References on the Administration of Testosterone Using ALZET® Osmotic Pumps

15758 Daniel G. Donner,, Grace E. Elliott,, Belinda R. Beck,, Andrew C. Bulmer,, Alfred K. Lam,, John P. Headrick,, and Eugene F. Du Toit  Endocrinology 2016; 157(-1-):368-381. >>> Testosterone; trenbolone; Cyclodextrin, 2b-hydroxypropyl; SC; Rat; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Wistar, 12 weeks old, 300g); functionality of mp verified by plasma; pumps replaced every 4 weeks; 45% cyclodextrin used; ischemia (cardiac); post op. care (buprenorphine 10 ug/kg/day IM; enrofloxacin 5 mg/kg ip for 3 days); long-term study; Dose (2 mg/kg/day);.

14802 Reizel, Y., Spiro, A., Sabag, O., Skversky, Y., Hecht, M., Keshet, I., Berman, B.P., Cedar, H., Cedar, H. Gender-specific postnatal demethylation and establishment of epigenetic memory. GENES&DEVELOPMENT 2015; 29(--):923-933. >>> Testosterone; SC; Mice; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (C57BL6, 3 or 20 weeks old); pumps replaced every 28 days; replacement therapy (testosterone replacement); long-term study; pumps primed for 48 hours in 37C saline;.

14768 Sorge, R.E., Mapplebeck, J.C.S., Rosen, S., Beggs, S., Taves, S., Alexander, J.K., Martin, L.J., Austin, J.S., Sotocinal, S.G., Chen, D., Yang, M., Shi, X.Q., Huang, H., Pillon, N.J., Bilan, P.J., Tu, Y.S., Klip, A., Ji, R.R., Zhang, J., Salter, M.W., Mogil, J.S., Mogil, J.S. Different immune cells mediate mechanical pain hypersensitivity in male and female mice. NATURE NEUROSCIENCE 2015; 18(--):1081-+. >>> Testosterone; Polyethylene glycol; SC; Mice (nude); 2002; animal info (naive, adult, young, 7-12 wks old, male, female, CD-1, nude CD-1).

14459 Wan, L., Tan, H.L., Thomas-Ahner, J.M., Pearl, D.K., Erdman, JW Jr, Moran, N.E., Clinton, S.K., Clinton, S.K. Dietary Tomato and Lycopene Impact Androgen Signaling- and Carcinogenesis-Related Gene Expression during Early TRAMP Prostate Carcinogenesis. Cancer Prevention Research 2014; 7(--):1228-1239. >>> Testosterone propionate; Cyclodextrin, sterile; Mice; Animal info (male, TRAMP +/- C57BL/6xFVB/N hybrid, 9 weeks old); cancer (prostate); replacement therapy (gonadectomy; testosterone replacement);.

13701 Akita, K., Harada, K., Ichihara, J., Takata, N., Takahashi, Y., Saito, K. A novel selective androgen receptor modulator, NEP28, is efficacious in muscle and brain without serious side effects on prostate. European Journal of Pharmacology 2013; 720(-1-3-):107-114. >>> Dihydrotestosterone; methyltestosterone; NEP28; SC; Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 13 weeks old); dose-response (pg.110-112); neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's disease); replacement therapy (orchidectomized; androgen therapy); dihydrotestosterone aka DHT; methyltestosterone aka MT; NEP28 is a selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM); notes the use of a 21 day pump;.

13101 Chen, J.R., Wang, T.J., Lim, S.H., Wang, Y.J., Tseng, G.F. Testosterone modulation of dendritic spines of somatosensory cortical pyramidal neurons. Brain Structure&Function 2013; 218(-6-):1407-1417. >>> Testosterone; flutamide; anastrozole; DMSO;ethanol; SC; Rat; 2ML2; Control animals received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Sprague Dawley, male, adult, 350-400 g); pumps replaced after 2 weeks; replacement therapy (castrated).

