References on Tolerance and Dependence Research Using ALZET® Osmotic Pumps

16353 Gong, K., Bhargava, A., Jasmin, L. GluN2B N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor and excitatory amino acid transporter 3 are upregulated in primary sensory neurons after 7 days of morphine administration in rats: implication for opiate-induced hyperalgesia. Pain 2016; 157(-1-):147-58. >>> Morphine; Ro 25-6981; Saline; SC; Rat; 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Male Sprague-dawley rats, 220-250 g); functionality of mp verified by behavioral tests; good methods (pg. 148); post op. care (opiate administration using pumps); behavioral testing (Hargreaves plantar test); Dependence/tolerance induced; Opiate use; Dose ( 15 mg/ml Morphine, 5 mg/kg Ro 25-6981);.

16277 Yin, Y., Li, Z., Gao, L., Li, Y., Zhao, J., Zhang, W. AMPK-dependent modulation of hepatic lipid metabolism by nesfatin-1. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2015; 417(--):20-6. >>> Nesfatin-1; SC; mice; 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (C57BL/6J mice); animal info (C57BL/6J mice); immunology;“Such an approach has been demonstrated to significantlyimprove glucose tolerance in the manner independent of food intake in mice fed either standard chow or high fat diet” pg 22; Pumps primed in 37 Degrees C for 4 hours; Dose (2.5 pmol/mouse/hr);.

16249 Slotkin, T. A., Skavicus, S., Seidler, F. J. Prenatal drug exposures sensitize noradrenergic circuits to subsequent disruption by chlorpyrifos. Toxicology 2015; 338(--):8-16. >>> Nicotine Bitartrate; Water, bacteriostatic; SC; Rat (pregnant); 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats, 211-217g); animal info (pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats, 211-217g); dependence; Wound clips used; Dose (3 mg/kg/day);.

16246 Shih, P. Y., McIntosh, J. M., Drenan, R. M. Nicotine Dependence Reveals Distinct Responses from Neurons and Their Resident Nicotinic Receptors in Medial Habenula. Mol Pharmacol 2015; 88(-6-):1035-44. >>> Nicotine hydrogen-tartrate salt; Saline; SC; mice; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Adult (2–3 months old) mice; C57BL/6 wild-type); functionality of mp verified by plasma levels; functionality of mp verified by plasma levels; dependence; Dose (1 mg/kg/hr); Resultant plasma level (0.3 uM; 40 ng/ml);.

16241 Shang, J., Li, J., Keller, M. P., Hohmeier, H. E., Wang, Y., Feng, Y., Zhou, H. H., Shen, X., Rabaglia, M., Soni, M., Attie, A. D., Newgard, C. B., Thornberry, N. A., Howard, A. D., Zhou, Y. P. Induction of miR-132 and miR-212 Expression by Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 (GLP-1) in Rodent and Human Pancreatic beta-Cells. Mol Endocrinol 2015; 29(-9-):1243-53. >>> Exendin-4; Saline; SC; mice; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (13-week-old lean C57Bl/6N mice); functionality of mp verified by glucose tolerance tests; dose-response (pg 1247); cardiovascular; Ex-4, a GLP-1 analog; Dose (10 or 30ug/kg/d);.

16215 Muelken, P., Schmidt, C. E., Shelley, D., Tally, L., Harris, A. C. A Two-Day Continuous Nicotine Infusion Is Sufficient to Demonstrate Nicotine Withdrawal in Rats as Measured Using Intracranial Self-Stimulation. PLoS One 2015; 10(-12-):e0144553. >>> Nicotine bitartrate; Saline, physiological; SC; rat; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Male Wistar rats, 275–300 g); functionality of mp verified by elevations in intracranial self-stimulation; dose-response (pg 8, 9); post op. care (buprenorphine, ceftriaxone); behavioral testing (intracranial self-stimulation pg 4); Dependence, nicotine; “elevations in ICSS thresholds beginning on the second day ofinfusion” (Pg. 1); primed in saline for 1 hour prior to implantation; Dose (3.2 mg/kg/day);.

16195 Lee, B. G., Anastasia, A., Hempstead, B. L., Lee, F. S., Blendy, J. A. Effects of the BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism on Anxiety-Like Behavior Following Nicotine Withdrawal in Mice. Nicotine Tob Res 2015; 17(-12-):1428-35. >>> Nicotine hydrogen tartrate salt; Saline; SC; mice; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info: Mice (23–38 g; 2–4 months old); functionality of mp verified by behavior; behavioral testing (withdrawal measurements); Dependence nicotine; Dose: 18 mg /kg/day.

16182 Sjogren, B., Parra, S., Atkins, K. B., Karaj, B., Neubig, R. R. Digoxin-Mediated Upregulation of RGS2 Protein Protects against Cardiac Injury. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2016; 357(-2-):311-9. >>> Digoxin; DMSO; saline; SC; Mice; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, C57BL6J or RGS2 -/-, 8-18 weeks old); 0.04% DMSO used; dependence; pumps primed overnight in 37C saline; Dose (2 ug/kg/day);.

16180 Simmons, S. J., Gentile, T. A., Mo, L., Tran, F. H., Ma, S., Muschamp, J. W. Nicotinic receptor blockade decreases fos immunoreactivity within orexin/hypocretin-expressing neurons of nicotine-exposed rats. Behav Brain Res 2016; 314(--):226-33. >>> Nicotine; Saline; SC; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, adult); behavioral testing (open field); dependence; used staples (9mm); Dose (3.16 mg/kg/day free base);.

16137 Hoegberg, B. G., Lomazzo, E., Lee, N. H., Perry, D. C. Regulation of alpha4beta2alpha5 nicotinic acetylcholinergic receptors in rat cerebral cortex in early and late adolescence: Sex differences in response to chronic nicotine. Neuropharmacology 2015; 99(--):347-55. >>> Nicotine hydrogen tartrate; Saline; SC; SC; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info: Sprague Dawley rats; dose-response (pg 350); post op. care (buprenorphine); dependence; Dose: 17 mg/kg/day.

