References on the Intratumoral Administration of Agents Using ALZET® Osmotic Pumps

16062 Wang, X., Shi, C., Zhang, L., Bodman, A., Guo, D., Wang, L., Hall, W. A., Wilkens, S., Luo, J. Affinity-controlled protein encapsulation into sub-30 nm telodendrimer nanocarriers by multivalent and synergistic interactions. Biomaterials 2016; 101(--):258-71. >>> Telodendrimer nanoparticles, peptide-incorporated; Intratumoral; Mice (nude); Controls received mp w/ free peptide; animal info (female, athymic nude NCRU-Sp/Sp, 8 weeks old); cancer (glioblastoma U87); tissue perfusion (intratumoral); pumps primed overnight at 37C; Dose (0.5 ug/h); Brain coordinates (0.5 mm anterior to bregma and 2.5 mm lateral of midline);.

15195 Benadiba, M., Costa, I.D., Santos, R.L.S.R., Serachi, F.O., Silva, D.D., Colquhoun, A., Colquhoun, A. Growth inhibitory effects of the Diruthenium-Ibuprofen compound, [Ru(2)Cl(Ibp)(4)], in human glioma cells in vitro and in the rat C6 orthotopic glioma in vivo1993. JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY 2014; 19(--):1025-1035. >>> Diruthenium-ibuprofen; Ethanol; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Rat; 2002; Animal info (female, Wistar, 250-350g); ALZET brain infusion kit used; 15% ethanol used; comparison of injection vs mp; cancer (glioma); tissue perfusion (intratumoral, glioma);“Using the orthotopic C6 model the effects of either chronic 14-day treatment by intra-peritoneal injection of chronic 14-day intra-tumour infusion by an Alzet osmotic pump attached to a brain infusion cannula were tested. Tumour growth was reduced by both routes of administration with the osmoticpump appearing to be the less harmful route in terms of haematological responses.” pg 1033; Diruthenium-Ibuprofen aka RuIbp;.

15263 Zamykal, M., Martens, T., Matschke, J., Guenther, H.S., Kathagen, A., Schulte, A., Peters, R., Westphal, M., Lamszus, K., Lamszus, K. Inhibition of intracerebral glioblastoma growth by targeting the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor involves different context-dependent mechanisms. NEURO-ONCOLOGY 2015; 17(--):1076-1085. >>> IMC-A12; Saline; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Mice; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Foxn1nu, 6-8 weeks old); cancer (glioblastoma); tissue perfusion (glioblastoma); IMC-A12 aka cixutumumab;.

15133 Wang, W.J., Sivakumar, W., Torres, S., Jhaveri, N., Vaikari, V.P., Gong, A., Howard, A., Golden, E.B., Louie, S.G., Schoenthal, A.H., Hofman, F.M., Chen, T.C., Chen, T.C. Effects of convection-enhanced delivery of bevacizumab on survival of glioma-bearing animals. Neurosurgical Focus 2015; 38(--):U112-U119. >>> Bevacizumab; Saline; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Mice (nude); 1004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (athymic, nu/nu); ALZET brain infusion kit used; cancer (glioma); immunology;"Bevacizumab was delivered into the tumor using chronic pump-mediated delivery, defined as“convection-enhanced delivery” or CED. This CED method was used because it has the advantage of achieving the desirable drug concentration in the microenvironment of the glioma while avoiding the use of high initial doses."pg 2;.

14807 Rolon-Reyes, K., Kucheryavykh, Y.V., Cubano, L.A., Inyushin, M., Skatchkov, S.N., Eaton, M.J., Harrison, J.K., Kucheryavykh, L.Y., Kucheryavykh, L.Y. Microglia Activate Migration of Glioma Cells through a Pyk2 Intracellular Pathway. PLoS One 2015; 10(--):U2306-U2323. >>> Ganciclovir; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Mice (transgenic); 2004; Controls received mp w/ saline, normal; animal info (male, CD11b-HSVTK trangenic); ALZET brain infusion kit used; cancer (glioma GL261);.

13984 Berg, J.V., Vrohlings, M., Haller, S., Haimovici, A., Kulig, P., Sledzinska, A., Weller, M., Becher, B. Intratumoral IL-12 combined with CTLA-4 blockade elicits T cell-mediated glioma rejection. Journal of Experimental Medicine 2013; 210(-13-):2803-2811. >>> Interleukin-12, murine; PBS; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Mice; 1004; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (C57BL6); cancer (glioma); tissue perfusion (tumor; glioma); immunology; pumps primed at 37C; pumps explanted after 28 days;.

13628 Biddlestone-Thorpe, L., Sajjad, M., Rosenberg, E., Beckta, J.M., Valerie, N.C.K., Tokarz, M., Adams, B.R., Wagner, A.F., Khalil, A., Gilfor, D., Golding, S.E., Deb, S., Temesi, D.G., Lau, A., O'Connor, M.J., Choe, K.S., Parada, L.F., Lim, S.K., Mukhopadhyay, N.D., Valerie, K. ATM Kinase Inhibition Preferentially Sensitizes p53-Mutant Glioma to Ionizing Radiation. Clinical Cancer Research 2013; 19(-12-):3189-3200. >>> KU-60019; PBS; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Mice (nude); 1007D; 1002; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (female, nude, athymic, 15-20g, 5-6 weeks old); ALZET brain infusion kit 3 used; cancer (glioma); tissue perfusion (glioma);"To reach meaningful drug concentrations of KU-60019 within the tumor, the BBB/BTB need to be bypassed or drugs administered locally. Both osmotic pumps, as well as clinically used CED, partially bypass the BBB/BTB and deliver drugs directly to the tumor to improve efficacy and reduce potential systemic toxicity"pg3194; KU-60019 is a kinase inhibitor.