12675 Johnson, J.A., Calo, S., Nair, L., IglayReger, H.B., Greenwald-Yarnell, M., Skorupski, J., Myers, MG Jr, Bodary, P.F. Testosterone interacts with the feedback mechanisms engaged by Tyr985 of the leptin receptor and diet-induced obesity. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 2012; 132(-3-5-):212-219. >>> Estradiol; testosterone; Ethanol; propylene glycol; PBS; SC; Mice; 1002; 1004; Control animals received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (LEPR-B Tyr985Leu, male, female, OVX, castrated); 10% ethanol used; replacement therapy (ovariectomy); post op. care (analgesic, carprofen).

12532 Sinnesael, M., Callewaert, F., Morreels, M., Kumar, N., Sitruk-Ware, R., Van Proeyen, K., Hespel, P., Boonen, S., Claessens, F., Vanderschueren, D. 7a-methyl-19-nortestosterone vs. testosterone implants for hypogonadal osteoporosis: a preclinical study in the aged male orchidectomized rat model. International Journal of Andrology 2011; 34(-6-):E601-E611. >>> Testosterone; nortestosterone, androgen 7 alpha methyl 19; SC; Rat; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Wistar, male, aging, 11 mo old); incorrectly listed Model 20004; pumps replaced every 4 weeks; long-term study; replacement therapy (orchidectomy).

12499 Kovalenko, P.L., Zhang, Z.T., Yu, J.G., Li, Y., Clinton, S.K., Fleet, J.C. Dietary Vitamin D and Vitamin D Receptor Level Modulate Epithelial Cell Proliferation and Apoptosis in the Prostate. Cancer Prevention Research 2011; 4(-10-):1617-1625. >>> Testosterone proprionate; DMSO; ethanol; SC; Mice; Animal info (castrated, TAPT121);"4:1 mixture of DMSO and ethanol"; replacement therapy (orchidectomy).

12463 Wu, Y., Zhao, J.B., Zhao, W.D., Pan, J.P., Bauman, W.A., Cardozo, C.P. Nandrolone Normalizes Determinants of Muscle Mass and Fiber Type after Spinal Cord Injury. Journal of Neurotrauma 2012; 29(-8-):1663-1675. >>> Testosterone; nandrolone; Propylene glycol; SC; Rat; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Wistar, male); post op. care (amoxicillin); pumps replaced after 28 days; long-term study.

12237 Sorge, R.E., LaCroix-Fralish, M.L., Tuttle, A.H., Sotocinal, S.G., Austin, J.S., Ritchie, J., Chanda, M.L., Graham, A.C., Topham, L., Beggs, S., Salter, M.W., Mogil, J.S. Spinal Cord Toll-Like Receptor 4 Mediates Inflammatory and Neuropathic Hypersensitivity in Male But Not Female Mice. Journal of Neuroscience 2011; 31(-43-):15450-15454. >>> Testosterone propionate; Polyethylene glycol; SC; Mice; 2002; animal info (naive, adult, 6-12 wks old, male, female, CD-1); wound clips used.

12115 Wu, Y., Collier, L., Pan, J., Qin, W., Bauman, W.A., Cardozo, C.P. Testosterone reduced methylprednisolone-induced muscle atrophy in spinal cord-injured rats. SPINAL CORD 2012; 50(-1-):57-62. >>> Methylprednisolone; testosterone; Propylene glycol; SC; Rat; 2001; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Wistar, male); multiple pumps used (2); spinal cord injury.

11730 Liu, X.H., Yao, S., Qiao, R.F., Levine, A.C., Kirschenbaum, A., Pan, J.P., Wu, Y., Qin, W.P., Bauman, W.A., Cardozo, C.P. Nandrolone reduces activation of Notch signaling in denervated muscle associated with increased Numb expression. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 2011; 414(-1-):165-169. >>> Nandrolone; testosterone; Propylene glycol; SC; Mice; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; mixture of nandrolone and testosterone in same pump.

10873 Tsuneda, T., Yamashita, T., Kato, T., Sekiguchi, A., Sagara, K., Sawada, H., Aizawa, T., Fu, L.T., Fujiki, A., Inoue, H. Deficiency of Testosterone Associates with the Substrate of Atrial Fibrillation in the Rat Model. Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology 2009; 20(-9-):1055-1060. >>> Testosterone propionate; SC; Rat; Animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 6 mo old); replacement therapy (orchidectomy).