16112 de la Pena, J. B., Ahsan, H. M., Tampus, R., Botanas, C. J., dela Pena, I. J., Kim, H. J., Sohn, A., dela Pena, I., Shin, C. Y., Ryu, J. H., Cheong, J. H. Cigarette smoke exposure during adolescence enhances sensitivity to the rewarding effects of nicotine in adulthood, even after a long period of abstinence. Neuropharmacology 2015; 99(--):9-14. >>> Nicotine; SC; rat; 2ML2; Controls received sham pumps; animal info: Male Sprague Dawley; dose-response (pg 12); behavioral testing (conditioned place preferences (CPP) and self-administration tests); dependence, nicotine; Dose: 3.2 mg/kg/day.

16104 Cerpa, V. J., Aylwin Mde, L., Beltran-Castillo, S., Bravo, E. U., Llona, I. R., Richerson, G. B., Eugenin, J. L. The Alteration of Neonatal Raphe Neurons by Prenatal-Perinatal Nicotine. Meaning for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2015; 53(-4-):489-99. >>> Nicotine bitartrate; saline; SC; Mice (pregnant); 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info 5-7 days pregnant adult mice; dependence, nicotine; Pump delivery mimics the tendency of smokers to maintain a constant blood level of nicotine throughout the day; Dose: (60 mg kg-1 day-1).

16091 Alejandro, E. U., Bozadjieva, N., Kumusoglu, D., Abdulhamid, S., Levine, H., Haataja, L., Vadrevu, S., Satin, L. S., Arvan, P., Bernal-Mizrachi, E. Disruption of O-linked N-Acetylglucosamine Signaling Induces ER Stress and beta Cell Failure. Cell Rep 2015; 13(-11-):2527-38. >>> Phloridzin; SC; mice; 2006; animal info: bOGT-/- (70 day old, 25 g; 50 day old, 20.5 g); diabetes; Hyperglycemia; glucose tolerance; specific and competitive inhibition of sodium/glucose cotransporters in the intestine (SGLT1) and kidney (SGLT2); Dose: dose of 0.8 mg/kg/day (_5 mg/ml).

16028 Iijima, M., Koike, H., Chaki, S. Effect of an mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist on depressive behavior induced by withdrawal from chronic treatment with methamphetamine. Behav Brain Res 2013; 246(--):24-8. >>> methamphetamine; SC; rat; 2ML1; animal info: male, Sprague-Dawley, 5-weeks old; dependence; behavioral testing (forced swimming test; ); mp were used to infuse methamphetamine to induce withdrawl symptoms in mice; dose: 2.5, or 5 mg/kg/day.

15990 Maayan, R., Hirsh, L., Yadid, G., Weizman, A. Dehydroepiandrosterone Attenuates Cocaine-Seeking Behaviour Independently of Corticosterone Fluctuations. J Neuroendocrinol 2015; 27(-11-):819-26. >>> Corticosterone; DMSO; SC; Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 250-350g); functionality of mp verified by plasma levels; behavioral testing (lever pressing); dependence; Dose (15 mg/kg);.

15983 Jackson, K. J., Jackson, A., Carroll, F. I., Damaj, M. I. Effects of orally-bioavailable short-acting kappa opioid receptor-selective antagonist LY2456302 on nicotine withdrawal in mice. Neuropharmacology 2015; 97(--):270-4. >>> Nicotine hydrogen tartrate salt; Saline; SC; Mice; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, ICR, 8-10 weeks old); behavioral testing (elevated plus maze; hyperalgesia); dependence; Dose (24 mg/kg/day);.

15967 Iijima, M., Koike, H., Chaki, S. Effect of an mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist on depressive behavior induced by withdrawal from chronic treatment with methamphetamine. Behav Brain Res 2013; 246(--):24-8. >>> methamphetamine (MAP); saline; SC; rat; 2ML1; animal info: male, Sprague-Dawley, 5 wks old; tolerance studies; post op care: pumps removed under sodium pentobarbital anesthesia; behavioral testing: forced swimming test, locomotor activity; mp used to infuse methamphetamine to induce a withdrawal-like effect in rats to study the effect of LY341495 (mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist) on withdrawal-induced depressive behavior; dose 2, 5 mg/kg/day.

15962 Lin, S. L., Chang, F. L., Ho, S. Y., Charoenkwan, P., Wang, K. W., Huang, H. L. Predicting Neuroinflammation in Morphine Tolerance for Tolerance Therapy from Immunostaining Images of Rat Spinal Cord. PLoS One 2015; 10(-10-):e0139806. >>> Morphine; gabapentin; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (male, WIstar, 320-400g); behavioral testing (anti-nociceptive test; ); dependence; Dose (Morphine 15 ug/h; gabapentin 15 ug/h);.

15807 Vinay Parikh, Robert D. Cole,, Purav J. Patel,, Rachel L. Poole,, Thomas J. Gould  NEUROBIOLOGY OF LEARNING AND MEMORY 2016; 128(--):110-116. >>> Nicotine hydrogen tartrate; Saline, sterile; SC; Mice; 1004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, C57BL6J, 8-10 weeks old, 20-25g); functionality of mp verified by plasma cotinine levels; behavioral testing (visual discriminations, operant training); dependence; Dose (18 mg/kg/day free base resultedin 100-150 ng/ml plasma cotinine levels);.

15771 Rob Hill, Abi Lyndon, Sarah Withey, Joanne Roberts, Yvonne Kershaw, John MacLachlan, Anne Lingford-Hughes, Eamonn Kelly, Chris Bailey, Matthew Hickman, Graeme Henderson  Neuropsychopharmacology 2016; 41(--):762-773. >>> Buprenorphine; methadone; Saline; SC; Mice; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, CD-1, 30g); behavioral testing (tail flick latencies, mouse locomotion); dependence; Dose (Buprenorphine 5 mg/kg/day; methadone 60 mg/kg/day);.

15232 Segarra, A.C., Torres-Diaz, Y.M., Silva, R.D., Puig-Ramos, A., Menendez-Delmestre, R., Rivera-Bermudez, J.G., Amadeo, W., gosto-Rivera, J.L. Estrogen receptors mediate estradiol's effect on sensitization and CPP to cocaine in female rats: Role of contextual cues. HORMONES AND BEHAVIOR 2014; 65(-2-):77-87. >>> ICI-182,780; Cyclodextrin, 2-hydroxypropyl-b-; saline; CSF/CNS; Rat; 2006; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, Sprague-Dawley, 18-220g, adult, OVX); ALZET brain infusion kit used; 22.5% cyclodextrin used; behavioral testing (animal activity cage systems, locomotor activity, conditioned place preference); dependence; Cannula placement verified via histological analysis;.