13512 Eberstaal, S., Sanden, E., Fritzell, S., Darabi, A., Visse, E., Siesjoe, P. Intratumoral COX-2 inhibition enhances GM-CSF immunotherapy against established mouse GL261 brain tumors. International Journal of Cancer 2014; 134(-11-):2748-2753. >>> Parecoxib; valdecoxib; IP; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Mice; 1004; Animal info (C57BL/6, female, 8-10 wks old); cancer; tissue perfusion (intratumoral).

13149 Fritzell, S., Sanden, E., Eberstaal, S., Visse, E., Darabi, A., Siesjoe, P. Intratumoral temozolomide synergizes with immunotherapy in a T cell-dependent fashion. CANCER IMMUNOLOGY IMMUNOTHERAPY 2013; 62(-9-):1463-1474. >>> Temozolomide; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Mice; 1003D; Animal info (C57BL/6, female, syngenic, 8-10 wks old); ALZET brain infusion kit 3 used; cyanoacrylate; tissue perfusion (intratumoral); temozolomide (TMZ) is an alkylating agent.

12996 Talasila, K.M., Soentgerath, A., Euskirchen, P., Rosland, G.V., Wang, J., Huszthy, P.C., Prestegarden, L., Skaftnesmo, K.O., Sakariassen, P.O., Eskilsson, E., Stieber, D., Keunen, O., Brekka, N., Moen, I., Nigro, J.M., Vintermyr, O.K., Lund-Johansen, M., Niclou, S., Mork, S.J., Enger, P.O., Bjerkvig, R., Miletic, H. EGFR wild-type amplification and activation promote invasion and development of glioblastoma independent of angiogenesis. Acta Neuropathologica 2013; 125(-5-):683-698. >>> Cetuximab; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Rat (nude); 2ML4; Control animals received mp w/ PBS; animal info (rnu/rnu Rowett); ALZET brain infusion kit 2 used; convection enhanced delivery (CED); tissue perfusion (intratumoral).

12843 Gopinath, S., Malla, R., Alapati, K., Gorantla, B., Gujrati, M., Dinh, D.H., Rao, J.S. Cathepsin B and uPAR regulate self-renewal of glioma-initiating cells through GLI-regulated Sox2 and Bmi1 expression. Carcinogenesis 2013; 34(-3-):550-559. >>> Plasmid, pCU; plasmid, SV; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Mice (nude); Control animals received mp w/ PBS; animal info (5 wks old, female, nude); infusion rate of 0.25 ul/hr; pCU plasmid is a bicistronic shRNA construct directed against both uPAR and cathepsin B; cancer (glioblastoma).

12749 Chandramohan, V., Bao, X.H., Kaneko, M.K., Kato, Y., Keir, S.T., Szafranski, S.E., Kuan, C.T., Pastan, I.H., Bigner, D.D. Recombinant anti-podoplanin (NZ-1) immunotoxin for the treatment of malignant brain tumors. International Journal of Cancer 2013; 132(-10-):2339-2348. >>> Immunotoxin, NZ-1; immunotoxin, P588; PBS-HSA; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Mice; 1003D; Control animals received mp w/ vehicle; tissue perfusion (intratumoral); cancer (brain).

12261 Kotipatruni, R.R., Nalla, A.K., Asuthkar, S., Gondi, C.S., Dinh, D.H., Rao, J.S. Apoptosis Induced by Knockdown of uPAR and MMP-9 is Mediated by Inactivation of EGFR/STAT3 Signaling in Medulloblastoma. PLoS One 2012; 7(-9-):U893-U905. >>> RNA, small hairpin; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Mice (nude); 2001; Animal info (nude); tissue perfusion (tumor); cancer.

11739 Girald, W., Collin, A., Izquierdo, M. Toxicity and delivery methods for the linamarase/linamarin/glucose oxidase system, when used against human glioma tumors implanted in the brain of nude rats. Cancer Letters 2011; 313(-1-):99-107. >>> Linamarase; linamarin; glucose oxidase; PBS; saline; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); SC; Rat (nude); 2001; 2ML1; animal info (Wistar, 200 g, rnu/rnu); tissue perfusion (intratumoral); ALZET brain infusion kit used; stress/adverse effects"we have found abnormal speed variations in the rate of delivery of the lin/ GO cocktail when an osmotic pump connected to a brain infusion flow moderator device by a catheter was used, maybe causing some of the premature deaths."pg 106;"Three rats died by toxicity 40, 48 and 72 h from the beginning of the treatment, and the systemic treatment was ended in all of them after the first death"pg 104; cancer (glioma).

11432 Kesanakurti, D., Chetty, C., Bhoopathi, P., Lakka, S.S., Gorantla, B., Tsung, A.J., Rao, J.S. Suppression of MMP-2 Attenuates TNF-alpha Induced NF-kappa B Activation and Leads to JNK Mediated Cell Death in Glioma. PLoS One 2011; 6(-5-):U239-U252. >>> RNA, small interfering, MMP-2; CSF/CNS (intratumorally); Mice (nude); 2004; Animal info (athymic, female, nu/nu, 4-6 wks old); cancer (glioma); tissue perfusion (intratumorally); MMP2 siRNA.

11429 Kawabata, S., Yang, W.L., Barth, R.F., Wu, G., Huo, T.Y., Binns, P.J., Riley, K.J., Ongayi, O., Gottumukkala, V., Vincente, M.G.H. Convection enhanced delivery of carboranylporphyrins for neutron capture therapy of brain tumors. Journal of Neuro-oncology 2011; 103(-2-):175-185. >>> Porphyrin, H2TCP; porphyrin, H2TBP; porphyrin, H2DCP; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Rat (pregnant); 2001D; Controls received no treatment; animal info (Fischer, CD, pregnant, 220-240 g); comparison of convection enhanced delivery (CED) vs mp; cancer (glioma); tissue perfusion (intratumoral); Compounds also known as 5,10,15,20-tetra-(4-nido-carboranylphenyl) tetrabenzoporphyrin, 5,10,15,20-tetra-(4-nido-carboranylphenyl)porphyrin and 5,15- di-[3,5-(nido-carboranylmethyl)phenyl]porphyrin;"The animals that received of H2TBP by Alzet pump had longer MSTs than those that received it by CED (43.8 vs. 33.8 days), demonstrating that Alzet pump delivery was more effective than CED"pg 181.