10767 Wang, X., Kruithof-de Julio, M., Economides, K.D., Walker, D., Yu, H.L., Halili, M.V., Hu, Y.P., Price, S.M., bate-Shen, C., Shen, M.M. A luminal epithelial stem cell that is a cell of origin for prostate cancer. Nature 2009; 461(-7263-):495-U61. >>> Testosterone; Ethanol; PEG 400; SC; Mice; Animal info (adult, male, castrated, Nkx3-1CreERT2/+); replacement therapy (orchidectomy).

10294 Wu, Y., Zhao, W.D., Zhao, J.B., Zhang, Y.F., Qin, W.P., Pan, J.P., Bauman, W.A., Blitzer, R.D., Cardozo, C. REDD1 Is a Major Target of Testosterone Action in Preventing Dexamethasone-Induced Muscle Loss. Endocrinology 2010; 151(-3-):1050-1059. >>> Dexamethasone; testosterone; Propylene glycol; Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Wistar, 250 g.).

9753 Alves, C.H., Goncalves, I., Socorro, S., Baltazar, G., Quintela, T., Santos, C.R.A. Androgen Receptor is Expressed in Murine Choroid Plexus and Downregulated by 5 alpha-Dihydrotestosterone in Male and Female Mice. Journal of Molecular Neuroscience 2009; 38(-1-):41-49. >>> Dihydrotestosterone, 5a-; Ethanol; polypropylene glycol; SC; Mice; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, female, 5 mo old, OVX, ORDX, 129s1/sv); 0.5% ethanol used.

9553 Goncalves, I., Alves, C.H., Quintela, T., Baltazar, G., Socorro, S., Saraiva, M.J., Abreu, R., Santos, C.R.A. Transthyretin is up-regulated by sex hormones in mice liver. MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR BIOCHEMISTRY 2008; 317(-1-2-):137-142. >>> Estradiol, 17b-; dihydrotestosterone, 5a-; Polypropylene glycol; ethanol; SC; Mice; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle or sham operation; replacement therapy (ovariectomy, orchidectomy); animal info (male, female, 129S1/Sv, 5 months old): 0.5% EtOH.

9533 Zhao, W.D., Pan, J.P., Zhao, Z.B., Wu, Y., Bauman, W.A., Cardozo, C.P. Testosterone protects against dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy, protein degradation and MAFbx upregulation. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 2008; 110(-1-2-):125-129. >>> Testosterone; dexamethasone; Propylene glycol; Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Wistar, 250 g.).

9323 Henriques, T., Zhang, X., Yiannikouris, F.B., Daugherty, A., Cassis, L.A. Androgen increases AT1a receptor expression in abdominal aortas to promote angiotensin II-induced AAAs in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. ARTERIOSCLEROSIS THROMBOSIS AND VASCULAR BIOLOGY 2008; 28(-7-):1251-1256. >>> Dihydrotestosterone; angiotensin II; Saline; SC; Mice (knockout); 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; peptides; animal info (male, female, ApoE -/-, 12 wks old, castrated).

9169 Quintela, T., Alves, C.H., Goncalves, I., Baltazara, G., Saraiva, M.J., Santos, C.R.A. 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone up-regulates transthyretin levels in mice and rat choroid plexus via an androgen receptor independent pathway. Brain Research 2008; 1229(-;-):18-26. >>> Dihydrotestosterone, 5 alpha-; Ethanol; propylene glycol; SC; Rat; mice; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; replacement therapy (orchidectomy); animal info (129s1/sv, HM male); 0.5% ethanol used.