15227 Natividad, L.A., Torres, O.V., Friedman, T.C., O'Dell, L.E. Adolescence is a period of development characterized by short- and long-term vulnerability to the rewarding effects of nicotine and reduced sensitivity to the anorectic effects of this drug. BEHAVIOURAL BRAIN RESEARCH 2013; 257(-;-):275-285. >>> Nicotine; SC; Rat; 2ML2; Controls received sham surgery; animal info (male, Wistar); dependence; pumps removed after 14 days;.

15198 Caine, S.B., Collins, G.T., Thomsen, M., Wright, C., Lanier, R.K., Mello, N.K. Nicotine-Like Behavioral Effects of the Minor Tobacco Alkaloids Nornicotine, Anabasine, and Anatabine in Male Rodents. EXPERIMENTAL AND CLINICAL PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY 2014; 22(-1-):9-22. >>> Nicotine; SC; Mice; 1004; Animal info (male, Swiss Webster, 4-8 weeks old); dependence; pumps removed after 28 days;.

15167 Zanos, P., Georgiou, P., Metaxas, A., Kitchen, I., Winsky-Sommerer, R., Bailey, A., Bailey, A. Region-specific up-regulation of oxytocin receptor binding in the brain of mice following chronic nicotine administration. NEUROSCIENCE LETTERS 2015; 600(--):33-37. >>> Nicotine; SC; Mice; 2002; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (male, C57BL/6J); dependence;.

15124 Varani, A.P., Pedron, V.T., Machado, L.M., Antonelli, M.C., Bettler, B., Balerio, G.L.N., Balerio, G.L.N. Lack of GABA(B) receptors modifies behavioural and biochemical alterations induced by precipitated nicotine withdrawal. NEUROPHARMACOLOGY 2015; 90(--):90-101. >>> Nicotine hydrogen tartrate salt; SC; Mice; 2001; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (male, BALB/C, 20-30g); behavioral testing (nicotine withdrawal; locomotor activity); dependence;.

15118 Torres, O.V., Pipkin, J.A., Ferree, P., Carcoba, L.M., O'Dell, L.E., O'Dell, L.E. Nicotine Withdrawal Increases Stress-Associated Genes in the Nucleus Accumbens of Female Rats in a Hormone-Dependent Manner. NICOTINE&TOBACCO RESEARCH 2015; 17(--):422-430. >>> Nicotine; SC; Rat; 2ML2; Controls received sham surgery; animal info (female, Wistar, PD60-62); behavioral testing (elevated plus maze, light-dark transfer procedures); dependence;.

15052 Nanaware-Kharade, N., Thakkar, S., Gonzalez, GA III, Peterson, E.C., Peterson, E.C. A Nanotechnology-Based Platform for Extending the Pharmacokinetic and Binding Properties of Anti-methamphetamine Antibody Fragments. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS 2015; 5(--):U1-U10. >>> Methamphetamine; SC; Rat; Animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, adult, 280-310g); functionality of mp verified by blood levels; dependence; cardiovascular;.

15048 Muldoon, P.P., Chen, J., Harenza, J.L., Abdullah, R.A., Sim-Selley, L.J., Cravatt, B.F., Miles, M.F., Chen, X., Lichtman, A.H., Damaj, M.I., Muldoon, P.P. Inhibition of monoacylglycerol lipase reduces nicotine withdrawal. BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY 2015; 172(--):869-882. >>> Nicotine; SC; Mice; 2002; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (male, ICR, 8-10 weeks old); dependence; pumps removed after 14 days;.

15028 Malin, D.H., Henceroth, M.M., Izygon, J.J., Nghiem, D.M., Moon, W.D., Anderson, A.P., Madison, C.A., Goyarzu, P., Ma, J.N., Burstein, E.S., Malin, D.H. Reversal of morphine tolerance by a compound with NPFF receptor subtype-selective actions. NEUROSCIENCE LETTERS 2015; 584(--):141-145. >>> Morphine sulfate; SC; Rat; 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 405g); behavioral testing (tail flick apparatus); dependence;.

15010 Lilius, T.O., Jokinen, V., Neuvonen, M.S., Niemi, M., Kalso, E.A., Rauhala, P.V., Lilius, T.O. Ketamine coadministration attenuates morphine tolerance and leads to increased brain concentrations of both drugs in the rat. BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY 2015; 172(--):2799-2813. >>> Morphine; Saline, isotonic; SC; Rat; 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 300-350g); functionality of mp verified by serum levels; behavioral testing (tail flick, hot plate, rotarod test); pumps removed after 5 days; dependence;.

15030 Leach, P.T., Holliday, E., Kutlu, M.G., Gould, T.J., Gould, T.J. Withdrawal From Chronic Nicotine Reduces Thyroid Hormone Levels and Levothyroxine Treatment Ameliorates Nicotine Withdrawal-Induced Deficits in Hippocampus-Dependent Learning in C57BL/6J Mice. NICOTINE&TOBACCO RESEARCH 2015; 17(--):690-696. >>> Nicotine; SC; Mice; 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; no stress"Mice were observed to identify any adverse reactions to surgeries (none were observed)"(see pg. 692); behavioral testing (fear conditioning); dependence; pumps removed at 12 days;.

14961 Hawkins, J.L., Denson, J.E., Miley, D.R., Durham, P.L., Durham, P.L. NICOTINE STIMULATES EXPRESSION OF PROTEINS IMPLICATED IN PERIPHERAL AND CENTRAL SENSITIZATION. NEUROSCIENCE 2015; 290(--):115-125. >>> Nicotine; PBS; SC; Rat; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, adult, 400-500g); functionality of mp verified by cotinine levels; behavioral testing (von Frey filaments); dependence;.