11034 Zhai, H.Y., Heppner, F.L., Tsirka, S.E. Microglia/Macrophages Promote Glioma Progression. Glia 2011; 59(-3-):472-485. >>> Ganciclovir; macrophage/microglia inhibitory factor; tuftsin; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Mice; Negative controls received mp w/ saline; animal info (12-16 wks old, male, CD11b-HSVTK +/-, 25-30 g, C57BL/6); cancer (glioma); Plastics One guide cannula used; macrophage/microglia inhibitory factor also known as MIF/TKP is a tripeptide; tuftsin also known as threonine-lysine-proline-arginin or TKPR.

11032 Schulte, A., Guenther, H.S., Phillips, H.S., Kemming, D., Martens, T., Kharbanda, S., Soriano, R.H., Modrusan, Z., Zapf, S., Westphal, M., Lamszus, K. A Distinct Subset of Glioma Cell Lines with Stem Cell-like Properties Reflects the Transcriptional Phenotype of Glioblastomas and Overexpresses CXCR4 as Therapeutic Target. Glia 2011; 59(-4-):590-602. >>> AMD 3100; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Mice (nude); 2004; Controls received mp w/ PBS; animal info (6-8 wks old, NMRI-nu/nu); ALZET brain infusion kit 2 used; cancer (glioma).

11024 Cuevas, P., Carceller, F., Angulo, J., Gonzalez-Corrochano, R., Cuevas-Bourdier, A., Gimenez-Gallego, G. Antiglioma effects of a new, low molecular mass, inhibitor of fibroblast growth factor. Neuroscience Letters 2011; 491(-1-):1-7. >>> Dobesilate; PBS; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Rat; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; cancer (glioma); Compound, also known as (2,5-dihydroxyphenyl-sulfonate or 2,5DHPS) is an FGF inhibitor; chemotherapeutic.

10956 Tange, Y., Miyazaki, M., Iwata, J., Aiko, Y., Sakamoto, S., Mori, K. Novel Antitumor Effect of Carboplatin Delivered by Intracerebral Microinfusion in a Rat Malignant Glioma Model. NEUROLOGIA MEDICO-CHIRURGICA 2009; 49(-12-):572-579. >>> Carboplatin; Glucose, D-; Evans blue; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Rat; 2001; Animal info (male, F344/N Slc, Fischer 220-260 g); brain tissue distribution; ALZET brain infusion kit used; stability verified (4 weeks) pg 573; cancer (glioma); MRI; brain tissue distribution;"... continuous intracerebral microinfusion using the osmotic mini-pump can provide broader distribution of agents than growth of the brain tumor.";"intracerebral microinfusion can attain clinically favorable drug distribution from a single infusion point."pg 576.

10343 Schmidt, N.O., Ziu, M., Cargioli, T., Westphal, M., Giese, A., Black, P.M., Carroll, R.S. Inhibition of thromboxane synthase activity improves glioblastoma response to alkylation chemotherapy. Translational Oncology 2010; 3(-1-):43-49. >>> Furegrelate; PBS; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Mice (nude); 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; tissue perfusion (tumor); functionality of mp verified by residual volume; stress/adverse reaction: (see pg. 46)"hemosiderin deposits"; cancer (glioma); ALZET brain infusion kit used; animal info (Swiss, 4-6 wks old).

10186 Agrawal, A., Min, D.H., Singh, N., Zhu, H.H., Birjiniuk, A., von Maltzahn, G., Harris, T.J., Xing, D.Y., Woolfenden, S.D., Sharp, P.A., Charest, A., Bhatia, S. Functional Delivery of siRNA in Mice Using Dendriworms. ACS Nano 2009; 3(-9-):2495-2504. >>> RNA, small interfering; epidermal growth factor receptor; dendriworm, dye-labeled; RNA, small interfering, GFP, dendriworm, dye-labeled; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Mice; Tissue perfusion (tumor); cancer (glioblastoma); incorrectly stated pump model 2007; Plastics One cannula used; animial info (Swiss Webster).

10117 Ozawa, T., Gryaznov, S., Hu, L.J., Pongracz, K., Santos, R.A.S., Bollen, A.W., Lamborn, K.R., Deen, D.F. Antitumor effects of specific telomerase inhibitor GRN163 in human glioblastoma xenografts1. NEURO-ONCOLOGY 2004; (--):218-226. >>> GRN163, FITC-; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Rat (nude); 1007D; Tissue perfusion (tumor); enzyme inhibitor (telomerase); cancer (glioma); animal info (6-8 wks old, male, athymic).

10115 Giraud, S., Bessette, B., Boda, C., Lalloue, F., Petit, D., Mathonnet, M., Jauberteau, M.O. In vitro apoptotic induction of human glioblastoma cells by Fas ligand plus etoposide and in vivo antitumour activity of combined drugs in xenografted nude rats. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ONCOLOGY 2007; 30(--):273-281. >>> Fas ligand; etoposide; dexamethasone; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Rat (nude); 1002; Tissue perfusion (tumor); functionality of mp verified by residual volume; cancer (glioblastoma); animal info (female 2 months old, 159 g.).

