serine-Serine-Serine-Arginine; tissue perfusion.

12633 Ricu, M.A., Ramirez, V.D., Paredes, A.H., Lara, H.E. Evidence for a Celiac Ganglion-Ovarian Kisspeptin Neural Network in the Rat: Intraovarian Anti-Kisspeptin Delays Vaginal Opening and Alters Estrous Cyclicity. Endocrinology 2012; 153(-10-):4966-4977. >>> P234; Intraovarian; Rat; 2004; Control animals received mp w/ saline; animal info (Sprague Dawley, male, 30, 60 days old); P234 is a kisspeptin antagonist;"the pumps were left in the animal for a total of 50 d to control the estrous cycling activity."pg 4968; tissue perfusion (ovary).

12613 Chim, H., Miller, E., Gliniak, C., Alsberg, E. Stromal-cell-derived factor (SDF) 1-alpha in combination with BMP-2 and TGF-beta1 induces site-directed cell homing and osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation for tissue engineering without the requirement for cell seeding. Cell and Tissue Research 2012; 350(-1-):89-94. >>> Stromal-cell-derived factor-1, alpha; bone morphogenic protein 2; transforming growth factor-1, beta; IP (abdominal wall); Rat; 2004; Negative control animals received no cytokines; animal info (Sprague Dawley, adult);"A custom-made apparatus for the constant delivery of cytokines was assembled consisting in a microneedle system and Alzet osmotic pump"pg 90; fig 1b, image of custom-made cytokine delivery apparatus; tissue perfusion (anterior abdominal wall).

12587 Nishijima, K., Shukunami, K., Yoshinari, H., Takahashi, J., Maeda, H., Takagi, h., Kotsuji, F. Interactions among pulmonary surfactant, vernix caseosa, and intestinal enterocytes: intra-amniotic administration of fluorescently liposomes to pregnant rabbits. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-LUNG CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR PHYSIOLOGY 2012; 303(-3-):L208-L214. >>> Liposomes, fluorescently labeled; coatasome EL-01-C, hydrated; DMSO; water, distilled; Intrauterine; Rabbit (fetus); 2ML1; Control animals received mp w/ liposome alone; animal info (Japanese, White, 4.2-5.4 kg, teen); tissue perfusion (fetus);"5-cm sterile PE 60 silicone catheter with silicone flange was attached to each pump"pg L209; Fig 2, image of pump and catheter placement; multiple pumps used (2); teratology.

12548 Casazza, A., Kigel, B., Maione, F., Capparuccia, L., Kessler, O., Giraudo, E., Mazzone, M., Neufeld, G., Tamagnone, L. Tumour growth inhibition and anti-metastatic activity of a mutated furin-resistant Semaphorin 3E isoform. EMBO Molecular Medicine 2012; 4(-3-):234-250. >>> Semaphorin 3E; IP; Mice; 2002; Controls received mp w/ mock saline; animal info (12-14 wks old, RT2); tissue perfusion (pancreas); catheter placement verified post mortem;"(silastic tubing) was passed into the peritoneal cavity and sutured to the abdominal wall to reach directly the pancreas."data supplement; protein.

12452 Ganchou, F.P., Mankey, J.E., Goravanahally, M.P., Inskeep, E.K., Flores, J.A. EFFECT OF CHRONIC ADMINISTRATION OF ENDOTHELIN RECEPTOR TYPE A ANTAGONIST (BQ-610) ON FUNCTIONAL LIFESPAN OF THE CORPUS LUTEUM IN SHEEP. REVISTA CIENTIFICA-FACULTAD DE CIENCIAS VETERINARIAS 2012; 22(-4-):321-331. >>> BQ-610; Methanol; saline; Intraovarian (corpus luteum); Sheep (ewe); 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (nonpregnant, Suffolk); tissue perfusion (corpus luteum); BQ-610 is an endothelin receptor type A antagonist.

12343 Dorniak, P., Bazer, F.W., Wu, G.Y., Spencer, T.E. Conceptus-Derived Prostaglandins Regulate Endometrial Function in Sheep. Biology of Reproduction 2012; 87(-1-):U80-U86. >>> Interferon, tau, recomb. ovine; meloxicam; PGE2, ovine serum; PGF2a, ovine serum; PGI2, ovine serum; Ethanol; saline; Intrauterine (uterine horn); Sheep (ewe); 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Mature Rambouillet); tissue perfusion (intrauterine); multiple pumps used (2); enzyme inhibitor (prostaglandin synthase two).

12342 Dorniak, P., Welsh, TH Jr, Bazer, F.W., Spencer, T.E. Endometrial HSD11B1 and Cortisol Regeneration in the Ovine Uterus: Effects of Pregnancy, Interferon Tau, and Prostaglandins. Biology of Reproduction 2012; 86(-4-):U106-U115. >>> Interferon, tau, recomb. ovine; meloxicam; PGE2, ovine serum; PGF2a, ovine serum; PGI2, ovine serum; Ethanol; saline; Intrauterine (uterine horn); Sheep (ewe); 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Mature Rambouillet); good methods (pg 2); vinyl tubing used (0007760); 2% ethanol used; enzyme inhibitor (prostaglandin synthase two); tissue perfusion (intrauterine).