14959 Harris, A.C., LeSage, M.G., Shelley, D., Perry, J.L., Pentel, P.R., Owens, S.M., Harris, A.C. The Anti-(+)-Methamphetamine Monoclonal Antibody mAb7F9 Attenuates Acute (+)-Methamphetamine Effects on Intracranial Self-Stimulation in Rats. PLoS One 2015; 10(--):U408-U420. >>> Methamphetamine hydrochloride; Saline; SC; Rat; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 275-300g); functionality of mp verified by elevations in ICSS; behavioral testing (ICSS); dependence; pumps removed after 7 days;.

14951 Grasing, K., Yang, Y.G., He, S.T., Grasing, K. Enduring effects of tacrine on cocaine-reinforced behavior: Analysis by conditioned-place preference, temporal separation from drug reward, and reinstatement. PHARMACOLOGICAL RESEARCH 2015; 97(--):40-47. >>> Tacrine; Saline; SC; Rat; 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Wistar, 9 weeks old); behavioral testing (conditioned-place preference; locomotor activity; dependence;.

14903 Czoty, P.W., Tran, P., Thomas, L.N., Martin, T.J., Grigg, A., Blough, B.E., Beveridge, T.J.R., Czoty, P.W. Effects of the dopamine/norepinephrine releaser phenmetrazine on cocaine self-administration and cocaine-primed reinstatement in rats. PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY 2015; 232(--):2405-2414. >>> Amphetamine, D-; phenmetrazine; Saline; SC; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague-Dawley, 300-350g); pumps replaced every 7 days; behavioral testing (cocaine self-administration, food self-administration); dependence;.

14891 Conceicao, E.P., Peixoto-Silva, N., Pinheiro, C.R., Oliveira, E., Moura, E.G., Lisboa, P.C., Lisboa, P.C. Maternal nicotine exposure leads to higher liver oxidative stress and steatosis in adult rat offspring. FOOD AND CHEMICAL TOXICOLOGY 2015; 78(--):52-59. >>> Nicotine; Saline; SC; Rat (lactating); 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, Wistar, PN2); teratology; toxicology; dependence;.

14878 Chen, C.M., Chou, H.C., Huang, L.T., Chen, C.M. Maternal Nicotine Exposure Induces Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Rat Offspring Lungs. Neonatology 2015; 108(--):179-187. >>> Nicotine; SC; Rat; 2ML2; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (female, Sprague Dawley); teratology; dependence;.

14836 Barbier, E., Tapocik, J.D., Juergens, N., Pitcairn, C., Borich, A., Schank, J.R., Sun, H., Schuebel, K., Zhou, Z.F., Yuan, Q.P., Vendruscolo, L.F., Goldman, D., Heilig, M., Barbier, E. DNA Methylation in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex Regulates Alcohol-Induced Behavior and Plasticity. JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE 2015; 35(--):6153-6164. >>> RG108; Cyclodextrin, 2-hydroxypropyl-B-; CSF/CNS; CSF/CNS (medial prefrontal cortex); Rat; 2002; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Wistar, 200-225g); 5% cyclodextrin used; behavioral testing (two bottle free choice; alcohol self-administration); tissue perfusion (medial prefrontal cortex); dependence;.

14823 Alsharari, S.D., King, J.R., Nordman, J.C., Muldoon, P.P., Jackson, A., Zhu, A.Z.X., Tyndale, R.F., Kabbani, N., Damaj, M.I., Kabbani, N. Effects of Menthol on Nicotine Pharmacokinetic, Pharmacology and Dependence in Mice. PLoS One 2015; 10(--):U459-U474. >>> Nicotine tartrate salt; Saline; Mice; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, ICR, 20-25g, adult); functionality of mp verified by plasma levels; behavioral testing (tail-flick test; somatic signs; elevated plus-maze); dependence; pumps removed after 7 days;.

15697 Radke, A.K., Zlebnik, N.E., Carroll, M.E., Radke, A.K. Cocaine withdrawal in rats selectively bred for low (LoS) versus high (HiS) saccharin intake. PHARMACOLOGY BIOCHEMISTRY AND BEHAVIOR 2015; 129(--):51-55. >>> Cocaine hydrochloride; Saline, sterile; SC; Rat; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Holtzmann/Harlan Sprague Dawley); no stress (see pg.53); post op. care (topical antibiotic ointment); behavioral testing (saccharin intake); dependence; pumps removed after 2 weeks;.

14793 Radchenko, E.V., Dravolina, O.A., Bespalov, A.Y., Dravolina, O.A. Agonist and antagonist effects of cytisine in vivo. NEUROPHARMACOLOGY 2015; 95(--):206-214. >>> Nicotine hydrogen tartrate; PBS; SC; Rat; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (male, Wistar, adult); behavioral testing (locomotor activity, nicotine self administration); dependence;.

14507 Yildirim, E., Connor, D.A., Gould, T.J., Gould, T.J. ABT-089, but not ABT-107, ameliorates nicotine withdrawal-induced cognitive deficits in C57BL6/J mice. Behavioural Pharmacology 2015; 26(--):241-248. >>> Nicotine hydrogen tartrate; Saline; SC; Mice; 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, C57BL6J, 8-12 weeks old); behavioral testing (fear conditioning, contextual and cued fear conditioning, five-choice serial reaction time task); dependence; pumps removed after 12 days.

14489 Xiao, C., Miwa, J.M., Henderson, B.J., Wang, Y., Deshpande, P., McKinney, S.L., Lester, H.A., Lester, H.A. Nicotinic Receptor Subtype-Selective Circuit Patterns in the Subthalamic Nucleus. Journal of Neuroscience 2015; 35(--):3734-3746. >>> Nicotine hydrogen tartrate; Saline; SC; Mice (transgenic); 1002; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, a4-GFP, 5-6 weeks old); dependence;"Nicotine or vehicle (saline) was administered to mice (5- to 6-week-old) by subcutaneously implanted osmotic minipumps (model 1002 or 2002, Alzet) for 7 or 14 d to avoid repetitive handling, which causes stress"pg 3735;.

14452 Vestal-Laborde, A.A., Eschenroeder, A.C., Bigbee, J.W., Robinson, S.E., Sato-Bigbee, C., Sato-Bigbee, C. The Opioid System and Brain Development: Effects of Methadone on the Oligodendrocyte Lineage and the Early Stages of Myelination. Developmental Neuroscience 2014; 36(--):409-421. >>> Methadone; Saline; SC; Rat (pregnant); 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, Pregnant, Sprague Dawley, GD7); teratology; dependence;.