8869 Meitzen, J., Moore, I.T., Lent, K., Brenowitz, E.A., Perkel, D.J. Steroid hormones act transsynaptically within the Forebrain to regulate neuronal phenotype and song stereotypy. Journal of Neuroscience 2007; 27(-44-):12045-12057. >>> Dihydrotestosterone; ICI-182,780; estradiol, 17B-; flutamide; DMSO; PEG 300; propanediol, 1, 2-; SC; CSF/CNS (HVC); CSF/CNS (robust nucleus arcopallium); Bird (sparrow); 1007D; 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; pumps replaced after 14 days; cyanoacrylate adhesive; animal info (male, Gambel's white crowned, adult); HVC is the proper name for the telencephalic song nucleus; mp placed in custom built backpack strapped to bird's back w/harness made from surgical dressing, and a microcentrifuge tube;"pilot experiments showed that this arrangement kept the pump at its proper operating temperature (37oC), and that the pump retained saline throughout the entire release period."(p. 12047); ICI-182,780 is also known as faslodex.

8669 Banach-Petrosky, W., Jessen, W.J., Ouyang, X., Gao, H., Rao, J., Quinn, J., Aronow, B.J., bate-Shen, C. Prolonged exposure to reduced levels of androgen accelerates prostate cancer progression in Nkx3.1; Pten mutant mice. Cancer Research 2007; 67(-19-):9089-9096. >>> Testosterone propionate; PEG 400; SC; Mice; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle, or no treatment; replacement therapy (castration); dose-response (fig 1A); long-term study; pumps replaced every 28 days; cancer (prostate); animal info (male, Nkx3.1+/+, Pten+/+, Nkx3.1 +/-, Nkx3.1-/-, Pten+/-, 6 wks old).

8162 Shao, T.C., Li, H.L., Kasper, S., Matusik, R., Ittmann, M., Cunningham, G.R. Comparison of the growth-promoting effects of testosterone and 7-alpha-methyl-19-nor-testosterone (MENT) on the prostate and levator ani muscle of LPB-Tag transgenic mice. PROSTATE 2006; 66(-4-):369-376. >>> Testosterone; nortestosterone, 7 alpha-methyl-19-; Cyclodextrin; SC; Mice (transgenic); 2004; Replacement therapy (orchidectomy); cancer (prostate); animal info (male, transgenic, 32 grams, ORX); MENT (7-alpha-methyl-19-nor-testosterone) and testosterone dissolved in 45% cyclodextrin.

7789 Rojas-Ortiz, Y.A., Rundle-Gonzalez, V., Rivera-Ramos, I., Jorge, J.C. Modulation of elevated plus maze behavior after chronic exposure to the anabolic steroid 17alpha-methyltestosterone in adult mice. Hormones and Behavior 2006; 49(-1-):123-128. >>> Testosterone, 17a-methyL-; Saline; cyclodextrin, B-; SC; Mice; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, C57BL/6, 90 days old); behavioral study; 30% cyclodextrin used.

7510 Venken, K., Boonen, S., Van Herck, E., Vandenput, L., Kumar, N., Sitruk-Ware, R., Sundaram, K., Bouillon, R., Vanderschueren, D. Bone and muscle protective potential of the prostate-sparing synthetic androgen 7alpha-methyl-19-nortestosterone: Evidence from the aged orchidectomized male rat model. Bone 2005; 36(-4-):663-670. >>> Nortestosterone, 7a-methyl-19-; Propandiol, 1, 2-; SC; Rat; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; replacement therapy (orchidectomy); dose-response (fig. 1); long-term study; pumps replaced every 4 weeks; animal info (male, 13 month old, Wistar, 600-650 g).

7410 Robichaud, M., Debonnel, G. Oestrogen and testosterone modulate the firing activity of dorsal raphe nucleus serotonergic neurones in both male and female rats. Journal of Neuroendocrinology 2005; 17(-3-):179-185. >>> Estradiol, 17B-; testosterone; progesterone; pregnane-3, 20 dione, 5B-; pregnane-3a-ol, 20-one, 5a-; dehydroepiandrosterone; testosterone, 5a-dihydroxy; Ethanol; water, distilled; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; ALZET brain infusion kit used; 3% ethanol; animal info (Sprague-Dawley, 250-325 g).