12186 Sly, D.J., Hampson, A.J., Minter, R.L., Heffer, L.F., Li, J., Millard, R.E., Winata, L., Niasari, A., O'Leary, S.J. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Modulates Auditory Function in the Hearing Cochlea. JARO-JOURNAL OF THE ASSOCIATION FOR RESEARCH IN OTOLARYNGOLOGY 2012; 13(-1-):1-16. >>> Brain-derived neurotrophic factor; Ear (cochlea); Guinea pig; 2004; Controls received mp w/ Ringers solution; animal info (adult, male, Dunkin-Hartley pigmented, 233-815 g); post op. care (buprenorphine);"Polymers, particularly hydrogels that may be applied directly to the round window, were considered... However, most have a release profile that varies over time, so instead we chose to place a cannula attached to a mini-osmotic pump directly onto the round window."pg 2; tissue perfusion (cochlea, round window niche).

12174 Cuevas, S., Zhang, Y.R., Yang, Y., Escano, C., Asico, L., Jones, J.E., Armando, I., Jose, P.A. Role of Renal DJ-1 in the Pathogenesis of Hypertension Associated With Increased Reactive Oxygen Species Production. Hypertension 2012; 59(-2-):446-452. >>> RNA, small interfering, DJ-1; In vivo transfection agent; Kidney; Mice; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ non-silencing RNA; animal info (F1 hybrid; wt, 6-8 mo old, uninephrectomized, adult, male, C57BL/6J); ALZET polyethylene tubing set used (0007701); tissue perfusion (kidney);"The osmotic pump was sutured to the abdominal wall to prevent excessive movement of the pump"pg 447.

11956 Fransson, A., Maruyama, J., Miller, J.M., Ulfendahl, M. Post-Treatment Effects of Local GDNF Administration to the Inner Ears of Deafened Guinea Pigs. Journal of Neurotrauma 2010; 27(-9-):1745-1751. >>> Glial-derived neurotrophic factor; Ear (cochlea); Guinea pig; 2002; Controls received mp w/ artificial perilymph; animal info (deafened); silcone tube used; tissue perfusion (cochlea); pump replaced after 2 weeks; post op. care (lidocaine).

11936 Watanabe, F., Kirkegaard, M., Matsumoto, S., Gont, C., Mannstroem, P., Ulfendahl, M., Fridberger, A. Signaling through erbB receptors is a critical functional regulator in the mature cochlea. European Journal of Neuroscience 2010; 32(-5-):717-724. >>> PD153035; 4557W; DMSO; artificial perilymph; Ear (cochlea); Guinea pig; 2002; Controls received mp w/ artificial perilymph; animal info (female, pigmented, 250-500 g); functionality of mp verified by residual volume; tissue perfusion (intracochlear); 0.1% DMSO used; enzyme inhibitor (tyrosine kinase).

11887 Lang, H.N., Jyothi, V., Smythe, N.M., Dubno, J.R., Schulte, B., Schmiedt, R.A. Chronic Reduction of Endocochlear Potential Reduces Auditory Nerve Activity: Further Confirmation of an Animal Model of Metabolic Presbyacusis. JARO-JOURNAL OF THE ASSOCIATION FOR RESEARCH IN OTOLARYNGOLOGY 2010; 11(-3-):419-434. >>> Furosemide; Ear (round window niche); Gerbil; 2004; Controls were untreated; animal info (3-6 mo old, young adult); good methods, pg 421; tissue perfusion (round window).

11876 Robich, M.P., Matyal, R., Chu, L.M., Feng, J., Xu, S.H., Laham, R.J., Hess, P.E., Bianchi, C., Sellke, F.W. Effects of neuropeptide Y on collateral development in a swine model of chronic myocardial ischemia. Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 2010; 49(-6-):1022-1030. >>> Neuropeptide Y (3-36); Heparin; BSA; PBS; Intramyocardial; Pig (miniswine); Controls received mp w/ placebo; animal info (Intact, adult, male, Yorkshire, miniswine); 2ML sized pump used; tissue perfusion (myocardium).

11822 Sherwin, J.R.A., Hastings, J.M., Jackson, K.S., Mavrogianis, P.A., Sharkey, A.M., Fazleabas, A.T. The Endometrial Response to Chorionic Gonadotropin Is Blunted in a Baboon Model of Endometriosis. Endocrinology 2010; 151(-10-):4982-4993. >>> Gonadotrophin, human chorionic, recomb.; Saline; SC; intrauterine; Monkey (baboon); 2ML1; Animal info (30 mo old, spontaneous endometriosis); tissue perfusion (oviductal lumen).

