References on the Administration of Antivirals Using ALZET® Osmotic Pumps

1. Acyclovir

16030 Ito, N., Ito, K., Koshimichi, H., Hisaka, A., Honma, M., Igarashi, T., Suzuki, H. Contribution of protein binding, lipid partitioning, and asymmetrical transport to drug transfer into milk in mouse versus human. Pharm Res 2013; 30(-9-):2410-22. >>> acetaminophen, cephalothin sodium salt, clindamycin hydrochloride, disopyramide phosphate salt, labetalol hydrochloride, nitrofurantoin +-propranolol hydrochloride, terbutaline hemisulfate salt, verapamil hydrochloride, Acyclovir, alprazolam, atenolol, anhydrous caffeine, cefotaxime sodium salt, cephapirin sodium salt, diltiazem hydrochloride, metronidazole, nitrazepam, prednisolone, 6-propyl-2-thiouracil, trazadone hydrochloride, chloramphenicol, cimetidine, theophylline, fluconazole, metoprolol, mirtazapine, praziquantel, quetiapine fumarate, triprolidine hydrochloride, metformin, moclobemide.; DMSO; water; IP; mice; 1003D; animal info: lactating mice, postnatal age of 14 days; functionality of mp verified by measurement of drug concentration in milk and plasma; mp were used to infuse study lactational drug transfer..

14228 Ito, N., Ito, K., Ikebuchi, Y., Kito, T., Miyata, H., Toyoda, Y., Takada, T., Hisaka, A., Honma, M., Oka, A., Kusuhara, H., Suzuki, H., Ito, K. Organic Cation Transporter/Solute Carrier Family 22a is Involved in Drug Transfer into Milk in Mice. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2014; 103(--):3342-3348. >>> Acyclovir; cimetidine; clindamycin; metformin; terbutaline; verapamil;; IP; Mice; 1003D; Animal info (female, lactating, Bcrp KO or WT FVB); functionality of mp verified by plasma and milk concentrations; no stress"All mice survived the surgical procedure and appeared to be lactating normally, and all pups thrived throughout the course of the experiment."(see pg. 3343);.

379 Myerson, D., Hsiung, G.D. Prophylactic and therapeutic treatment with acyclovir of genital herpes in the guinea pig (41717). Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med 1983; 174(--):147-152. >>> Acyclovir, sodium; Saline; SC; guinea-pig; 2ML2; comparison of ip inject vs. mp infusion; article states incorrectly that 2ML2 is spent after 7 days.

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2. Amantadine

13572 Huang, E.Y.K., Tsui, P.F., Kuo, T.T., Tsai, J.J., Chou, Y.C., Ma, H.I., Chiang, Y.H., Chen, Y.H. Amantadine Ameliorates Dopamine-Releasing Deficits and Behavioral Deficits in Rats after Fluid Percussion Injury. PLoS One 2014; 9(-1-):U118-U131. >>> Amantadine; Saline; SC; Rat; 2006; Control animals received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (male, Sprague Dawley, 200-250 g, 6 wks old); long-term study.

4422 Hesselink, M.B., De Boer, A.G., Breimer, D.D., Danysz, W. Adaptations of NMDA and dopamine D2, but not of muscarinic receptors following 14 days administration of uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists.. Journal of Neural Transmission 1999; 106(--):409-421. >>> MK-801; Memantine; Amantadine;; Water;; SC;; rat;; 2ML2;; controls received sham surgeries; comparison of S.C. injections vs. mp; half-life (p. 411);"In the clinical situation, depending on dosing schedule, only minor fluctuations in the steady-state plasma levels of the aminoadamantanes is observed. The only way to mimic this in animals is by continuous infusion of the drug using ALZET osmotic minipumps."(p. 411);.

4327 Hesselink, M.B., De Boer, B.G., Breimer, D.D., Danysz, W. Brain penetration and in vivo recovery of NMDA receptor antagonists amantadine and memantine: a quantitative microdialysis study. Pharmaceut. Res 1999; 16(-5-):637-642. >>> Memantine; Amantadine; Water; SC; rat; 2ML2; dose-response; serum levels.

15427 Stitz, L., Planz, O., Bilzer, T. Lack of antiviral effect of amantadine in borna disease virus infection. Med Microbiol Immunol 1998; 186(--):195-200. >>> Adamantane, 1-amino-; Water, sterile distilled; SC; rat; 2ML2; functionality of mp verified by serum levels; comparison of oral doses vs. mp; immunology; agent is NMDA antagonist also called amantadine or 1-adamantanamide.