7128 Aronson, J. The Nicolas Andry Award - Modulation of distraction osteogenesis in the aged rat by fibroblast growth factor. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 2004; (-425-):264-283. >>> Fibroblast growth factor, recomb. human; dihydrotestosterone; Sodium citrate; SC; bone (tibia); Rat; 1007D; 1002; 2002; Functionality of mp verified by residual volume; comparison of injections vs. mp; post op. care (heated cage/analgesics); pumps used for systemic or targeted delivery; silastic tubing used;"The pumps were well tolerated without inflammatory reaction, infection, or pain."(p. 273); picture of pump and catheter (radiograph image) p. 277, fig 10A-B; animal info (Sprague-Dawley).

7008 Gao, W.Q., Kearbey, J.D., Nair, V.A., Chung, K.W., Parlow, A.F., Miller, D.D., Dalton, J.T. Comparison of the pharmacological effects of a novel selective androgen receptor modulator, the 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor finasteride, and the antiandrogen hydroxyflutamide in intact rats: New approach for benign prostate hyperplasia. Endocrinology 2004; 145(-12-):5420-5428. >>> SARM, s-1; SARM s-2; testosterone propionate; Ethanol; PEG 300; DMSO; SC; Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) are flutamide and bicalutamide analogs; animal info (ORX, male, Sprague-Dawley, 187-214 g).

6728 Kim, N.N., Min, K., Pessina, M.A., Munarriz, R., Goldstein, I., Traish, A.M. Effects of ovariectomy and steroid hormones on vaginal smooth muscle contractility. International Journal of Impotence Research 2004; 16(-1-):43-50. >>> Testosterone; estradiol; dihydrotestosterone; dehydroepiandrosterone; PEG 300; SC; Rabbit; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; replacement therapy (ovariectomy); animal info (female, New Zealand, white, 4.5-5.0 kg, OVX (for some)).

6672 Traish, A.M., Kim, N.N., Huang, Y.H., Min, K., Munarriz, R., Goldstein, I. Sex steroid hormones differentially regulate nitric oxide synthase and arginase activities in the proximal and distal rabbit vagina. International Journal of Impotence Research 2003; 15(-6-):397-404. >>> Testosterone; dehydroepiandrosterone; dihydrotestosterone, 5-alpha-; androstenediol, delta 5-3B, 17B; estradiol; progesterone; PEG; SC; Rabbit; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; replacement therapy (ovariectomy); multiple pumps per animal (2).

6483 Lu, R., Kanai, N., Bao, Y., Wolkoff, A.W., Schuster, V.L. Regulation of renal oatp mRNA expression by testosterone. American Physiological Society 1996; (--):F332-F337. >>> Testosterone; estradiol; dexamethasone; PEG 600; PEG; SC; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; replacement therapy (gonadectomy, adrenalectomy, orchidectomy, oophorectomy).

6438 Traish, A.M., Huang, Y.H., Min, K.S., Kim, N.N., Munarriz, R., Goldstein, I. Binding characteristics of [3H]Delta5-androstene-3beta 17beta-diol to a nuclear protein in the rabbit vagina. Steroids 2004; 69(-1-):71-78. >>> Estradiol; testosterone; PEG; SC; Rabbit; 2002; Replacement therapy (ovariectomy); animal info (female, New Zealand, white, 4.5-5.0 kg, OVX).

6424 Yokota, T., Honda, K., Tsuruya, Y., Nomiya, M., Yamaguchi, O., Gotanda, K., Constantinou, C.E. Functional and anatomical effects of hormonally induced experimental prostate growth: A urodynamic model of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in the beagle. PROSTATE 2004; 58(-2-):156-163. >>> Dihydrotestosterone, 5 alpha-; Estradiol, 17B-; SC; Dog; 2ML4; Animal info (Beagle, 3.5-7.2 yrs); testosterone induced BPH animal model.

6326 Min, K., Munarriz, R., Kim, N.N., Goldstein, I., Traish, A. Effects of ovariectomy and estrogen and androgen treatment on sildenaf il-mediated changes in female genital blood flow and vaginal lubricati on in the animal model. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2002; 187(-5-):1370-1376. >>> Estradiol; testosterone; PEG; SC; Rabbit; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; estradiol plasma levels taken; replacement therapy (ovariectomy); multiple pumps per animal used (2) for estradiol and testosterone group; animal info (female, New Zealand, white, 3.5-4.0 kg).