11780 Li, X., Mao, X.B., Hei, R.Y., Zhang, Z.B., Wen, L.T., Zhang, P.Z., Qiu, J.H., Qiao, L. Protective Role of Hydrogen Sulfide against Noise-Induced Cochlear Damage: A Chronic Intracochlear Infusion Model. PLoS One 2011; 6(-10-):U487-U492. >>> Sodium hydrosulfide; propargylglycine, DL-; Ear (cochlea); Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ artificial perilymph; animal info (Sprague Dawley, 250-350 g); tissue perfusion (cochlear); ALZET mouse jugular catheter used (#0007700); stress/adverse effects, pg e26728"Two rats died of post-surgical infection, and one rat died of hemorrhage.".

11739 Girald, W., Collin, A., Izquierdo, M. Toxicity and delivery methods for the linamarase/linamarin/glucose oxidase system, when used against human glioma tumors implanted in the brain of nude rats. Cancer Letters 2011; 313(-1-):99-107. >>> Linamarase; linamarin; glucose oxidase; PBS; saline; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); SC; Rat (nude); 2001; 2ML1; animal info (Wistar, 200 g, rnu/rnu); tissue perfusion (intratumoral); ALZET brain infusion kit used; stress/adverse effects"we have found abnormal speed variations in the rate of delivery of the lin/ GO cocktail when an osmotic pump connected to a brain infusion flow moderator device by a catheter was used, maybe causing some of the premature deaths."pg 106;"Three rats died by toxicity 40, 48 and 72 h from the beginning of the treatment, and the systemic treatment was ended in all of them after the first death"pg 104; cancer (glioma).

11665 Wen, J.M., Grenz, A., Zhang, Y.J., Dai, Y.B., Kellems, R.E., Blackburn, M.R., Eltzschig, H.K., Xia, Y. A(2B) adenosine receptor contributes to penile erection via PI3K/AKT signaling cascade-mediated eNOS activation. FASEB Journal 2011; 25(-8-):2823-2830. >>> ; Intrapenile; Mice; Animal info (A2BR-deficient, C57CL/6); tissue perfusion (corpus cavernosum); ALZET mouse jugular catheter used; 25-gauge needle inserted into the right corpus cavernosum was connected to a pressure transducer and an amplifier unit; intracavernosal pressure (ICP) measurement.

11662 Warnecke, A., Scheper, V., Buhr, I., Wenzel, G.I., Wissel, K., Paasche, G., Berkingali, N., Jorgensen, J.R., Lenarz, T., Stoever, T. Artemin improves survival of spiral ganglion neurons in vivo and in vitro. NeuroReport 2010; 21(-7-):517-521. >>> Artemin; brain-derived neurotrophic factor; Ear (scala tympani); Guinea pig; 2002; Negative controls received mp w/ artificial perilynph; animal info (deafened, pigmented, 250-450 g); pumps replaced after 14 days; tissue perfusion (scala tympani); pump connected to silicone–polyimide tubing.

11633 Toledo, R.N., Borin, A., Cruz, O.L.M., Ho, P.L., Testa, J.R.G., Fukuda, Y. The Action of Topical Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor in Facial Nerve Regeneration. OTOLOGY&NEUROTOLOGY 2010; 31(-3-):498-505. >>> Fibroblast growth factor, basic; albumin, human; Ringer lactate solution; CSF/CNS (facial nerve anastomosis); Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ sodium heparin, human albumin in Ringer lactate solution; animal info (male, Wistar, adult); functionality of mp verified by residual volume; good methods, pg 499; stress/adverse reaction: (see pg. 501)"neuroma at the anastomosis","hemoatoma at the surgical incision"; tissue perfusion (epineural anastomosis); vinyl catheter used;"We chose to use minipumps because this method allows better control of the quantity of bFGF delivered at the target site and is compatible with standard facial nerve surgical techniques. Furthermore, the isolate reservoir of the minipumps prevents the contact of the study drug with substances that could inactivate it"pg 502.

11500 Matavelli, L.C., Huang, J.Q., Siragy, H.M. (Pro)renin receptor contributes to diabetic nephropathy by enhancing renal inflammation. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 2010; 37(-3-):277-282. >>> Handle region peptide; valsartan; Saline; Kidney (renal cortical interstitium); Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Sprague Dawley. STZ-induced diabetes, male 230-260 g); peptides; good methods, pg 278; tissue perfusion (interstitium); HRP, also known as handle region peptide, is the decapeptide NH3-RILLKKMPSVCOOH; good methods, pg 278;"The osmotic minipump was implanted subcutaneously in the subscapular region of all rats. Thereafter, a midline laparotomy was performed and the left kidney was isolated. A PE-10 catheter connected to each minipump was tunnelled subcutaneously through a bevel-tipped stainless-steel tube to emerge into the abdominal cavity and the distal end of the catheter was placed under the left renal capsule and glued onto the surface of the kidney using Vetbond."pg 278.

11466 Leake, P.A., Hradek, G.T., Hetherington, A.M., Stakhovskaya, O. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Promotes Cochlear Spiral Ganglion Cell Survival and Function in Deafened, Developing Cats. Journal of Comparative Neurology 2011; 519(-8-):1526-1545. >>> Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, human; Perilymph, artificial; Ear (cochlea); Cat; 1002; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; long-term study; animal info (adult, 4 wks old, deafened); functionality of mp verified via residual volume; pumps replaced after two weeks then after 28 days; tissue perfusion (cochlea);"The drug-delivery cannula within the cochlear implant... was connected to vinyl tubing..., which was connected to the regulator of the osmotic pump, which was implanted behind the right pinna."; artificial perilymph recipe.