9976 Kang, G.S., Di Wang, X., Mohler, M.L., Kirichenko, O.V., Patil, R., Orr, W.E., Miller, D.D., Geisert, E.E. Effects, in an in-vivo model system, of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline on glioma. Anti-cancer Drugs 2008; 19(-9-):859-870. >>> EDL-155; HBSS; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Rat; 2001; Tissue perfusion (tumor); comparison of IP injections vs. mp; cancer (glioma); animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 250-350 g); EDL-155 also known as 1-(biphenyl-4-ylmethyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-6,7-diol.

10081 Martens, T., Laabs, Y., Guenther, H.S., Kemming, D., Zhu, Z.P., Witte, L., Hagel, C., Westphal, M., Lamszus, K. Inhibition of glioblastoma growth in a highly invasive nude mouse model can be achieved by targeting epidermal growth factor receptor but not vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2. Clinical Cancer Research 2008; 14(-17-):5447-5458. >>> Cetuximab; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Mice (nude); 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; tissue perfusion (tumor); cancer (glioblastoma); ALZET brain infusion kit 2 used; animal info (NMRI- nu/nu, 6-8 wks old); cetuximab is a monoclonal antibody against EGFR.

9966 Miyake, J.A., Benadiba, M., Colquhoun, A. Gamma-linolenic acid inhibits both tumour cell cycle progression and angiogenesis in the orthotopic C6 glioma model through changes in VEGF, Flt1, ERK1/2, MMP2, cyclin D1, pRb, p53 and p27 protein expression. Lipids in Health and Disease 2009; 8(-;-):U1-U10. >>> Gamma linolenic acid; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/vehicle; cancer (glioma); ALZET brain infusion kit used; animal info (adult, female, Wistar, 250-350).

9834 Rousseau, J., Barth, R.F., Moeschberger, M.L., Elleaume, H. EFFICACY OF INTRACEREBRAL DELIVERY OF CARBOPLATIN IN COMBINATION WITH PHOTON IRRADIATION FOR TREATMENT OF F98 GLIOMA-BEARING RATS. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY BIOLOGY PHYSICS 2009; 73(-2-):530-536. >>> Carboplatin; Dextrose; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Rat; 2001; Controls received mp w/vehicle; no stress (see pg. 532); cancer (glioma); ALZET brain infusion kit 2 used; animal info (male, Fisher, 230-260g);"Surgery for pump implantation was well tolerated."pg. 532;"It is noteworthy that the brainstem was not damaged by direct infusion of 200 ul of carboplatin (0.5 mg/mL) at a flow rate of 1uL/h."pg. 535; tissue perfusion (tumor).

9720 Schauff, A.K., Kim, E.L., Leppert, J., Nadrowitz, R., Wuestenberg, R., Brockmann, M.A., Giese, A. Inhibition of invasion-associated thromboxane synthase sensitizes experimental gliomas to gamma-radiation. Journal of Neuro-oncology 2009; 91(-3-):241-249. >>> Furegrelate; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Mice (nude); 1002; Controls were untreated; enzyme inhibitor (thromboxane synthase TXSA); cancer (glioma); tissue perfusion (tumor); ALZET brain infusion kit 3 used; animal info (NMRI).

9442 Zagorac, D., Jakovcevic, D., Gebremedhin, D., Harder, D.R. Antiangiogenic effect of inhibitors of cytochrome P450 on rats with glioblastoma multiforme. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 2008; 28(-8-):1431-1439. >>> Miconazole; octadecynoic acid, 17-; Ethanol; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Rat; 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; enzyme inhibitor (CYP epoxygenase); tissue perfusion (tumor); ALZET brain infusion kit used; animal info (male, Fisher, 8-10 wks old); 10% ethanol used; antiangiogenesis.

8592 Dorrell, M.I., Aguilar, E., Scheppke, L., Barnett, F.H., Friedlander, M. Combination angiostatic therapy completely inhibits ocular and tumor angiogenesis. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 2007; 104(-3-):967-972. >>> Vascular endothelial growth factor, aptamer; EMD472523; T2-TrpRS; PBS; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Rat; 2001D; 2ML2; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; cancer (gliosarcoma); animal info (male, Fischer, 344); EMD472523 is an integrin antagonist, VEGF aptamer is chemically identical to Macugen; T2 is a proteolytic fragment of tryptophan tRNA synthetase; all agents have angiostatic activity; tissue perfusion (tumor).

8419 Martens, T., Schmidt, N.O., Eckerich, C., Fillbrandt, R., Merchant, M., Schwall, R., Westphal, M., Lamszus, K. A novel one-armed anti-c-met antibody inhibits glioblastoma growth in vivo. Clinical Cancer Research 2006; 12(-20-):6144-6152. >>> Antibody, anti-c-Met, OA5D5; Histidine; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Mice (nude); 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; cancer (glioblastoma); ALZET brain infusion kit 2 used; animal info (male, NMRI-nu/nu, 6-8 wks old);"Because the OA-5D5 antibody is a relatively large but stable molecule, convection-enhanced drug delivery (by mp) was ideally suited to deliver it in our orthotopic model."(p.6151); tissue perfusion (tumor).

8406 Grommes, C., Landreth, G.E., Sastre, M., Beck, M., Feinstein, D.L., Jacobs, A.H., Schlegel, U., Heneka, M.T. Inhibition of in vivo glioma growth and invasion by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist treatment. MOLECULAR PHARMACOLOGY 2006; 70(-5-):1524-1533. >>> Pioglitazone; DMSO; PBS; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Rat; 2ML4; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; comparison of oral admin. vs. mp; no stress (see p.1532); stability verified by in vitro incubation at 37 celsius for 21 days; cancer (glioma); ALZET brain infusion kit used; animal info (Sprague-Dawley, 200-250g.); 0.1% DMSO; Antineoplastic; tissue perfusion (tumor).