14407 Slotkin, T.A., Card, J., Seidler, F.J., Slotkin, T.A. Nicotine administration in adolescence reprograms the subsequent response to nicotine treatment and withdrawal in adulthood: Sex-selective effects on cerebrocortical serotonergic function. Brain Research Bulletin 2014; 102(--):1-8. >>> Nicotine bitartrate; Water, bacteriostatic; SC; Rat; 1002; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle and sodium bitartrate; animal info (Sprague Dawley, PN30); functionality of mp verified by plasma nicotine and cotinine levels; pumps replaced at P90; dependence; used wound clips.

14404 Skelly, M.J., Weiner, J.L., Weiner, J.L. Chronic treatment with prazosin or duloxetine lessens concurrent anxiety-like behavior and alcohol intake: evidence of disrupted noradrenergic signaling in anxiety-related alcohol use. BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR 2014; 4(--):468-483. >>> Prazosin; propranolol; duloxetine; DMSO; saline, sterile; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Long Evans, adult, 300g); functionality of mp verified by residual volume; 10% DMSO used; stress/adverse reaction: (see pg. 472); post op. care (ketoprofen 3 mg/kg SC); behavioral testing (ethanol intake, open field test, locomotor activity, elevated plus maze); dependence;"Drug doses were calculated based on the estimated mean weight of animals in each group halfway through the drug delivery period (taking the mean weight at baselineand adding projected weight gain across 2 weeks)"pg 470; pumps removed after 4 weeks;.

14345 Pergadia, M.L., Der-Avakian, A., D'Souza, M.S., Madden, P.A.F., Heath, A.C., Shiffman, S., Markou, A., Pizzagalli, D.A., Pergadia, M.L. Association Between Nicotine Withdrawal and Reward Responsiveness in Humans and Rats. JAMA PSYCHIATRY 2014; 71(--):1238-1245. >>> Nicotine hydrogen tartrate; Saline, sterile; SC; Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Wistar); stress/adverse reaction: (see pg.1241); behavioral testing (operant chambers withdrawal test); dependence; pumps removed after 28 days;.

14332 Orellana, J.A., Busso, D., Ramirez, G., Campos, M., Rigotti, A., Eugenin, J., von Bernhardi, R., Orellana, J.A. Prenatal nicotine exposure enhances Cx43 and Panx1 unopposed channel activity in brain cells of adult offspring mice fed a high-fat/cholesterol diet. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 2014; 8(--):U7-U17. >>> Nicotine bitartrate; Saline; SC; Mice; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (CF1, GD5); dependence;.

14285 Lo, J.O., Schabel, M.C., Roberts, V.H.J., Morgan, T.K., Rasanen, J.P., Kroenke, C.D., Shoemaker, S.R., Spindel, E.R., Frias, A.E., Lo, J.O. Vitamin C supplementation ameliorates the adverse effects of nicotine on placental hemodynamics and histology in nonhuman primates. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2015; 212(--):U271-U278. >>> Nicotine bitartrate; Water, bacteriostatic; SC; Monkey (macaque, pregnant); 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, Rhesus, pregnant, GD26); functionality of mp verified by blood levels; pumps replaced every 3 weeks; post op. care (cefazolin 150 mg BID); long-term study; teratology; dependence;.

14280 Lin, C.P., Kang, K.H., Lin, T.H., Wu, M.Y., Liou, H.C., Chuang, W.J., Sun, W.Z., Fu, W.M., Fu, W.M. Role of Spinal CXCL1 (GROalpha) in Opioid Tolerance A Human-to-rodent Translational Study. Anesthesiology 2015; 122(--):666-676. >>> CXCL1; antibody, CXCL1; CXCR2 antileukine hexapeptide; morphine; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 250-275g, adult); behavioral testing (tail flick response); dependence; used PE10 intrathecal catheter tubing;.

14256 Qi, X.L., Yamada, H., Corrie, L.W., Ji, Y., Bauzo, R.M., Alexander, J.C., Bruijnzeel, A.W., Bruijnzeel, A.W. A critical role for the melanocortin 4 receptor in stress-induced relapse to nicotine seeking in rats. Addiction Biology 2015; 20(--):324-335. >>> Nicotine; Saline; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Wistar, 250-300g); dependence;.

14225 Hussmann, G.P., DeDominicis, K.E., Turner, J.R., Yasuda, R.P., Klehm, J., Forcelli, P.A., Xiao, Y.X., Richardson, J.R., Sahibzada, N., Wolfe, B.B., Lindstrom, J., Blendy, J.A., Kellar, K.J., Kellar, K.J. Chronic sazetidine-A maintains anxiolytic effects and slower weight gain following chronic nicotine withou maintaining incrased density of nicoticic receptors in rodent brain. Journal of Neurochemistry 2014; 129(--):721-731. >>> Nicotine; sazetidine-A; varenicline; Saline, sterile; SC; Mice; rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (rats male, Sprague Dawley, 8 weeks old, 240g; mice 129SvJ;C57Bl6J F1 hybrid, 6 weeks old, 25-30g); pumps replaced after 2 weeks; behavioral testing (novelty-induced hypophagia test); dependence; used wound clips; new pump inserted in incision 2 cm from first; long-term study;.

14208 Gamage, T.F., Ignatowska-Jankowsa, B.M., Muldoon, P.P., Cravatt, B.F., Damaj, M.I., Lichtman, A.H., Lichtman, A.H. Differential effects of endocannabinoid catabolic inhibitors on morphine withdrawal in mice. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2015; 146(--):7-16. >>> Morphine; Mice; Pumps mentioned in materials and methods section; dependence;.

14746 Gill, K.E., Chappell, A.M., Beveridge, T.J.R., Porrino, L.J., Weiner, J.L., Weiner, J.L. Chronic Methylphenidate Treatment During Early Life Is Associated with Greater Ethanol Intake in Socially Isolated Rats. ALCOHOLISM-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH 2014; 38(--):2260-2268. >>> Methylphenidate HCl; Saline; SC; Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley); pumps replaced every 7 days; behavioral testing (elevated plus maze); dependence;"To study chronic treatment, osmotic minipumps were used to administer MPH continuously, keeping blood levels of drug relatively stable."pg 2261; wound closed with Gluture;.