11449 Kondo, T., Matsuoka, A.J., Shimomura, A., Koehler, K.R., Chan, R.J., Miller, J.M., Srour, E.F., Hashino, E. Wnt Signaling Promotes Neuronal Differentiation from Mesenchymal Stem Cells Through Activation of Tlx3. Stem Cells 2011; 29(-5-):836-846. >>> Wnt1; brain-derived neurotrophic factor; Ear (cochlea); Gerbil; 2004; Controls received mp w/ saline or BDNF only; animal info (Mongolian, 4 mo old); pumps replaced after 72 hours; tissue perfusion (intracochlea).

11429 Kawabata, S., Yang, W.L., Barth, R.F., Wu, G., Huo, T.Y., Binns, P.J., Riley, K.J., Ongayi, O., Gottumukkala, V., Vincente, M.G.H. Convection enhanced delivery of carboranylporphyrins for neutron capture therapy of brain tumors. Journal of Neuro-oncology 2011; 103(-2-):175-185. >>> Porphyrin, H2TCP; porphyrin, H2TBP; porphyrin, H2DCP; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Rat (pregnant); 2001D; Controls received no treatment; animal info (Fischer, CD, pregnant, 220-240 g); comparison of convection enhanced delivery (CED) vs mp; cancer (glioma); tissue perfusion (intratumoral); Compounds also known as 5,10,15,20-tetra-(4-nido-carboranylphenyl) tetrabenzoporphyrin, 5,10,15,20-tetra-(4-nido-carboranylphenyl)porphyrin and 5,15- di-[3,5-(nido-carboranylmethyl)phenyl]porphyrin;"The animals that received of H2TBP by Alzet pump had longer MSTs than those that received it by CED (43.8 vs. 33.8 days), demonstrating that Alzet pump delivery was more effective than CED"pg 181.

11397 Hu, Z.Q., Ulfendahl, M., Prieskorn, D.M., Olivius, P., Miller, J.M. Functional Evaluation of a Cell Replacement Therapy in the Inner Ear. OTOLOGY&NEUROTOLOGY 2009; 30(-4-):551-558. >>> Nerve growth factor; Hank's based salt solution; albumin, guinea pig serum; Ear (cochlea); Guinea pig; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (pigmented, adult, 270-470 g); pumps replaced afer 13 days; post op. care (daily injections of cyclosporin and doxycycline); tissue perfusion.

11273 Brosens, J.J., Hodgetts, A., Feroze-Zaidi, F., Sherwin, J.R.A., Fusi, L., Salker, M.S., Higham, J., Rose, G.L., Kajihara, T., Young, S.L., Lessey, B.A., Henriet, P., Langford, P.R., Fazleabas, A.T. Proteomic analysis of endometrium from fertile and infertile patients suggests a role for apolipoprotein A-I in embryo implantation failure and endometriosis. MOLECULAR HUMAN REPRODUCTION 2010; 16(-4-):273-285. >>> Gonadotrophin, human chorionic, recomb.; Oviductal; Monkey (baboon); Animal info (cycling, female, 7-12 years old, 12-18 kg); tissue perfusion (oviduct).

11222 Abaamrane, L., Raffin, F., Schmerber, S., Sendowski, I. Intracochlear perfusion of leupeptin and z-VAD-FMK: influence of antiapoptotic agents on gunshot-induced hearing loss. European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology 2011; 268(-7-):987-993. >>> Leupeptin; z-VAD-FMK; Ear (cochlea); Guinea pig; 2001; Controls received no treatment; animal info (albino, 400-600 g); enzyme inhibitor (caspase); artificial perilymph solution recipe;"A miniature glass pipette with a ring of glue placed next to the tip to provide a leak-proof seal protecting the cochlea from contamination was connected to the catheter."pg 988; tissue perfusion.

11107 Huang, J.Q., Matavelli, L.C., Siragy, H.M. Renal (pro)renin receptor contributes to development of diabetic kidney disease through transforming growth factor-beta1 - connective tissue growth factor signalling cascade. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 2011; 38(-4-):215-221. >>> Handle region peptide; valsartan; Kindey (renal cortex); Rat; Controls received sham mp w/ saline; animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 230-260 g); tissue perfusion (renal cortex); peptides.

10702 Agterberg, M.J.H., Versnel, H., van Dijk, L.M., de Groot, J.C.M.J., Klis, S.F.L. Enhanced Survival of Spiral Ganglion Cells After Cessation of Treatment with Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Deafened Guinea Pigs. JARO-JOURNAL OF THE ASSOCIATION FOR RESEARCH IN OTOLARYNGOLOGY 2009; 10(-3-):355-367. >>> Brain-derived neurotrophic factor; BSA; Ear (cochlea); Guinea pig; 2004; Controls were untreated; animal info (albino, female, 250-350 g); pump connected to Cochlear (R) electrode array; tissue perfusion (cochlea).