6111 Comeau, L.A., Campana, S.E. Modifying thyroidal status in Atlantic cod by osmotic pump delivery of thyroid and antithyroid agents. TRANSACTIONS OF THE AMERICAN FISHERIES SOCIETY 2003; 132(-5-):1021-1026. >>> Triiodothyronine; iodide, potassium; methimazole; Estradiol, 17B-; testosterone; thiourea; Saline; IP; Fish (cod); 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by residual volume; drug plasma levels taken; potassium iodide, methimazole and thiourea are thyroid inhibitors; sex hormones were in a separate study where the ALZET pump model was not listed;"this study demonstrates the value of osmotic pumps as effective delivery vehicles for drugs in wild demersal fish."p. 1024.

6089 Shao, T.C., Li, H.L., Eid, W., Ittmann, M., Unni, E., Cunningham, G.R. In vivo preservation of steroid specificity in CWR22 xenografts having a mutated androgen receptor. PROSTATE 2003; 57(-1-):1-7. >>> Testosterone; estradiol; progesterone; flutamide; Cylodextrin, 2-beta-hydroxypropl; SC; Mice (nude); 2004; Replacement therapy (castration); cancer (prostate); CWR22 xenograft used; flutamide is an anti-androgen; animal info (5-6 week old, nude ,ORX).

6054 Jalouli, M., Carlsson, L., Ameen, C., Linden, D., Ljungberg, A., Michalik, L., Eden, S., Wahli, W., Oscarsson, J. Sex difference in hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha expression: Influence of pituitary and gonadal hormones. Endocrinology 2003; 144(-1-):101-109. >>> Growth hormone, bovine; testosterone; estradiol, 17B-; Phosphate buffer; glycerol; sodium asize; propylene glycol; SC; Rat; 2001; Replacement therapy (gonadectomy); comparison of daily injections vs. chronic mp; peptides; GH was recomb bovine&diluted in 0.05 m phosphate buffer, ph 8.6, with 1.6% glycerol&0.02% sodium azide; testosterone&estradiol were diluted in propylene glycol.

5856 Yin, D.H., Gao, W.Q., Kearbey, J.D., Xu, H.P., Chung, K.W., He, Y.L., Marhefka, C.A., Veverka, K.A., Miller, D.D., Dalton, J.T. Pharmacodynamics of selective androgen receptor modulators. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 2003; 304(-3-):1334-1340. >>> Testosterone propionate; bicalutamide derivatives; hydroxyflutamide derivatives; PEG 300; DMSO; ethanol; SC; Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; dose-response; multiple pumps per animal (1-2) due to limited solubility; derivatives were isomers of novel nonsteroidal androgens; functionality of mp verified by residual volume; animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 90-100 g, castrated).

5770 Yin, D.H., Xu, H.P., He, Y.L., Kirkovsky, L.I., Miller, D.D., Dalton, J.T. Pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and metabolism of acetothiolutamide, a novel nonsteroidal agonist for the androgen receptor. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 2003; 304(-3-):1323-1333. >>> Testosterone propionate; acetothiolutamide; bicalutamide, R-; PEG 300; SC; Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/vehicle; functionality of mp verified by residual volume; replacement therapy (orchidectomy); comparison of bolus IV injections vs. mp (p. 1327); stability verified by preliminary experiments (14 days at 37 C. of acetothiolutamide; half-life (p. 1327) acetothiolutamide (26 min); bicalutamide is a nonsteroidal androgen; acetothioluthamide is a nonsteroidal androgen receptor ligand; agents in seperate pumps for seperate groups..