8221 Pyrko, P., Wang, W., Markland, F.S., Swenson, S.D., Schmitmeier, S., Schonthal, A.H., Chen, T.C. The role of contortrostatin, a snake venom disintegrin, in the inhibition of tumor progression and prolongation of survival in a rodent glioma model. Journal of Neurosurgery 2005; 103(-3-):526. >>> Contortrostatin; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Mice; Controls received mp w/ PBS; plasma levels taken; cancer (glioma); brain tissue distribution; snake venom disintegrin;"agent was well tolerated by animals and lacks obvious neurotoxic side effects. All the contortrostatin treated mice survived the entire treatment period and continued to do well for seven more days after the termination."p. 533; tygon tubing used; tissue perfusion (tumor).

8118 Harding, T.C., Lalani, A.S., Roberts, B.N., Yendluri, S., Luan, B., Koprivnikar, K.E., Gonzalez-Edick, M., Guang, H.T., Musterer, R., VanRoey, M.J., Ozawa, T., LeCouter, R.A., Deen, D., Dickinson, P.J., Jooss, K. AAV serotype 8-mediated gene delivery of a soluble VEGF receptor to the CNS for the treatment of glioblastoma. MOLECULAR THERAPY 2006; 13(-5-):956-966. >>> Adeno-associated virus serotype 8 vector, recomb.; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Rat; 2001D; Controls received mp w/ AAV control; cancer (glioblastoma multiforme, u-251 MG); gene thrapy; animal info (male, athymic, 6 wk. old); rAAV contains soluble VEGF inhibitor, sVEGFR1/R2;"Implantation of the mini pump allows the slow infusion of a rAAV transduce more effectively the intracranial tumor mass."(pg. 962); antiangiogenesis.

7644 Kawakami, K., Kioi, M., Liu, Q., Kawakami, M., Puri, R.K. Evidence that IL-13R alpha-2 chain in human glioma cells is responsible for the antitumor activity mediated by receptor-directed cytotoxin therapy. Journal of Immunotherapy 2005; 28(-3-):193-202. >>> Interleukin-13-PE38; interleukin-13Ra2, pME18S-; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Mice (nude); 1003D; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle or antisense IL-13Ra2 plasmid vector; pumps replaced after 3 days; cancer (glioblastoma); cyanoacrylate adhesive; convection enhanced delivery; IL-13Ra2 cDNA encoding plasmid vector;"the upregulated IL-13 Ra2 chain was successfully targeted with a continuous infusion of IL-13 cytotoxin."(p. 199).

7493 Ozawa, T., Afzal, J., Lamborn, K.R., Bollen, A.W., Bauer, W.F., Koo, M.S., Kahl, S.B., Deen, D.F. Toxicity, biodistribution, and convection-enhanced delivery of the boronated porphyrin BOPP in the 9L intracerebral rat glioma model. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY BIOLOGY PHYSICS 2005; 63(-1-):247-252. >>> Porphyrin, boronated; PBS; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Rat; 2001D; Controls received no treatment; dose-response; comparison of IV injections vs. mp; cancer (brain glioma); toxicology.

7407 MacKay, J.A., Deen, D.F., Szoka, FC Jr  Brain Research 2005; 1035(-2-):139-153. >>> Liposomes; FITC-dextran-lysine; Saline; tris buffer; CSF/CNS (caudate putamen); CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Rat; 2001D; Tissue perfusion (intratumoral); comparison of acute CSF/CNS injection vs. mp; half-life (p. 151) 9.9 hours; cancer (glioblastoma); ALZET brian infusion kit 2 used; brain tissue distribution; post op. care (buprenophine).

7290 Matsuno, A., Katayama, H., Murakami, M., Nagashima, T. In vivo growth suppression of rat C6 glioma transplanted in rat brain using antisense oligonucleotide for microtubule-associated protein 1A messenger ribonucleic acid. British Journal of Neurosurgery 2004; 18(-4-):343-346. >>> Oligodeoxynucleotide, phosphorothisate antisense; oligodeoxynucleotide, phosphorothisate sense; oligodeoxynucleotide, phosphorothisate scramble; Saline, sterile; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Rat; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ sense or scrambled oligos; antisense (microtubule-associated protein 1A); cancer (glioma).

7286 Lefranc, F., Mijatovic, T., Mathieu, V., Rorive, S., Decaestecker, C., Debeir, O., Brotchi, J., Van Ham, P., Salmon, I., Kiss, R. Characterization of gastrin-induced proangiogenic effects in vivo in orthotopic U373 experimental human glioblastomas and in vitro in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Clinical Cancer Research 2004; 10(-24-):8250-8265. >>> Gastrin-17; Saline; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Rat (nude); 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; stability verified; cancer (glioma).

6983 Gawlick, U., Kranz, D.M., Schepkin, V.D., Roy, E.J. A conjugate of a tumor-targeting ligand and a T cell costimulatory antibody to treat brain tumors. Bioconjugate Chemistry 2004; 15(-5-):1137-1145. >>> Antibody, anti-CD28 Fab/Folate; gadolinium; PBS; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Mice (transgenic); 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by MRI w/ gadolinium infusion; comparison of IV, SC, ICV injections vs. mp; cancer (brain, choroid plexus); brain tissue distribution; MRI; cyanoacrylate adhesive;"The strongest effect on tumor growth assessed of anti-CD28 fab/Folate."(p. 1143). Plastics One cannula used.

6972 Frewert, S., Stockhammer, F., Warschewske, G., Zenclussen, A.C., Rupprecht, S., Volk, H.D., Woiciechowsky, C. Intratumoral infusion of interleukin-1 beta and interferon-gamma; induces tumor invasion with macrophages and lymphocytes in a rat glioma model. Neuroscience Letters 2004; 364(-3-):145-148. >>> Interleukin-1, beta recomb. rat; Interferon-gamma, recomb. rat; Saline, physiological; albumin, human serum; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Rat; 1003D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; tissue perfusion (tumor); cancer (glioma).