10582 Nguyen, Y., Couloigner, V., Rudic, M., Grayeli, A.B., Ferrary, E., Sterkers, O. An animal model of cochlear implantation with an intracochlear fluid delivery system. Acta Oto-laryngologica 2009; 129(-11-):1153-1159. >>> Saline; Ear (cochlea); Guinea pig; 1007D; Controls received pump without electrode implant; animal info (albino, male, 3 to 7 months old, 290-1030 g.); good methods pg 1154; post op. care (enrofloxacine);"the pump was fixed subcutaneously between the scapulae using a vicryl 3/0 suture (Ethicon)"pg 1154; image of pump-electrode device, Fig. 1; tissue perfusion (cochlea).

10500 Mills, D.M., Schmiedt, R.A. Metabolic Presbycusis: Differential Changes in Auditory Brainstem and Otoacoustic Emission Responses with Chronic Furosemide Applicationin the Gerbil. JARO 2004; 5(--):1-10. >>> Furosemide; Ear (round window niche); Gerbil; 2004; Controls received a bulla vent tube (no mp); no stress (see pg. 2); animal info (young adult, Mongolian, 45-65g); dose-response; tissue perfusion (round window).

10051 Gillio-Meina, C., Phang, S.H., Mather, J.P., Knight, B.S., Kennedy, T.G. Expression patterns and role of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthases, prostaglandin E synthases, prostacyclin synthase, prostacyclin receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta and retinoid x receptor alpha in rat endometrium during artificially-induced decidualization. REPRODUCTION 2009; 137(-3-):537-552. >>> Carbaprostacyclin; cicaprost; AFP-07; L-165041; docasahexanoic acid; Ethanol; cyclodextrin, beta-; Tris; DMSO; indomethacin; Intrauterine (uterine horn); Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; replacement therapy (ovariectomy); good methods (pg. 551); animal info (female, Sprague Dawley, 7 wks old, 200-225 g., OVX); 50% DMSO used; AFP-07 and cicaprost are high-affinity ligands for prostacyclin receptor; carbaprostacyclin is a ligand for both prostacyclin receptor and peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor delta; tissue perfusion (uterus); 3 mg/ml beta-cyclodextrin used.

10047 Haylor, J.L., Parker, E., Risbridger, G.P., Beale, D., Brown, B.L., Dobson, P.R.M., Clarke, I.J., Hart, J.E. Inhibition of compensatory renal growth by the N-terminus of a sheep-derived peptide. REGULATORY PEPTIDES 2009; 152(-1-3-):48-53. >>> EPL001; antibody, EPL001, mouse, monoclonal; Kidney; Rat; 2002; Tissue perfusion (renal); replacement therapy (unilateral nephrectomy); peptides; animal info (male, Wistar, 250-300 g.); EPL001 is a novel sheep derived 14 amino acid peptide.

10025 Orita, H., Shimogori, H., Yamashita, H. Unilateral intra-perilymphatic infusion of substance P enhances ipsilateral vestibulo-ocular reflex gains in the sinusoidal rotation test. Neuroscience Letters 2009; 449(-3-):207-210. >>> Substance P; neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist; Ear (round window); Guinea-pig; 2002; Post op. care (piperacillin sodium); animal info (Hartley); pump was connected to a PE catheter filled with artificial perilymph for a 12-hour delayed infusion; tissue perfusion (round window).

10099 Fransson, A., Jaerlebark, L.E., Ulfendahl, M. In Vivo Infusion of UTP and Uridine to the Deafened Guinea Pig Inner Ear: Effects on Response Thresholds and Neural Survival. Journal of Neuroscience Research 2009; 87(-7-):1712-1717. >>> Uridine triphosphate; uridine; Ear (cochlea); Guinea-pig; 2002; Controls received mp w/ artificial perilymph; pumps replaced on day 13; animal info (pigmented, 280-440 g); tissue perfusion.

9964 Keithley, E.M., Wang, X.B., Barkdull, G.C. Tumor necrosis factor alpha can induce recruitment of inflammatory cells to the cochlea. OTOLOGY&NEUROTOLOGY 2008; 29(-6-):854-859. >>> Tumor necrosis factor-alpha; Ear (cochlea); Guinea-pig; 2001; Controls received mp w/vehicle; animal info (Hartley albino); tissue perfusion.

10074 Yatabe, J., Sanada, H., Midorikawa, S., Hashimoto, S., Watanabe, T., Andrews, P.M., Armando, I., Wang, X.Y., Felder, R.A., Jose, P.A. Effects of Decreased Renal Cortical Expression of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 4 and Angiotensin Type 1 Receptors in Rats. HYPERTENSION RESEARCH 2008; 31(-7-):1455-1464. >>> Oligodeoxynucleotide, antisense; oligodeoxynucleotide, scrambled; G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 4; Ringer's solution, lactated; Kidney; Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; pumps replaced following 1 week recovery period; antisense (GRK4, AT1R); animal info (4 wks old, male, WKY, SHR, uninephrectomized); tissue perfusion (kidney).