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3. Azidothymidine

2202 Tarantal, A.F., Spanggord, R.J., Hendrickx, A.G. Pre and postnatal treatment of the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with azidothymidine: I. fetal studies. Pediatr. Aids HIV Infection: Fetus to Adolescent 1994; 5(-1-):10-19. >>> Azidothymidine; Sodium hydroxide; SC; monkey (pregnant); 2ML4; controls received mp w/vehicle; functionality of mp verified by plasma levels of AZT; teratology; AZT is azidothymidine, also known as zidovudine; multiple pumps per animal (3-4);"Circulating levels of AZT remained constant during the course of treatment and were achieved by the first (24 hr.) sample (p. 11)..

2089 Sinet, M., Harcouet, L., Desforges, B., Colin, J.N., Farinotti, R., Pocidalo, J.J. Efficacy of continuous zidovudine infusion at early stages of retroviral infection in mice. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr 1992; 5(--):577-582. >>> Azidothymidine; Propylene glycol; Water; SC; mice; 2001; functionality of mp verified by plasma AZT levels; comparison of b.i.d. s.c. injections vs. mp; good methods; also called zidovudine; pK; half-life (p.577); continuous infusion significantly more effective than bolus injection.

1924 Bilello, J.A., MacAuley, C., Fredrickson, T.N., Bell, M.M., McKissick, C., Shapiro, S.G., Personette, R., Eiseman, J.L. Use of a neonatal murine retrovirus model to evaluate the long-term efficacy and toxicity of antiviral agents. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci 1990; 616(--):238-251. >>> Azidothymidine; mice (pregnant); 2001; Pumps replaced after each week to achieve 3 weeks duration; immunology; teratology; oral delivery of AZT resulted in highly variable plasma levels.

1641 Gallo, J.M., Clark, L.N., Rubino, J.T. Pump delivery of azidothymidine: potential for constant concentrations and improved brain delivery. J. Controlled Release 1989; 9(--):249-253. >>> Azidothymidine; IA (carotid); rat; 2001; Dose-response; blood levels; comparison of IV injections vs. mp; good methods; antiviral; alkaline pH of 11 increased solubility and stability of AZT.

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4. Ganciclovir

16267 Varvel, N. H., Grathwohl, S. A., Degenhardt, K., Resch, C., Bosch, A., Jucker, M., Neher, J. J. Replacement of brain-resident myeloid cells does not alter cerebral amyloid-beta deposition in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease. J Exp Med 2015; 212(-11-):1803-9. >>> Valganciclovir; PBS; CSF/CNS (ventricle); mice; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Female hemizygous TK mice crossed w/ male hemizygous APPPS1 or hemizygous APP23); ALZET brain infusion kit 3 used; good methods (pg. 11807); post op. care (paracetamol, i.p. 5 mg/kg daily; acetaminophen i.p. 5 mg/kg daily); brain tissue distribution; Dental cement used; Cannula placement verified via staining; anesthetized using ketamine and xylazine; Brain coordinates; from bregma: +0.1 mm anteroposterior, 1.0 mm lateral, and 2.5 mm dorsoventral; Dose (50 mg/ml);.

16232 Prokop, S., Miller, K. R., Drost, N., Handrick, S., Mathur, V., Luo, J., Wegner, A., Wyss-Coray, T., Heppner, F. L. Impact of peripheral myeloid cells on amyloid-beta pathology in Alzheimer's disease-like mice. J Exp Med 2015; 212(-11-):1811-8. >>> Ganciclovir; CSF, artificial; CSF/CNS (lateral ventricles); mice; 2001; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (APPPS1 transgenic mice); brain infusion cannula used; neurodegenerative (Alzheimer’s); Dose (2.5 mg/ml); Therapeutic indication (Alzheimer’s Disease);.

15909 Grathwohl, S. A., Jucker, M. Replacement of osmotic minipumps to extend the intracerebral infusion time of compounds into the mouse brain. Biotechniques 2013; 55(-2-):75-8. >>> Ganciclovir; PBS; CSF/CNS; mice; controls received mp w/ PBS; paper introduces Y-shaped connection piece between infusion cannula and pump reservoir. It is used to prolong ICV infusion, serves as a channel to modulate pressure that is released;.