6943 Gondi, C.S., Lakka, S.S., Dinh, D.H., Olivero, W.C., Gujrati, M., Rao, J.S., Rao, J.S. RNAi-mediated inhibition of cathepsin B and uPAR leads to decreased cell invasion, angiogenesis and tumor growth in gliomas. ONCOGENE 2004; 23(--):8486-8496. >>> RNA, small interfering; EV/SV vector; PBS; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Mice (nude); Controls received mp w/ vehicle; tissue perfusion (tumor); cancer (glioma); gene therapy; antiangiogenesis; siRNA (cathepsin B); pump model not stated (0.25 ul/hr);"...local intracranial delivery of pcu using mini-osmotic pumps effectively inhibited human malignant glioma growth.".

6768 Chi, K.H., Wang, H.E., Wang, Y.S., Chou, S.L., Yu, H.M., Tseng, Y.H., Hwang, I.M., Lui, W.Y. Antisense thymidylate synthase electrogene transfer to increase uptake of radiolabeled iododeoxyuridine in a murine model. Journal of Nuclear Medicine 2004; 45(-3-):478-484. >>> Uridine; iodoeoxy; radio-isotopes; Saline, normal; 131I tracer; Intratumoral; Mice; 2001; Controls received mp w/ PBS; cancer;"The present study was designed to increase the extent of cellular uptake of 131I-IdUrd in experimental tumors by using a miniosmotic pump."(p. 483).

6745 Hjortland, G.O., Garman-Vik, S.S., Juell, S., Olsen, O.E., Hirschberg, H., Fodstad, O., Engebraaten, O. Immunotoxin treatment targeted to the high-molecular-weight melanoma-associated antigen prolonging the survival of immunodeficient rats with invasive intracranial human glioblastoma multiforme. Journal of Neurosurgery 2004; 100(-2-):320-327. >>> Antibody, monoclonal 9.2.27 - pseudomonas exotoxin A; dye, evans blue; PBS; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Rat (nude); 2001D; Controls received mp w/ PBS; cancer (glioma biopsy tumors); ALZET brain infusion kit used; brain tissue distribution; mp primed in sterile saline at 37 degrees Celsius for 4 hours; mp removed after 3 days.

6697 Grossi, P.M., Ochiai, H., Archer, G.E., McLendon, R.E., Zalutsky, M.R., Friedman, A.H., Friedman, H.S., Bigner, D.D., Sampson, J.H. Efficacy of intracerebral microinfusion of trastuzumab in an Athymic rat model of intracerebral metastatic breast cancer. Clinical Cancer Research 2003; 9(-15-):5514-5520. >>> Herceptin; antibody, anti-Her2 monoclonal; radio-isotopes; Saline; 125I tracer; IP; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Rat (athymic); 2ML1; Tissue perfusion (tumor); herceptin serum levels (p. 5516); comparison of systemic IP mp vs. intracerebral mp infusion; cancer (breast); brain tissue distribution; radiolabeled herceptin (transtuzumab) was also infused intratumorally, peritumorally, and i.p to study tissue distribution.

6683 Fischer, W., Gustafsson, L., Mossberg, A.K., Gronli, J., Mork, S., Bjerkvig, R., Svanborg, C. Human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells (HAMLET) kills human glioblastoma cells in brain xenografts by an apoptosis-like mechanism and prolongs survival. Cancer Research 2004; 64(-6-):2105-2112. >>> Lactalbumin, alpha; HAMLET; radio-isotopes; 125I tracer; saline; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Rat (nude); 2001D; Tissue perfusion (tumor); functionality of mp verified by autoradiography on brain sections; no stress (see pg. 2108); cancer (glioblastoma); brain tissue distribution; agent is called HAMLET or (human alpha lact albumin made lethal to tumor cells);"...there were no signs of edema or tissue damage in the surrounding brain, including the cortex, which had been penetrated by the [26 gauge] infusion cannula."p. 2108.

6320 Leaver, H.A., Wharton, S.B., Bell, H.S., Leaver-Yap, I.M.M., Whittle, I.R. Highly unsaturated fatty acid induced tumor regression in glioma pharm acodynamics and bioavailability of gamma linolenic acid in an implanta tion glioma model: effects on tumour biomass, apoptosis and neuronal t issue histology. PROSTAGLANDINS LEUKOTRIENES AND ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS 2002; 67(-5-):283-292. >>> Linolenic acid, gamma; PBS; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; tissue perfusion (tumor); cancer (glioma); ALZET brain infusion kit used.

6110 Schmidt, N.O., Ziu, M., Carrabba, G., Giussani, C., Bello, L., Sun, Y.P., Schmidt, K., Albert, M., Black, P.M., Carroll, R.S. Antiangiogenic therapy by local intracerebral microinfusion improves treatment efficiency and survival in an orthotopic human glioblastoma model. Clinical Cancer Research 2004; 10(-4-):1255-1262. >>> Endostatin, recomb. murine; PBS; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Mice (nude); 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by residual volume; comparison of SC injections vs. chronic ICV mp; no stress (see pg. 1261); cancer (glioma); ALZET brain infusion kit 1 used (per Dr. Carroll); MRI;"The direct infusion of therapeutic compounds into brain tumors can overcome some of the obstacles of drug delivery."p. 1255; BIK's removed prior to MRI;"no signs of intracranial bleeding due to the presence of the pumps or antiangiogenic treatment were observed..."(p. 1261); angiogenesis inhibitor; surgical glue used to affix cannula to the skull.