9823 Ma, T., Ortiz, S.G., Huang, Z.N., Ren, P.G., Smith, R.L., Goodman, S.B. In Vivo Murine Model of Continuous Intramedullary Infusion of Particles-A Preliminary Study. JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL MATERIALS RESEARCH PART B-APPLIED BIOMATERIALS 2009; 88B(-1-):250-253. >>> Polystyrene particles, blue dyed; PBS; Bone (femur); Mice; 2004; Functionality of mp verified by gross inspection of retrieved femora; animal info (9 wks old, male, C57BL/6); Fig. 1, X-ray image of pump and delivery system; tissue perfusion (femur).

9758 Scheper, V., Paasche, G., Miller, J.M., Warnecke, A., Berkingali, N., Lenarz, T., Stoever, T. Effects of Delayed Treatment With Combined GDNF and Continuous Electrical Stimulation on Spiral Ganglion Cell Survival in Deafened Guinea Pigs. Journal of Neuroscience Research 2009; 87(-6-):1389-1399. >>> Glial-derived neurotrophic factor; Ear (cochlea); Guinea-pig; 2002; Controls received mp w/artificial perilymph; tissue perfusion (cochlea); long-term study; pumps replaced after 13 days; good methods (pg. 1391); animal info (male, pigmented, 250-450 g.); pumps primed; image of pump and electrode cannula device used on fig. 1.

9749 Fowlkes, JL  Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 2006; 21(-9-):1359-1366. >>> Insulin-like growth factor I, recomb. human; dye, methylene blue; PBS; SC; bone (tibia); bone (fibula); Mice; 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by rhIGF-I serum levels; replacement therapy (mid-diaphyseal osteotomy (tibia, fibula)); peptides; post op. care (buprenex); tissue perfusion (tibia, fibula); animal info (male, C57BL/6, 18 months old).

9668 Liu, Y.H., D'Ambrosio, M., Liao, T.D., Peng, H.M., Rhaleb, N.E., Sharma, U., Andre, S., Gabius, H.J., Carretero, O.A. N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline prevents cardiac remodeling and dysfunction induced by galectin-3, a mammalian adhesion/growth-regulatory lectin. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology 2009; 296(-2-):H404-H412. >>> Galectin-3; Ac-SDKP; Saline; Intrapericardial; Rat; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; tissue perfusion (heart); no stress (see pg. H407); cardiovascular; peptides; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 275-300 g.);"We used intrapericardial administration of Gal-3 and/or Ac-SDKP in rats. This method allows us to target the heart and obtain site-selective drug efficiency with low-level systemic effects."(p. H404-H405).

9576 Abbaspour, A., Takahashi, M., Sairyo, K., Takata, S., Yukata, K., Inui, A., Yasui, N. Optimal increase in bone mass by continuous local infusion of alendronate during distraction osteogenesis in rabbits. Bone 2009; 44(-5-):917-923. >>> Alendronate; PBS; Bone (tibia); Rabbit; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; tissue perfusion (tibia); animal info (male, Japanese White rabbits); disphosphonate; the pump was connected to polyvinyl catheter leading to a hole drilled on the tibia (lengthened segment).

9544 Panford-Walsh, R., Singer, W., Ruettiger, L., Hadjab, S., Tan, J., Geisler, H.S., Zimmermann, U., Koepschall, I., Rohbock, K., Vieljans, A., Oestreicher, E., Knipper, M. Midazolam reverses salicylate-induced changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor and Arg3.1 expression: Implications for tinnitus perception and auditory plasticity. MOLECULAR PHARMACOLOGY 2008; 74(-3-):595-604. >>> Midazolam; Ear (round window niche); Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ artificial perilymph; comparison of systemic injections vs. mp; animal info (female, Wistar, 200-300 g., cochlear trauma); behavioral testing (tinnitus perception via sound/reward); tissue perfusion (round window niche).

9530 Vivero, R.J., Joseph, D.E., Angeli, S., He, J., Chen, S.B., Eshraghi, A.A., Balkany, T.J., Van de Water, T.R. Dexamethasone Base Conserves Hearing from Electrode Trauma-Induced Hearing Loss. Laryngoscope 2008; 118(-11-):2028-2035. >>> Dexamethasone base; Perilymph, artificial; Ear (scala tympani); Guinea-pig; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; replacement therapy (cochleostomy); tissue perfusion (scala tympani); animal info (pigmented, 250-300 g.).

9477 Harris, J.A., Iguchi, F., Seidl, A.H., Lurie, D.I., Rubel, E.W. Afferent Deprivation Elicits a Transcriptional Response Associated with Neuronal Survival after a Critical Period in the Mouse Cochlear Nucleus. Journal of Neuroscience 2008; 28(-43-):10990-11002. >>> Tetrodotoxin; Citrate buffer; Ear (round window niche); Mice; 1003D; Controls received mp w/ saline or no treatment to contralateral side; tissue perfusion (round window niche); comparison of cochlear removal vs. mp; animal info (male, female, C57BL/6J, 21 days old).