5544 Val, P., Martinez, A., Sahut-Barnola, I., Jean, C., Veyssiere, G., Lefrancois-Martinez, A.M. A 77-base pair LINE-Like sequence elicits androgen-dependent mvdp/akr1-b7 expression in mouse vas deferens, but is dispensable for adrenal expression in rats. Endocrinology 2002; 143(-9-):3435-3448. >>> Testosterone; Dexamethasone acetate; Cyclodextrin; PEG; SC; Rat; 2001; 2002; Replacement therapy (orchidectomy); testosterone dissolved in cyclodextrin solution and delivered for 10 days via 2002 pumps; dexa was infused via 2001 pumps in PEG vehicle; animal info (adult, male, Wistar).

5454 Ramachandra, S.G., Ramesh, V., Krishnamurthy, H.N., Kumar, N., Sundaram, K., Hardy, M.P., Rao, A.J. Effect of chronic administration of 7 alpha-methyl-19-nortestosterone on serum testosterone, number of spermatozoa and fertility in adult male bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata). REPRODUCTION 2002; 124(-2-):301-309. >>> Nortestosterone, 7 a-methyl-19-; SC; Monkey; 2ML4; Long-term study, pumps replaced every 28 days; a.k.a MENT; animal info (m, bonnet,.

5448 Shetty, G., Wilson, G., Hardy, M.P., Niu, E., Huhtaniemi, I., Meistrich, M.L. Inhibition of recovery of spermatogenesis in irradiated rats by different androgens. Endocrinology 2002; 143(-9-):3385-3396. >>> Testosterone; nortestosterone, 7a-methyl-19-; Molecusol (cyclodextrin); water; SC; Rat; 2004; Testosterone plasma levels checked; 45% aqueous solution of Molecusol (cyclodextrin) used; nortestosterone, 7a-methyl-19- is a.k.a MENT; animal info (adult, male, 9-12 weeks old).

5297 Gotoh, Y., Kato, Y., Stieger, B., Meier, P.J., Sugiyama, Y. Gender difference in the Oatp1-mediated tubular reabsorption of estradiol 17 beta-D-glucuronide in rats. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-ENDOCRINOLOGY AND METABOLISM 2002; 282(--):E1245-E1254. >>> Testosterone; PEG 400; SC; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; replacement therapy (orchidectomy); multiple pumps per animal (2).

4762 Dammann, C.E.L, Ramadurai, S.M, McCants, D.D, Pham, L.D, Nielsen, H.C  Endocrinology 2000; 141(-8-):2923-2929. >>> Dihydrotestosterone;; mice (pregnant);; teratology; pellets also used to administer DHT;.

4748 Cummings, D.E, Kumar, N., Bardin, C.W., Sundaram, K., Bremner, W.J. Prostate-sparing effects in primates of the potent androgen 7a-Methyl-19-Nortestosterone: A potential alternative testosterone for androgen replacement and male contraception.. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 1998; 83(-12-):4212-4219. >>> Nortestosterone, 7a-methyl-19-; Testosterone acetate;; Cyclodextrin, B-;; SC;; monkey;; functionality of mp verified by hormone serum levels; replacement therapy (castration); dose-response (p.4213); long-term study, pumps replaced weekly during 1st treatment, bi-weekly during 2nd period,&every 4 weeks during the last 2 periods; both steroids were dissolved in 45% solution of 2-hydroxypropyl-B-cyclodextrin; MRI.

4741 Zhu, L.-J, Hardy, M.P, Inigo, I.V, Huhtaniemi, I., Bardin, C.W., Moo-Young, A.J  Biol. Reprod 2000; 63(-2-):368-376. >>> Azaline B; Testosterone, 7a-methyl-19-nor; Water; Mannitol; Cyclodextrin, hydroxypropyl (molecusol); rat;; 2ML2; 2ML4;; replacement therapy; Azaline B is a LHRH-antagonist; agents infused together or singly; the vehicle for nortestosterone was hydroxypropyl beta-cyclodextrin (trappsol); long-term study.

3897 Kumar, N., Suvisaari, J., Tsong, Y.-Y., Aguillaume, C., Bardin, C.W., Lahteenmaki, P., Sundaram, K. Pharmacokinetics of 7alpha-methyl-19-nortestosterone in men and cynomolgus monkeys. J. Androl 1997; 18(-4-):352-358. >>> Nortestosterone, 7a-methyl-19-; SC; monkey; 2ML2; functionality of mp verified by serum MENT levels; MENT (7a-methyl-19-nortestosterone) and MENT-acetate used.