5995 Svechnikova, I., Gray, S.G., Kundrotiene, J., Ponthan, F., Kogner, P., Ekstrom, T.J. Apoptosis and tumor remission in liver tumor xenografts by 4-phenylbutyrate. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ONCOLOGY 2003; 22(-3-):579-588. >>> Phenylbutyrate, 4-; PBS; Intratumoral; Rat (nude); 2ML1; Tissue perfusion (intratumoral); cancer; 4-phenylbutyrate is a derivative of the short-chain fatty acid, butyrate, also a low toxicity cytostatic compound.

5979 Sorensen, D.R., Leirdal, M., Iversen, P.O., Sioud, M. Combination of endostatin and a protein kinase C alpha DNA enzyme improves the survival of rats with malignant glioma. NEOPLASIA 2002; 4(-6-):474-479. >>> Endostatin, recomb human; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Rat; 2ML2; Tissue perfusion (tumor); cancer (glioma); ALZET brain infusion kit used; Angiogenesis inhibitor; 5 ul/hr pump used;"Rats treated with a continuous intracranial delivery of endostatin lived significantly longer than untreated controls". (p 477).

5978 Giussani, C., Carrabba, G., Pluderi, M., Lucini, V., Pannacci, M., Caronzolo, D., Costa, F., Minotti, M., Tomei, G., Villani, R., Carroll, R.S., Bikfalvi, A., Bello, L. Local intracerebral delivery of endogenous inhibitors by osmotic minipumps effectively suppresses glioma growth in vivo. Cancer Research 2003; 63(-12-):2499-2505. >>> Platelet factor-4; MMP-2 (hemopexin fragment); PBS; SC; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Mice; 2004; Controls received mp w/ PBS; tissue perfusion (tumor); dose-response (p.2502); comparison of IP injections SC systemic mp infusion vs. local intracranial mp infusion; long-term study; pumps replaced after 28 days in some groups; stability verified by in vitro assay; cancer (glioma); Angiogenesis inhibitors; COOH terminal fragment of PF-4 used; In vitro activity of agents confirmed for up to 16 days;"In conclusion, our data demonstrates that local intracerebral delivery of endogenous inhibitors by osmotic minipumps is a very effective modality for the treatment of aggressive tumors..."(p.2505); tissue perfusion (tumor);.

5907 Galve-Roperh, I., Sanchez, C., Cortes, M.L., Gomez Del Pulgar, T., Izquierdo, M., Guzman, M. Anti-tumoral action of cannabinoids: involvement of sustained ceramide accumulation and extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation. Nat Med 2000; 6(-3-):313-319. >>> WIN-55,212-2; Cannabinol, delta-9-tetrahydro-; PBS; BSA; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Rat; 2001; Tissue perfusion (tumor); cancer; WIN-55,212-2 is a potent synthetic cannabinol agonist.

5806 Hagedorn, M., Zilberberg, L., Wilting, J., Canron, X., Carrabba, G., Giussani, C., Pluderi, M., Bello, L., Bikfalvi, A. Domain swapping in a COOH-terminal fragment of platelet factor 4 generates potent angiogenesis inhibitors. Cancer Research 2002; 62(-23-):6884-6890. >>> Platelet factor 4 peptides; PBS; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Mice (nude); 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; tissue perfusion (intratumoral); dose-response (p. 6888; fig 6); cancer; peptides; glioma; antiangiogenesis..

5673 Chen, Y., Lin, S.M., Lai, H.S., Tseng, S.H., Chen, W.J. Effects of irradiated tumor vaccine and continuous localized infusion of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor on neuroblastomas in mice. Journal of Pediatric Surgery 2002; 37(-9-):1298-1304. >>> Colony-stimulating factor, GM; PBS; BSA; SC (tumor vaccine injection site); Mice; 1002; Controls received mp w/ PBS; immunology; GM-CSF is recombinant murine; tissue perfusion.

5624 Cuevas, P., Carceller, F., Diaz-Gonzalez, D., Cuevas, B., Fernandez, A., Garcia-Gomez, I., Dujovny, M. Inhibition of rat glioma growth by neomycin. Preliminary report. NEUROLOGICAL RESEARCH 2002; 24(-6-):522-524. >>> Neomycin; PBS; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Rat; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; tissue perfusion (tumor); cancer.

5504 Takahashi, M., Fukami, S., Iwata, N., Inoue, K., Itohara, S., Itoh, H., Haraoka, J., Saido, T.C. In vivo glioma growth requires host-derived matrix metalloproteinase 2 for maintenance of angioarchitecture. Pharmacological Research 2002; 46(-2-):155-163. >>> TIMP-1; TIMP-2; PBS; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Rat; 2002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; tissue perfusion (tumor); functionality of mp verified by immunohistochemistry of agents; cancer; enzyme inhibitor; ALZET brain infusion kit used; MMP inhibitors (tissue inhibitors of metalloprotease = TIMP); rat glioma model.

5499 Walker, T.L., Dass, C.R., Burton, M.A. Enhanced In Vivo tumour response from combination of carboplatin and low-dose c-myc antisense oligonucleotides. Anticancer Research 2002; 22(-4-):2237-2245. >>> Oligonucleotide, antisense; Water, sterile; SC; intratumoral; Rat; 1003D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; tissue perfusion (intratumoral); cancer; antisense; 50mm long catheter filled w/ 15 ul of vehicle to enable 15 hr delayed delivery of antisense; c-myc antisense used.

5402 Davies, M.M., Mathur, P., Carnochan, P., Saini, S., Allen-Mersh, T.G. Effect of manipulation of primary tumour vascularity on metastasis in an adenocarcinoma model. Br. J Cancer 2002; 86(-1-):123-129. >>> Fibroblast growth factor, basic; Saline; IV (jugular); Intratumoral; Rat; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; tissue perfusion (intratumoral); cancer; peptides; bFGF delivered either by systemic IV infusion or intratumorally.