9461 Reyes, J.H., O'Shea, K.S., Wys, N.L., Velkey, J.M., Prieskorn, D.M., Wesolowski, K., Miller, J.M., Altschuler, R.A. Glutamatergic Neuronal Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells after Transient Expression of Neurogenin 1 and Treatment with BDNF and GDNF: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies. Journal of Neuroscience 2008; 28(-48-):12622-12631. >>> Doxycycline; brain-derived neurotrophic factor; glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor; Ear (scala tympani); Guinea-pig; 2002; Controls received no treatment to contralateral ear; pumps replaced; peptides; tissue perfusion (scala tympani); animal info (NIH strain, 275-315 g., deafened); cannula and catheter contained doxycycline, mp contained BDNF/GDNF (delayed delivery) to follow, thus providing 2 days Dox, 25 days BDNF/GDNF.

9455 Shepherd, R.K., Coco, A., Epp, S.B. Neurotrophins and electrical stimulation for protection and repair of spiral ganglion neurons following sensorineural hearing loss. Hearing Research 2008; 242(-1-2-):100-109. >>> Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, recomb. human; Ringer's solution; albumin, guinea pig; Ear (scala tympani); Guinea-pig; 2004; Controls received no treatment to contralateral cochlea; functionality of mp verified by residual volume and intact connections; peptides; post op. care (Carprofen, Baytril); tissue perfusion (scala tympani); animal info (pigmented, 400-844 g., kanamycin/furosemide deafened).

9454 Silva, G.B., Garvin, J.L. Angiotensin II-Dependent Hypertension Increases Na Transport-Related Oxygen Consumption by the Thick Ascending Limb. Hypertension 2008; 52(-6-):1091-1098. >>> Angiotensin II; dye, coomassie blue R250; G86976; tempol; SC; kidney (outer medulla); Rat; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; tissue perfusion (kidney); functionality of mp verified by residual volume and dye infusion; enzyme inhibitor (PKC a/b); cardiovascular; antihypertensive; peptide; cyanoacrylate adhesive; animal info (Sprague Dawley, 7 wks old, 200-250 g.); catheter fenestrated in one side 10 mm from the tip.

9448 Ortiz, S.G., Ma, T., Regula, D., Smith, R.L., Goodman, S.B. Continuous Intramedullary Polymer Particle Infusion Using a Murine Femoral Explant Model. JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL MATERIALS RESEARCH PART B-APPLIED BIOMATERIALS 2008; 87B(-2-):440-446. >>> Polystyrene; polyethylene, high molecular weight; Serum, mouse; Bone (femur); Mice; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by blue-dyed polystyrene particles; tissue perfusion (femur); dose-response (fig. 4); no stress (see pg. 443); animal info (male, C57BL/6, 12-16 wks old); mp connected to hollow titanium rod by vinyl catheter; titanium rod inserted into femur ex vivo; femur/pump assemblies placed in sterile flasks at 37 degree for 2, 4 wks;"There were no cases of infection or malfunction of the pumps apparatus over the course of the experiment."(p. 443).

9435 Doerr, M.D., Goravanahally, M.P., Rhinehart, J.D., Inskeep, E.K., Flores, J.A. Effects of endothelin receptor type-A and type-B antagonists on prostaglandin F2alpha-induced luteolysis of the sheep corpus luteum. Biology of Reproduction 2008; 78(-4-):688-696. >>> BQ123; BQ610; BQ788; Methanol; saline; Intraovarian (corpus luteum); Sheep; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; tissue perfusion (corpus luteum); good methods (pg. 689); post op. care (penicillin); animal info (female); pumps were primed overnight prior to surgery; vinyl catheter tubing (0007760) used; catheter stabilized to connective tissue capsule and ovarian tunica albuginea using nylon monofilament; all compounds are EDNRA type-A endothelin antagonists.

9377 Wazen, R.M., Tye, C.E., Goldberg, H.A., Hunter, G.K., Smith, C.E., Nanci, A. In vivo functional analysis of polyglutamic acid domains in recombinant bone sialoprotein. JOURNAL OF HISTOCHEMISTRY&CYTOCHEMISTRY 2007; 55(-1-):35-42. >>> Bone sialoprotein, recomb., rat, -DNP; bone sialoprotein, recomb., rat, -DNP, mutated; Bone (hemimandible); Rat; 1003D; 2001D; Negative controls received mp w/ sodium chloride or were sham operated; peptides; tissue perfusion (right hemimandible); post op. care (buprenorphine hydrochloride); animal info (Wistar, 100g.); bone sialoprotein (BSP) is an anionic phosphoprotein; prBSP-DNP's are prokaryotic recombinant BSP's tagged with dinitrophenol.