15782 Andriana G Kotini, Elisa de Stanchina, Maria Themeli, Michel Sadelain, Eirini P Papapetrou. Escape Mutations, Ganciclovir Resistance, and Teratoma Formation in Human iPSCs Expressing an HSVtk Suicide Gene. MOLECULAR THERAPY 2016; 5(--):. >>> Ganciclovir; PBS; SC; Mice (NSG); 1007D; animal info (female, NSG, 8 weeks old); pumps replaced every week; cancer (teratoma); Dose (5 mg/kg/day);.

15072 Schneider, U., Davids, A.M., Brandenburg, S., Mueller, A., Elke, A., Magrini, S., Atangana, E., Turkowski, K., Finger, T., Gutenberg, A., Gehlhaar, C., Brueck, W., Heppner, F., Vajkoczy, P., Vajkoczy, P. Microglia inflict delayed brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage. ACTA NEUROPATHOLOGICA 2015; 130(--):215-231. >>> Ganciclovir; CSF/CNS; Mice; Animal info (CD11b-HSVTK, 14-14 weeks old, 22-25g); ALZET brain infusion kit used; immunology; noted 230 ul reservoir;.

15019 Dixon, K.J., Theus, M.H., Nelersa, C.M., Mier, J., Travieso, L.G., Yu, T.S., Kernie, S.G., Liebl, D.J., Liebl, D.J. Endogenous Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells Stabilize the Cortical Microenvironment after Traumatic Brain Injury. JOURNAL OF NEUROTRAUMA 2015; 32(--):753-764. >>> Ganciclovir sodium; SC; Mice; 1002; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (CD1 nestin TK, adult); pumps replaced every 2 weeks; behavioral testing (motor function/rotarod test); traumatic brain injury;.

14887 Cho, K.O., Lybrand, Z.R., Ito, N., Brulet, R., Tafacory, F., Zhang, L., Good, L., Ure, K., Kernie, S.G., Birnbaum, S.G., Scharfman, H.E., Eisch, A.J., Hsieh, J., Hsieh, J. Aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis contributes to epilepsy and associated cognitive decline. Nature Communications 2015; 6(--):U1-U13. >>> Ganciclovir; Water, distilled; SC; Mice; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (C57BL6 or Nestin-TH, 6 weeks old); behavioral testing (epilepsy behavior, open field, memory); pumps removed after 4 weeks; epilepsy;.

14860 Bustos, M.L., Mura, M., Hwang, D., Ludkovski, O., Wong, A.P., Keating, A., Waddell, T.K., Waddell, T.K. Depletion of Bone Marrow CCSP-Expressing Cells Delays Airway Regeneration. MOLECULAR THERAPY 2015; 23(--):561-569. >>> Ganciclovir; SC; Mice; Animal info (CCtk or WT);.

14807 Rolon-Reyes, K., Kucheryavykh, Y.V., Cubano, L.A., Inyushin, M., Skatchkov, S.N., Eaton, M.J., Harrison, J.K., Kucheryavykh, L.Y., Kucheryavykh, L.Y. Microglia Activate Migration of Glioma Cells through a Pyk2 Intracellular Pathway. PLoS One 2015; 10(--):U2306-U2323. >>> Ganciclovir; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Mice (transgenic); 2004; Controls received mp w/ saline, normal; animal info (male, CD11b-HSVTK trangenic); ALZET brain infusion kit used; cancer (glioma GL261);.

14774 Seo, D.O., Carillo, M.A., Lim, S.C.H., Tanaka, K.F., Drew, M.R., Drew, M.R. Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis Modulates Fear Learning through Associative and Nonassociative Mechanisms. JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE 2015; 35(--):11330-11345. >>> Ganciclovir; PBS; CSF/CNS; Mice; 1002; Control animals received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (8 wks old, DCX-TK transgenic, wt); ALZET brain infusion kit 3 used.

14667 Bennett, R.E., Brody, D.L., Brody, D.L. Acute Reduction of Microglia Does Not Alter Axonal Injury in a Mouse Model of Repetitive Concussive Traumatic Brain Injury. Journal of Neurotrauma 2014; 31(--):1647-1663. >>> Valganciclovir; Saline, sterile; Mice; 1002; 2004; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (CD11b-TK +/-,6-8 weeks); post op. care (antibacterial ointment; heating pad); cyanoacrylate adhesive; Cannula placement verified via histological analysis; used Plastics One Cannula; pumps primed at 37C for 36-48 hours; pumps removed after 7 days and reimplanted after two closed-skull injuries; traumatic brain injury;.