5184 Davies, M.M., Burke, D., Carnochan, P., Glover, C., Kaur, S., Allen-Mersh, T.G. Basic fibroblast growth factor infusion increases tumour vascularity, blood flow and chemotherapy uptake. Acta Oncologica 2002; 41(-1-):84-90. >>> Fibroblast Growth Factor, Basic; Saline; IV (jugular); Intratumoral;; rat; controls received mp w/ vehicle; tissue perfusion (tumor); cancer; one group received 10-day saline infusion by pump, followed by 14-day bFGF or saline infusion from a second pump.

4934 Engelhard, H.H., Duncan, H.A., Kim, S., Criswell, P.S., Van Eldik, L. Therapeutic effects of sodium butyrate on glioma cells in vitro and in the rat C6 glioma model.. Neurosurgery 2001; 48(-3-):616-625. >>> Butyrate, sodium;; CSF/CNS (intratumoral);; rat;; 2ML2;; Controls received w/ saline; tissue perfusion (tumor); functionality of mp verified by residual volume; dose-response (graph on p. 621); cancer (glioma); Butyrate, sodium is a naturally occurring four-carbon fatty acid;.

4925 Hautmann, S., Huland, E., Wullbrand, A., Friedrich, M., Huland, H. Treatment of metastatic hormone-refractory prostate adenocarcinoma (MatLyLu) in Copenhagen rats with micro-osmotic interleukin-2 pumps.. Anticancer Research 2000; 20(--):4495-4498. >>> Interleukin-2;; Albumin, human;; SC; Peritumoral (orthotopic); rat;; 2002;; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; functionality of mp verified by in vitro assay; no stress (see p. 4496); good methods pumps weighed p. 4496; cancer (prostate); immunology; peptides; rats had a prostatic adenocarcinoma tumor implanted; Albumin vehicle was 20% concentration; SC&peritumoral orthotopic implantation; Note: these pumps were left in for 28 days;.

15625 Hautmann, S., Huland, E., Wulbrand, A., Friedrich, M., Huland, H. Treatment of metastatic hormone refractory adenocarcinoma of the prostate (mat ly ly) with micro-osmotic interleukin-2 pump in male copenhagen rats. Eur. Urol 1998; 34(--):265-266. >>> Interleukin-2; Albumin; intratumoral; rat; controls received mp w/albumin; tissue perfusion (intratumoral); cancer (prostate); immunology; peptides.

4214 Hautmann, S., Huland, E., Wulbrand, A., Friedrich, M., Huland, H. Treatment of metastatic hormone refractory adenocarcinoma of the prostate (mat ly ly) with micro-osmotic interleukin-2 pump in male copenhagen rats. Eur. Urol 1998; 34(--):265-266. >>> Interleukin-2; Albumin; intratumoral; rat; controls received mp w/albumin; tissue perfusion (intratumoral); cancer (prostate); immunology; peptides.

3882 Tsuchida, E., Urano, M. The effect of UCN-01 (7-hydroxystaurosporine), a potent inhibitor of protein kinase C, on fractionated radiotherapy or daily chemotherapy of a murine fibrosarcoma. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys 1997; 39(-5-):1153-1161. >>> UCN-01; Citric acid; intratumoral; mice; 2001; tissue perfusion (tumor); cancer; enzyme inhibitor.

3631 Viola, J.J., Agbaria, R., Walbridge, S., Oshiro, E.M., Johns, D.G., Kelley, J.A., Oldfield, E.H., Ram, Z. In situ cyclopentenyl cytosine infusion for the treatment of experimental brain tumors. Cancer Res 1995; 55(--):1306-1309. >>> Cyclopentenyl cytosine; Saline, normal; IP; intratumoral; rat; 2ML2; 2ML4; controls received mp w/ saline; tissue perfusion (tumor); cancer; ALZET brain infusion kit used; SC pump connected to IP catheter; IP catheter used.

2568 Ikeda, Y., Carson, B.S., Lauer, J.A., Long, D.M. Therapeutic effects of local delivery of dexamethasone on experimental brain tumors and peritumoral brain edema. J. Neurosurg 1993; 79(--):716-721. >>> Dexamethasone; intratumoral; rabbit; controls received no treatment; tissue perfusion (tumor); comparison of injections vs. mp; local vs. systemic treatment, graph pg. 719.

1704 Kimler, B.F., Martin, D.F., Evans, R.G., Morantz, R.A., Vats, T.S. Combination of radiation therapy and intracranial bleomycin in the 9L rat brain tumor model. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys 1990; 18(--):1115-1121. >>> Bleomycin; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); cattle; rat; 2001; 2002; Antibiotic; controls received pumps with saline only; tissue perfusion (tumor); dose-response (graph, p. 1117); comparison of ip injections vs. mp.

1469 Bouvier, G., Penn, R.D., Kroin, J.S., Beique, R.A., Guerard, M.-J., Lesage, J. Intratumoral chemotherapy with multiple sources. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci 1989; 531(--):212-214. >>> Cisplatin; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); human; 2002; mp connected to multiple microcatheters and cannulae; tissue perfusion (tumor); cancer/immunology.


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What researchers are saying...

“In the majority of studies examining nicotine withdrawal, nicotine was delivered y an osmotic pump... The osmotic pump allows for the continuous delivery of nicotine at a controlled rate for a specified amount of time. An advantage of this delivery protocol is that nicotine levels in the bloodstream remain fairly constant, much like those of human chronic smokers. Discontinuing the delivery of nicotine by removal of the pump or interfering with nicotine’s effect on the central nervous system induces a withdrawal reaction... Accordingly, this experiment sought to replicate previous work using a rodent model of nicotine withdrawal developed by Malin et al. (1992) that has become widely used..., and which implements the osmotic pump as the nicotine delivery mechanism.” Besheer et al., Behavioral Neuroscience 2003;117(2):327-340.