3734 Wood, R.I., Bean, A.R., Sundaram, K., Kumar, N., Bardin, C.W. 7a-methyl-19-nortestosterone facilitates sexual behavior in the male syrian hamster. Horm. Behav 1996; 30(--):131-137. >>> Testosterone; Nortestosterone, 7a-methyl-19-; Cyclodextrin; SC; hamster; 2002; replacement therapy (castration); dose response; long-term study, pumps replaced weekly or biweekly; 7a-methyl-19-nortestosterone is also known as MENT; 35(010) Molecusol used as vehicle.

3347 Lobo, M.J., Remesar, X., Alemany, M. Effect of chronic intravenous injection of steroid hormones on body weight and composition of female rats. Biochem. Molec. Biol. Intl 1993; 29(-2-):349-358. >>> Progesterone; Cortisol; Cortisone; Corticosterone; Dehydroepiandrosterone; Androstenedione, 4-; Androstendiol, 5-; Testosterone; Nortestosterone, 19-; Estradiol, B-; Estrone; Estriol; Deoxycorticosterone; PEG 400; IV (lower cava); rat; 2002; controls received mp with PEG; no stress (see pg. 351); pumps placed into peritoneal cavity and sutured to musculature; surgical wound sprinkled with sulphathiazol.

3285 Morali, G., Lemus, A.E., Munguia, R., Arteaga, M., Perez-Palacios, G., Sundaram, K., Kumar, N., Bardin, C.W. Induction of male sexual behavior in the rat 7a-Methyl-19-Nortestosterone, an androgen that does not undergo 5a-reduction. Biol. Reprod 1993; 49(--):577-581. >>> Testosterone, 7a-methyl-19-nor-; Cyclodextrin; Water; SC; rat; 2002; replacement therapy (castration); pumps replaced after 14 days; MENT is a synthetic steroid; cyclodextrin was Molecusol.

3259 van Breda, E., Menheere, P.P.C.A., Geurten, P., Keizer, H.A. Steroid drug delivery systems in endocrine and metabolic research: evaluation of three models. Horm. Metab. Res 1995; 27(--):436-437. >>> Testosterone; PEG 400; SC; rat; 2002; controls received mp with PEG; functionality of mp verified by plasma levels; comparison of depot injections, silastic tubes and mp; no stress (see pg. 437).

3247 Tutrone Jr, R.F., Ball, R.A., Ornitz, D.M., Leder, P., Richie, J.P. Benign prostatic hyperplasia in a transgenic mouse: a hormonally responsive investigatory model. Urol. Repro. Biol 1993; 149(-3-):697-700. >>> Testosterone; Finasteride; SC; mice; controls received sham castration; replacement therapy (castration); enzyme inhibitor; finasteride is Proscar, a 5-alpha reductase inhibitor.

1425 Marie, P.J., Hott, M., Durand, D. Somatostatin infusion inhibits the stimulatory effect of testosterone on endosteal bone formation in the mouse. Metabolism 1988; 37(-5-):429-435. >>> Octreotide; Somatostatin; Testosterone propionate; Propylene glycol; SC; mice; concomitant infusion of T and SMS from 2 pumps implanted simultaneously; functionality of mp verified after delivery; peptides; somatostatin analog.

728 Kjellstrand, P., Bjerkemo, M., Adler-Maihofer, M., Holmquist, B. Effects of solvent exposure on testosterone levels and butyrylcholinesterase activity in mice. Acta Pharmacol. Toxicol 1985; 57(-4-):242-249. >>> Testosterone; PEG; SC; mice; 2002; replacement therapy (castration); stress/adverse reaction (infection at site of mp implantation).


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“Since purified FSH has a short half-life, the hormone is administered as regular injection in 12-hr intervals or constant infusion via a subcutaneously implanted osmotic minipump.” Popova et al., Molecular reproduction and development 2002;63:177-182.