13918 Sachewsky, N., Leeder, R., Xu, W., Rose, K.L., Yu, F., van der Kooy, D., Morshead, C.M., Morshead, C.M. Primitive Neural Stem Cells in the Adult Mammalian Brain Give Rise to GFAP-Expressing Neural Stem Cells. STEM CELL REPORTS 2014; 2(--):810-824. >>> Ganciclovir; AraC; PBS; saline; CSF/CNS; Mice (transgenic); 1007D; Animal info (GFAP-TK); ischemia (cerebral); 2% AraC; 200uM GCV;.

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5. Interferons

Q0408 Ryu,H.J., Kim,J.E., Kim,M.J., Kwon,H.J., Suh,S.W., Song,H.K., Kang,T.C. THE PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF INTERLEUKIN-18 AND INTERFERON-gamma ON NEURONAL DAMAGES IN THE RAT HIPPOCAMPUS FOLLOWING STATUS EPILEPTICUS. Neuroscience 2010; 170(-3-):711-721. >>> Antibody, anti IL-18; IL-18, recomb. rat; interferon, gamma, recomb. rat; antibody, anti interferon, gamma; IL-18 receptor antagonist; interferon, gamma, receptor antagonist; Saline; CSF/CNS; Rat; 1007D; 1 week; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Sprague Dawley, 7 wks old); ALZET brain infusion kit 1 used.

P9920 Bott,R.C., Ashley,R.L., Henkes,L.E., Antoniazzi,A.Q., Bruemmer,J.E., Niswender,G.D., Bazer,F.W., Spencer,T.E., Smirnova,N.P., Anthony,R.V., Hansen,T.R. Uterine Vein Infusion of Interferon Tau (IFNT) Extends Luteal Life Span in Ewes. Biology of Reproduction 2010; 82(-4-):725-735. >>> Interferon-tau, recomb, ovine; IV (uterine vein); Sheep (ewe); 2001D; 2ML1; 7 days; 24 hours; Controls recieved mp w/BSA or sham surgeries; animal info (white-faced, western range ewe); cyanoacrylate adhesive.

P9580 Tzima,S., Victoratos,P., Kranidioti,K., Alexiou,M., Kollias,G. Myeloid heme oxygenase-1 regulates innate immunity and autoimmunity by modulating IFN-beta production. Journal of Experimental Medicine 2009; 206(-5-):1167-1179. >>> Interferon-beta, recomb. human; Mice; 2002; 14 days; Animal info (Hmox1 KO).

P9300 Shinohara,A., Koyanagi,S., Hamdan,A.M., Matsunaga,N., Aramaki,H., Ohdo,S. Dosing schedule-dependent change in the disruptive effects of interferon-alpha on the circadian clock function. LIFE SCIENCES 2008; 83(-15-16-):574-580. >>> Interferon-alpha, recomb. human; Saline; SC; Mice; 2001; 6 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; comparison of SC injections vs. mp; half-life (p. 579) "relatively short"; peptides; animal info (male, ICR, 5 wks old); behavioral testing (locomotor activity).

P8835 Rogers,A.B., Theve,E.J., Feng,Y., Fry,R.C., Taghizadeh,K., Clapp,K.M., Boussahmain,C., Cormier,K.S., Fox,J.G. Hepatocellular carcinoma associated with liver-gender disruption in male mice. Cancer Research 2007; 67(-24-):11536-11546. >>> Interferon-gamma, recomb. murine; SC; Mice; 7 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; cancer (tumorigenic hepatitis, liver); peptides; animal info (male, female, A/JCr).

P8739 Qiao,X.T., Ziel,J.W., Mckimpson,W., Madison,B.B., Todisco,A., Merchant,J.L., Samuelson,L.C., Gumucio,D.L. Prospective identification of a multilineage progenitor in murine stomach epithelium. Gastroenterology 2007; 133(-6-):1989-1998. >>> Interferon-gamma; PBS; BSA; IP; Mice (transgenic); 2, 8, 12 weeks; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; comparison of IP injections vs. mp; peptides; animal info (12.4 KVil-EGFP tg; C57BL/6J; 4 months old); long-term study.