9356 Qiang, Y.W., Shaughnessy, JD Jr, Yaccoby, S. Wnt3a signaling within bone inhibits multiple myeloma bone disease and tumor growth. Blood 2008; 112(-2-):374-382. >>> Gene, Wnt3a, recomb.; Bone; Mice (SCID); 1004; Controls received mp w/ PBS; animal info (Myelomatous SCID-hu); tissue perfusion (myelomatous bone); Wnt3a is a human gene; ALZET pump was"directly connected to the open side of the implanted bone, allowing continual exposure of the myelomatous bone to rWnt3a".

9292 Masunaga, S., Sakurai, Y., Nagata, K., Suzuki, M., Maruhashi, A., Kinashi, Y., Nagasawa, H., Uto, Y., Hori, H., Ono, K. The usefulness of a continuous administration of tirapazamine combined with reduced dose-rate irradiation using gamma-rays or reactor thermal neutrons. British Journal of Radiology 2006; 79(-948-):991-998. >>> Uridine, bromodeoxy-; tirapazamine; Saline; SC; Mice; 2001D; Tissue perfusion (tumor); comparison of IP injections vs. mp; cancer; animal info (8-11 wks old, female, syngenic C3H, He); tirapazamine, also known as TP2, is a lead compound as a bioreactive hypoxic cytotoxin; labing of P cells; cancer.

9286 Song, B.N., Li, Y.X., Han, D.M. Effects of delayed brain-derived neurotrophic factor application on cochlear pathology and auditory physiology in rats. Chinese Medical Journal 2008; 121(-13-):1189-1196. >>> Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, recomb. human; Albumin, rat; Ringer's solution; Ear (cochlea); Rat; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, albino, Sprague Dawley, 10-12 wks old, 220-250 g.); tissue perfusion (cochlea); functionality of mp verified by residual volume; good methods pg. 1191; pumps were primed in sterile saline at 37 degree Celsius for 48 hours; 1-cm len.

9259 Skoglund, B., Aspenberg, P. Locally applied Simvastatin improves fracture healing in mice. BMC MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS 2007; 8(-;-):U1-U6. >>> Simvastatin; PEG 400; SC; bone (femur); Mice; 1002; Comparison of SC injections vs. SC mp vs. localized delivery; half-life (p. 2 of 6)"about 2 hours in humans"; animal info (mature, male, Balb-C); tissue perfusion (femur); compound passed through sterile filter before filling in pumps; silcone tube used;"continuous systemic delivery resulted in a 160% larger force at failure.";"Continuous local delivery... resulted in a 170% larger force at failure as well as a twofold larger energy uptake.".

9220 Li, Y., Wo, J.M., Ellis, S., Ray, M.B., Jones, W., Martin, R.C.G. Morphological transformation in esophageal submucosa by bone marrow cells: Esophageal implantation under external esophageal perfusion. STEM CELLS AND DEVELOPMENT 2006; 15(-5-):697-705. >>> Bile, bovine; HCl; Intraluminal (esophagus); Rat; 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ saline; tissue perfusion (esophagus); pumps replaced every 7 days; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 8 wks old); hand-stretched, PE-50 catheter; esophagitis model; gastroenterology; good methods.

9161 Abbaspour, A., Takata, S., Sairyo, K., Katoh, S., Yukata, K., Yasul, N. Continuous local infusion of fibroblast growth factor-2 enhances consolidation of the bone segment lengthened by distraction osteogenesis in rabbit experiment. Bone 2008; 42(-1-):98-106. >>> Fibroblast growth factor-2, recomb. human; Bone (tibia); Rabbit; 2ML4; half-life (p. 104)"relatively short"; tissue perfusion (tibia); animal info (male, 1.8-2.2 kg., osteotomized); polyvinyl catheter tubing used; pump image fig. 1e.

9064 Boodhwani, M., Voisine, P., Rue, M., Sodha, N.R., Feng, J., Xu, S.H., Bianchi, C., Settke, F.W. Comparison of vascular endothelial growth factor and fibroblast growth factor-2 in a swine model of endothelial dysfunction. European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery 2008; 33(-4-):645-650. >>> Vascular endothelial growth factor 165, recomb. human; Heparin; Intramyocardial; Pig (miniswine); 2ML4; Tissue perfusion (myocardial); half-life (p. 649)"short"; cardiovascular; peptides; ischemia (cardiac); animal info (Yucatan mini-swine, 20-30 kg.).

8968 Roehm, P., Hoffer, M., Balaban, C.D. Gentamicin uptake in the chinchilla inner ear. Hearing Research 2007; 230(-1-2-):43-52. >>> Gentamicin; Ear (round window); Chinchilla; 2002; Comparison of transtympanic injections vs. mp; tissue perfusion (round window); animal info (male, female, chinchilla langier).


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What researchers are saying...

“We developed the optic nerve/osmotic pump infusion technique to deliver soluble ligands, agonists, or antagonists directly into the optic nerve.The advantages of this technique are that the infused drugs remain largely confined within the experimental nerve, reducing the impact of potential systemic side effects; mere placement of the catheter and subsequent infusion of the vehicle solution do not promote lesion-like changes within the optic nerve…” Rodgers et al., GLIA 41:180-190; 2003.