14740 Gao, J., Li, M., Li, M. Differential effects of intermittent versus continuous haloperidol treatment throughout adolescence on haloperidol sensitization and social behavior in adulthood. PROGRESS IN NEURO-PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY&BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY 2014; 54(--):67-75. >>> Haloperidol; Water, sterile; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, PND44-71); comparison of injection vs mp; post op. care (incision cleaned with 75% ethanol); behavioral testing (two-way avoidance conditioning apparatus; locomotor activity monitoring apparatus; avoidance training); dependence; used 9mm wound clips; pumps wiped with 75% ethanol; pumps removed after 28 days;.

14707 de la Pena, J.B., Ahsan, H.M., Botanas, C.J., Sohn, A., Yu, G.Y., Cheong, J.H., Cheong, J.H. Adolescent nicotine or cigarette smoke exposure changes subsequent response to nicotine conditioned place preference and self-administration. Behavioural Brain Research 2014; 272(--):156-164. >>> Nicotine hydrogen tartrate; Saline; NaOH; SC; Rat; 1007D; 2001; Animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, PD 28 or PD 60); functionality of mp verified by blood levels; dependence; pumps removed after 7 days; used wound clips;.

14694 Chou, H.C., Chen, C.M., Chen, C.M. Maternal nicotine exposure during gestation and lactation induces cardiac remodeling in rat offspring. REPRODUCTIVE TOXICOLOGY 2014; 50(--):4-10. >>> Nicotine; Saline; SC; Rat (pregnant); 2ML2; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, GD7); functionality of mp verified by blood levels; dose-response (pg 6); teratology; dependence; cardiovascular;.

14670 Blum, I.D., Zhu, L., Moquin, L., Kokoeva, M.V., Gratton, A., Giros, B., Storch, K.F., Storch, K.F. A highly-tunable dopaminergic oscillator generates ultradian rhythms of behavioral arousal. ELIFE 2014; 3(--):U146-U189. >>> Methamphetamine; Saline; SC; Mice; 1002; Animal info (Bmal1 -/-, ); behavioral testing (locomotor activity running wheels); dependence; delayed delivery; catheter filled with saline for 4 day recovery; used plastics one catheter;.

14657 Almela, P., Garcia-Carmona, J.A., Martinez-Laorden, E., Milanes, M.V., Laorden, M.L., Laorden, M.L. Crosstalk between G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and tyrosine kinase receptor (TXR) in the heart after morphine withdrawal. FRONTIERS IN PHARMACOLOGY 2013; 4(--):U1547-U1559HA-1004; calphostin c. >>> HA-1004; calphostin c; Water, sterile; DMSO; SC; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 220-240g); 0.06% DMSO used; dependence; cardiovascular; pumps primed for 5 hours in 37C saline;.

14654 Allen, R.M., Mandt, B.H., Jaskunas, J., Hackley, A., Shickedanz, A., Bergkamp, D., Allen, R.M. Continuous exposure to dizocilpine facilitates the acquisition and escalation of cocaine consumption in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2015; 147(--):137-143. >>> Dizocilpine; Sodium chloride; SC; Rat; 2ML2; 2ML1; Animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 225-250g, 8 weeks old); stress/adverse reaction: (see pg. 139);"17 of the 66 rats used in this study were excluded from final analysis. Three rats were removed from the acquisition experiment because they repeatedly removed their minipump incision site sutures."; dependence;.

13991 Wilkinson, D.S., Gould, T.J. Withdrawal from chronic nicotine and subsequent sensitivity to nicotine challenge on contextual learning. Behavioural Brain Research 2013; 250(-;-):58-61. >>> Nicotine; Saline; SC; Mice; 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, C57BL/6J, 8-12 weeks); behavioral testing (freezing behavior); dependence;"...dose and route of administration was chosen because it produces plasma nicotine levels in the range observed in smokers. In addition, because of the fast half-life of nicotine in the mouse, minipumps produce similar steady state receptor occupancy as in smokers"pg 59; pumps removed after 12 days;.

13983 Vargas-Perez, H., Bahi, A., Bufalino, M.R., Ting, A.Kee, Maal-Bared, G., Lam, J., Fahmy, A., Clarke, L., Blanchard, J.K., Larsen, B.R., Steffensen, S., Dreyer, J.L., van der Kooy, D., Vargas-Perez, H. BDNF Signaling in the VTA Links the Drug-Dependent State to Drug Withdrawal Aversions. Journal of Neuroscience 2014; 34(--):7899-7909. >>> Morphine; Saline; SC; Mice (transgenic); 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, GAD-GFP); dependence; pumps removed after 5-7 days infusion;.

13982 Varani, A.P., Aso, E., Moutinho, L.M., Maldonado, R., Balerio, G.N., Balerio, G.N. Attenuation by baclofen of nicotine rewarding properties and nicotine withdrawal manifestations. Psychopharmacology 2014; 231(--):3031-3040. >>> Nicotine hydrogen tartrate; Saline; SC; Mice; 2001; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Swiss webster, 22-24g); behavioral testing (elevated plus maze, locomotor activity); dependence;.

13974 Turner, J.R., Ray, R., Lee, B., Everett, L., Xiang, J., Jepson, C., Kaestner, K.H., Lerman, C., Blendy, J.A., Blendy, J.A. Evidence from mouse and man for a role of neuregulin 3 in nicotine dependence. Molecular Psychiatry 2014; 19(--):801-810. >>> Nicotine tartrate; Saline, sterile; SC; Mice; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Nrg3ska mice, 6 weeks old, 20-25g); functionality of mp verified by plasma levels; behavioral testing (marble burying, locomotor activity); dependence; used 7mm reflex wound clips; pumps removed after 2 weeks; dosage gave 0.3uM plasma levels;.

13947 Zhang, D., Dragomir, A., Akay, Y.M., Akay, M., Akay, M. Nicotine exposure increases the complexity of dopamine neurons in the parainterfascicular nucleus (PIF) sub-region of VTA. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation 2014; 11(--):U1-U6. >>> Nicotine; Saline; SC; Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, Sprague Dawley, GD5, 280-300g); teratology; dependence;.