P8261 Si,Y., Ciccone,S., Yang,F.C., Yuan,J., Zeng,D., Chen,S., van de Vrugt,H.J., Critser,J., Arwert,F., Haneline,L.S., Clapp,D.W. Continuous in vivo infusion of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) enhances engraftment of syngeneic wild-type cells in Fanca-/- and Fancg-/- mice. Blood 2006; 108(-13-):4283-4287. >>> Interferon-gamma, mouse; PBS; SC; Mice; 1007D; 7 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; no stress (see pg. 4286); immunology; peptides; animal info (C57BL/6).

P7725 Birk,R.Z., Rubinstein,M. IFN-alpha induces apoptosis of adipose tissue cells. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 2006; 345(-2-):669-674. >>> Interferon-a A/D, recomb. human; Saline; SC; Mice; 8 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (C57BL/6, diet-induced obese).

P7447 Kang,W.Q., Rathinavelu,S., Samuelson,L.C., Merchant,J.L. Interferon gamma induction of gastric mucous neck cell hypertrophy. LABORATORY INVESTIGATION 2005; 85(-5-):702-715. >>> Interferon-gamma, recomb. mouse; IP; Mice; 1002; 14 days; Controls received PBS; animal info (c57BL/6).

P7184 Mathian,A., Weinberg,A., Gallegos,M., Banchereau,J., Koutouzov,S. IFN-alpha induces early lethal lupus in preautoimmune (New Zealand black x New Zealand White)F1 but not in BALB/c mice1. Journal of Immunology 2005; 174(-5-):2499-2506. >>> Interferon, mouse; PBS; BSA; SC; Mice; 1002; 8-10 weeks; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; long-term study; pumps replaced every 2 weeks; immunology.

P7132 Brooling,J.T., Campbell,J.S., Mitchell,C., Yeoh,G.C., Fausto,N. Differential regulation of rodent hepatocyte and oval cell proliferation by interferon gamma. Hepatology 2005; 41(-4-):906-915. >>> Interferon-gamma, recomb. mouse; SC; Mice; 4-6 days; Controls received mp w/ saline; replacement therapy (hepatectomy).

P7042 Li,X.X., Yang,Y.Z., Yuan,J., Hong,P., Freie,B., Orazi,A., Haneline,L.S., Clapp,D.W. Continuous in vivo infusion of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) preferentially reduces myeloid progenitor numbers and enhances engraftment of syngeneic wild-type cells in Fancc(-/-) mice. Blood 2004; 104(-4-):1204-1209. >>> Interferon-gamma, murine; PBS; SC; Mice; 1007D; 7 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; dose-response (fig. 7); no stress (pg. 1209); stress/adverse reaction: (see pg. 1205) "modest though not significant rise in peripheral white blood cell count" (pg. 1205); "IFN-gamma was overall well tolerated by both WT and Fancc -/- mice." (pg. 1208); hematology.

P6764 Frewert,S., Stockhammer,F., Warschewske,G., Zenclussen,A.C., Rupprecht,S., Volk,H.D., Woiciechowsky,C. Intratumoral infusion of interleukin-1 beta and interferon-gamma; induces tumor invasion with macrophages and lymphocytes in a rat glioma model. Neuroscience Letters 2004; 364(-3-):145-148. >>> Interleukin-1, beta recomb. rat; Interferon-gamma, recomb. rat; Saline, physiological; albumin, human serum; CSF/CNS (intratumoral); Rat; 1003D; 48 hours; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; tissue perfusion (tumor); cancer (glioma).

P6142 Koyanagi,S., Ohdo,S. Alteration of intrinsic biological rhythms during interferon treatment and its possible mechanism. MOLECULAR PHARMACOLOGY 2002; 62(-6-):1393-1399. >>> Interferon-alpha; Saline, sterile; SC; Mice; 2001; 7 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; immunology; peptides.

P6048 Zavros,Y., Rathinavelu,S., Kao,J.Y., Todisco,A., Del Valle,J., Weinstock,J.V., Low,M.J., Merchant,J.L. Treatment of Helicobacter gastritis with IL-4 requires somatostatin. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 2003; 100(-22-):12944-12949. >>> Interleukin-4; interferon-gamma; PBS; IP; Mice; 1007D; 7 days; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; comparison of IP injections vs. IP mp.

P5102 Skovseth,D.K., Yamanaka,T., Brandtzaeg,P., Butcher,E.C., Haraldsen,G. Vascular morphogenesis and differentiation after adoptive transfer of human endothelial cells to immunodeficient mice. American Journal of Pathology 2002; 160(-5-):1629-1637. >>> Interferon-gamma; Abdominal wall; mice; 2004; ; tissue perfusion (abdominal wall); immunology; peptides; pump implanted SC, catheter tube perfused matrigel plug in abdominal wall..

P4675 Jander,S, Schroetter,M, Fischer,J, Stoll,G. Differential regulation of microglial keratan sulfate immunoreactivity by proinflammatory cytokines and colony-stimulating factors.. Glia 2000; 30(--):401-410. >>> Interferon-gamma; Tumor necrosis factor-a;; PBS, sterile;; CSF/CNS;; rat;; 1007D;; 6 days;; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; immunology; peptides; ALZET brain infusion kit used; proinflammatory cytokines;.

P4551 Nedelec,B, Dodd,C.M, Scott,P.G, Ghahary,A., Tredget,E.E. Effect of interferon-alpha 2b on guinea pig wound closure and the expression of cytoskeletal proteins in vivo.. Wound Repair and Regeneration 1998/6/1; 6(--):202-212. >>> Interferon-a2b; Saline, sterile; IP; Guinea-pig; 2ML4; 7, 14, 21 days; Controls received mp w/vehicle; wound healing study.

P4477 Voest,E.E, Kenyon,B.M, O'Reilly,M.S, Truitt,G, D'Amato,R.J, Folkman,J. Inhibition of angiogenesis in vivo by interleukin 12.. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1995; 87(-8-):581-586. >>> Interferon-gamma; Saline; IM; Mice (scid); 2002; ; Controls received mp w/ saline; functionality of mp verified by checking residual volume; comparison of bolus invections vs. mp; cancer; immunology; angiogenesis inhibitor; recomb. murine interferon-gamma used; "... in comparison with bolus injections, continuous intraperitoneal infusion of IFN gamma achieved enhanced inhibition of angiogenesis ..." (p. 585).

P3986 Henke,P.K., Bergamini,T.M., Watson,A.L., Brittian,K.R., Powell,D.W., Peyton,J.C. Bacterial products primarily mediate fibroblast inhibition in biomaterial infection. J.Surg.Res. 1998; 74(--):17-22. >>> Antibody, anti-interferon gamma; Antibody, indomethacin; Antibody, anti-TNFa; Antibody, interleukin 1 alpha; PBS, sterile; ETOH; Indomethacin; SC; mice; 1007D; 7 days; immunology; pump implanted next to Dacron graft; peptides.

P3731 Galbiati,F., Rogge,L., Guery,J.-C., Smiroldo,S., Adorini,L. Regulation of the IL-12 receptor B2 subunit by soluble antigen and IL-12 in vivo. Eur.J.Immunol. 1998; 28(--):209-220. >>> Interleukin-12; Interleukin-2; Lysozyme, hen egg white; Ovalbumin; Interferon-gamma; PBS; Albumin, mouse serum; SC; mice; 2001; 9 days; controls received mp w/ PBS; comparison of ip injections vs. mp; immunology; peptides; agents infused singly or in combination in the same pump; recomb. human IL-2 used; recomb. mouse IFN-gamma used.

P3567 Tsuji-Takayama,K., Harashima,A., Tahata,H., Izumi,N., Nishida,Y., Namba,M., Okuda,Y., Ohta,T., Kurimoto,M. IFN-gamma in combination with IL-3 accelerates platelet recovery in mice with 5-fluorouracil-induced marrow aplasia. J.Interferon and Cytokine Res. 1996; 16(--):447-451. >>> Interferon-gamma; Interleukin-3; Albumin, mouse serum; PBS; SC; mice; 1007D; 7 days; controls received mp w/ vehicle; stability verified after 7 day storage; immunology; peptides; cytokines given singly and together.

P3501 Siesjo,P., Visse,E., Sjogren,H.O. Cure of established, intracerebral rat gliomas induced by therapeutic immunizations with tumor cells and purified APC or adjuvant IFN-gamma treatment. J.Immunol. 1996; 19(-5-):334-345. >>> Interferon-gamma; SC; CSF/CNS; rat; 14 days; cancer; immunology; peptides; ALZET brain infusion kit used.