13932 Zimmer, B.A., Chiodo, K.A., Roberts, D.C.S. Reduction of the reinforcing effectiveness of cocaine by continuous D-amphetamine treatment in rats: importance of active self-administration during treatment period. Psychopharmacology 2014; 231(-5-):949-954. >>> Amphetamine, D-; Saline, sterile; SC; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 12 week old, 350g); behavioral testing (cocaine self-administration); dependence; pumps removed on day 7; used amphetamine concentration of approx 73ug/ul..

13929 Shih, P.Y., Engle, S.E., Oh, G., Deshpande, P., Puskar, N.L., Lester, H.A., Drenan, R.M., Drenan, R.M. Differential Expression and Function of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Subdivisions of Medial Habenula. Journal of Neuroscience 2014; 34(--):9789-9802. >>> Nicotine hydrogen tartrate; Saline; Mice; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (C57BL6); functionality of mp verified by immunohistochemical analysis of mecamylamine injection; dependence; pumps removed on day 14; pumps primed;.

13924 Schreiber, S., Barak, Y., Hostovsky, A., Baratz-Goldstein, R., Volis, I., Rubovitch, V., Pick, C.G. Interaction of Different Antidepressants with Acute and Chronic Methadone in Mice, and Possible Clinical Implications. Journal of Molecular Neuroscience 2014; 52(-4-):598-604. >>> Methadone; SC; Mice; 1007D; Animal info (male, ICR, 25-35g); behavioral testing (hot plate); dependence;.

13915 Roguski, E.E., Chen, H., Sharp, B.M., Matta, S.G. Fostering itself increases nicotine self-administration in young adult male rats. Psychopharmacology 2013; 229(-2-):227-234. >>> Nicotine hydrogen tartrate; Water; Rat (pregnant); 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, Sprague Dawley); pumps replaced after P2 with higher dosage; behavioral testing (locomotor activity, nicotine self-administration); teratology; dependence;.

13906 Pudiak, C.M., KuoLee, R., Bozarth, M.A., Pudiak, C.M. Tolerance to cocaine in brain stimulation reward following continuous cocaine infusions. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 2014; 122(--):246-252. >>> Cocaine; Saline; sodium metabisulfate; SC; Rat; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Long-Evans, 275-350g); functionality of mp verified by residual volume; 0.3% sodium metabisulfate used to prevent degredation; stress/adverse reaction: (see pg.294); post op. care (neosporin); dependence;"Cocaine delivered continuously via osmotic minipump may better mimic the high drug-plasma concentrations maintained by an addict during a binge than daily administered cocaine injections."pg 250; pumps removed after 14 days; pumps primed at 37C for at least 4 hours;.

13891 Orrico, A., Marti-Prats, L., Cano-Cebrian, M.J., Granero, L., Polache, A., Zornoza, T., Zornoza, T. Improved effect of the combination naltrexone/D-penicillamine in the prevention of alcohol relapse-like drinking in rats. JOURNAL OF PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY 2014; 28(--):76-81. >>> Penicillamine, D-; Water, sterile; SC; Rat; 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Wistar, 2 months old); dependence;.

13879 Narayana, P.A., Herrera, J.J., Bockhorst, K.H., Esparza-Coss, E., Xia, Y., Steinberg, J.L., Moeller, F.G. Chronic cocaine administration causes extensive white matter damage in brain: Diffusion tensor imaging and immunohistochemistry studies. PSYCHIATRY RESEARCH-NEUROIMAGING 2014; 221(-3-):220-230. >>> Cocaine; Saline; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 280-300g); behavioral testing (fine motor movement; ambulation; rearing activities; general motor behavior); dependence; MRI; pumps primed for 24 hours in 37C saline;.

13861 Matsui, A., Jarvie, B.C., Robinson, B.G., Hentges, S.T., Williams, J.T., Williams, J.T. Separate GABA Afferents to Dopamine Neurons Mediate Acute Action of Opioids, Development of Tolerance, and Expression of Withdrawal. Neuron 2014; 82(--):1346-1356. >>> Morphine; Water; SC; Rat; 2ML1; Animal info (Sprague Dawley); dependence;.

13858 Manbeck, K.E., Shelley, D., Schmidt, C.E., Harris, A.C. Effects of oxytocin on nicotine withdrawal in rats. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 2014; 116(-;-):84-89. >>> Nicotine bitartrate; Saline; SC; Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Wistar, 275-300g); post op. care (buprenorphine injection 0.1 mg/kg; ceftriaxone 5.25 mg); dependence; Used wound clips;.

13838 Kolokotroni, K.Z., Rodgers, R.J., Harrison, A.A. Trait differences in response to chronic nicotine and nicotine withdrawal in rats. Psychopharmacology 2014; 231(-3-):567-580. >>> Nicotine hydrogen tartrate; Saline; SC; Rat; 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Lister hooded, adult); behavioral testing (system delayed reward task; withdrawal behavior); dependence;"Chronic nicotine administration via osmotic mini-pumps mimics more effectively the nicotine intake of smokers by ensuring constant plasma levels throughout the study"pg 568; used wound clips;.

13809 Igari, M., Alexander, J.C., Ji, Y., Qi, X.L., Papke, R.L., Bruijnzeel, A.W. Varenicline and Cytisine Diminish the Dysphoric-Like State Associated with Spontaneous Nicotine Withdrawal in Rats. Neuropsychopharmacology 2014; 39(-2-):445-455. >>> Nicotine; Saline; Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Wistar, 200-225g); behavioral testing (ICSS); dependence; pumps removed after 14 days; used 28 day infusion pumps;.

13804 Henderson, B.J., Srinivasan, R., Nichols, W.A., Dilworth, C.N., Gutierrez, D.F., Mackey, E.D.W., McKinney, S., Drenan, R.M., Richards, C.I., Lester, H.A. Nicotine exploits a COPI-mediated process for chaperone-mediated up-regulation of its receptors. Journal of General Physiology 2014; 143(-1-):51-66. >>> Nicotine hydrogen tartrate; Saline; Mice (transgenic); 2002; Animal info (a6-GFP); dependence;.

13796 Hakucho, A., Liu, J.Y., Liu, X., Fujimiya, T., Liu, J.Y. Carvedilol improves ethanol-induced liver injury via modifying the interaction between oxidative stress and sympathetic hyperactivity in rats. HEPATOLOGY RESEARCH 2014; 44(--):560-570. >>> Carvedilol; PEG; water, distilled; IP; Rat; 2ML1; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Wistar, 7 weeks old); 60% PEG used; dependence;.

13788 Gould, T.J., Wilkinson, D.S., Yildirim, E., Blend, J.A., Adoff, M.D., Gould, T.J. Dissociation of tolerance and nicotine withdrawal-associated deficits in contextual fear. Brain Research 2014; 1559(--):1-10. >>> Nicotine hydrogen tartrate salt; Saline; SC; Mice; 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, C57BL6J, 8-12 weeks old); dose-response (pg 7); behavioral testing (freezing behavior, contextual conditioning); dependence; pumps removed after 1-4 days;.

13787 Gorini, C., Jameson, H., Woerman, A.L., Perry, D.C., Mendelowitz, D. Prenatal nicotine exposure enhances the trigeminocardiac reflex via serotonin receptor facilitation in brainstem pathways. Journal of Applied Physiology 2013; 115(-4-):415-421. >>> Nicotine; Rat (pregnant); Animal info (female, Sprague Dawley, adult, third day of gestation); teratology; dependence;.

13740 Chou, K.Y., Tsai, R.Y., Tsai, W.Y., Wu, C.T., Yeh, C.C., Cherng, C.H., Wong, C.S. Ultra-low dose (+)-naloxone restores the thermal threshold of morphine tolerant rats. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association 2013; 112(-12-):795-800. >>> Morphone; naloxone; Saline; CSF/CNS (intrathecal); Rat; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Wistar, 350-400g); behavioral testing (tail-flick); dependence; IT catheter created from PE tube joined with silastic tube with epoxy resin and silicon rubber;.

13729 Carcoba, L.M., Orfila, J.E., Natividad, L.A., Torres, O.V., Pipkin, J.A., Ferree, P.L., Castaneda, E., Moss, D.E., O'Dell, L.E., O'Dell, L.E. Cholinergic Transmission during Nicotine Withdrawal Is Influenced by Age and Pre-Exposure to Nicotine: Implications for Teenage Smoking. Developmental Neuroscience 2014; 36(--):347-355. >>> Nicotine hydrogen tartrate; SC; Rat; 2ML2; Controls received sham surgery; animal info (male, Wistar, adult PND 60-74; adolescent PND 28-42); post op. care (topical antibiotic ointment); dependence; pumps removed after 14 days; used 9mm wound clips;.

13728 Caputi, F.F., Di Benedetto, M., Carretta, D., Candia, S.B.D., D'Addario, C., Cavina, C., Candeletti, S., Romualdi, P. Dynorphin/KOP and nociceptin/NOP gene expression and epigenetic changes by cocaine in rat striatum and nucleus accumbens. PROGRESS IN NEURO-PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY&BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY 2014; 49(-;-):36-46. >>> Cocaine; SC; Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 200-250g); dependence; pumps primed overnight in 37C saline;.

13716 Bauer, C.T., Banks, M.L., Negus, S.S., Negus, S.S. The effect of chronic amphetamine treatment on cocaine-induced facilitation of intracranial self-stimulation in rats. Psychopharmacology 2014; 231(--):2461-2470. >>> Amphetamine; Saline; SC; Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 311-406g); post op. care (Ketoprofen 5 mg/kg); behavioral testing (cocaine self administration); dependence; pumps removed after 14 days;.

13642 Howell, K.K., Monk, B.R., Carmack, S.A., Mrowczynski, O.D., Clark, R.E., Anagnostaras, S.G. Inhibition of PKC disrupts addiction-related memory. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 2014; 8(-;-):U1-U9. >>> Peptide, zeta-inhibitory; chelerythrine; Cerebrospinal fluid, artificial; PBS; CSF/CNS (third ventricle); Mice; 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (C57BL/6Jx129T2SvEms/J, adult); ALZET brain infusion kit 3 used; post op. care (buprenorphine injection); behavioral testing (locomotion, locomotor sensitization); pulsatile delivery; dependence; peptides; zeta-inhibitory peptide aka ZIP; Lynch coil of ZIP administration for 14.5 hours; used mineral oil; Schematic of pump implantation pg.3 Fig 1A;.

13631 Allen, R.M. Continuous exposure to dizocilpine facilitates escalation of cocaine consumption in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2014; 134(-;-):38-43. >>> Dizocilpine; Water, sterile; SC; Rat; 2ML1; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley); dose-response (pg. 40); no stress (see pg. 40); behavioral testing (cocaine self administration); dependence;.

13531 Ignatowska-Jankowska, B.M., Muldoon, P.P., Lichtman, A.H., Damaj, M.I. The cannabinoid CB(2) receptor is necessary for nicotine-conditioned place preference, but not other behavioral effects of nicotine in mice. Psychopharmacology 2013; 229(-4-):591-601. >>> Nicotine; Saline; Mice; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (CB2 null and WT, C57BL6); behavioral testing (tail flick test; plus maze test; chamber bias); dependence;.

13487 Fowler, C.D., Tuesta, L., Kenny, P.J. Role of alpha5* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the effects of acute and chronic nicotine treatment on brain reward function in mice. Psychopharmacology 2013; 229(-3-):503-513. >>> Nicotine, (-) hydrogen tartrate salt; Saline; SC; Mice; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, alpha5 nAChR subunit null mutation, 6 weeks old); post op. care (Metacam 0.2 mg/kg); behavioral testing (taste aversion, ICSS threshold); dependence;.

13483 Dao, D.Q., Perez, E.E., Teng, Y.F., Dani, J.A., De Biasi, M. Nicotine Enhances Excitability of Medial Habenular Neurons via Facilitation of Neurokinin Signaling. Journal of Neuroscience 2014; 34(-12-):4273-4284. >>> Nicotine; Saline; SC; Mice; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, nursing, C576L/6J); no stress (see pg. 4278); behavioral testing (activity log); dependence; receipt of nicotine in pups from mother confirmed through blood serum.

 

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What researchers are saying...

“The measurement of substrate flux utilization is based on the novel use of the (ALZET) miniosmotic pump to supply a continuous infusion of one of three tracers... Xu et al., The Journal of Biological Chemistry 2002;277(52):50237-50244.