P3104 Unemori,E.N., Beck,L.S., Lee,W.P., Xu,Y., Siegel,M., Keller,G., Liggitt,H.D., Bauer,E.A., Amento,E.P. Human relaxin decreases collagen accumulation in vivo in two rodent models of fibrosis. J.Invest.Dermatol. 1993; 101(--):280-285. >>> Relaxin; Interferon-gamma; PBS; SC; rat; mice; 2002; no duration posted; controls received mp with vehicle; immunology; multiple pumps per animal (1-2) for relaxin delivery; polyvinyl alcohol sponges implanted subcutaneously in rats for fibrotic infiltration; intentional capsule formation in mice analyzed.

P3004 Flynn,J.L., Chan,J., Triebold,K.J., Dalton,D.K., Stewart,T.A., Bloom,B.R. An essential role for interferon gamma in resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. J.Exp.Med. 1993; 178(--):2249-2254. >>> Interferon-gamma; PBS; SC; mice; no duration posted; controls received mp w/ PBS or could endogenously produce IFN; replacement therapy (genetic inability to produce IFN-gamma); comparison of im injections vs. mp; circulating half-life of IFN-gamma in mice is about 1 hour; continuous delivery of IFN-gamma prolonged survival longer than did IFN injections (12 vs. 4 days longer than controls); mouse IFN-gamma used.

P2948 Curfs,J.H.A.J., van der Meide,P.H., Billiau,A., Meuwissen,J.H.E.Th., Eling,W.M.C. Plasmodium berghei: recombinant interferon-y and the development of parasitemia and cerebral lesions in malaria-infected mice. Exp.Parasitology 1993; 77(--):212-223. >>> Interferon-gamma; Saline, isotonic; IP; mice; mice (nude); 2002; no duration posted; controls were untreated, or treated but uninfected; ". . .daily injection of a bolus of 105 units of IFN-gamma is not lethal, whereas even a lower daily total dose of 2.5 x 104 units of IFN-gamma administered by continuous release is lethally toxic."; only continuous delivery was able to prevent development of cerebral malaria; comparison of ip injections vs. mp; recomb. rat IFN-gamma.

P2935 Rapp,J., Dallah,C.N., Schulz-Key,H. Parenteral administration of cytokines and drugs in rodent filariasis via osmotic pumps. Parasite 1994; 1(-1S-):35-37. >>> Interferon-gamma; SC; mice; 2002; 14 days; controls received mp with PBS or were untreated; no stress (see pg. 37); immunology; "implantation of osmotic pumps is a suitable method for the application of short lived substances like IFN-gamma or other cytokines."; incision heals within three days and animals show no signs of discomfort, making pumps a useful alternative to repeated injections especially for rodents..."; recomb. mouse IFN-gamma used.

P2677 Drath,D.B., Do,C., Burd,T., Hong,L.L. Activation of a distinct subpopulation of pulmonary macrophages following exposure to biological response modifiers. Immunol.Invest. 1994; 23(-2-):115-127. >>> Interferon-gamma; S-MDP, free; S-MDP, liposome-encapsulated; SC; rat; 7 days; comparison of bolus tracheal injections, iv administration and mp; immunology; peptides; IFN-gamma and S-MDP were most effective when delivered either intravenously or via osmotic minipump infusion; S-MDP is lipophilic N-acetylmuramyl-6-0-stearoyl-alanyl-D-isoglutamine; recomb. mouse IFN-gamma used.

P2625 Wiranowska,M., Prockop,L.D., Naidu,A.K., Saporta,S., Kori,S., Kulkarni,A.P. Interferon entry through the blood-brain barrier in glioma and its effect on lipoxygenase activity. Anticancer Res. 1994; 14(--):1121-1126. >>> Interferon-a/B, mouse; Interferon-gamma; SC; mice; 3 days; cancer; peptides; recomb. mouse IFN-gamma used.

P2533 Rockey,D.C., Chung,J.J. Interferon gamma inhibits lipocyte activation and extracellular matrix mRNA expression during experimental liver injury: implications for treatment of hepatic fibrosis. J.Invest.Med. 1994; 42(-4-):660-670. >>> Interferon-gamma; PBS; Albumin, bovine serum; IP; rat; 2ML4; no duration posted; controls received mp w/ vehicle; immunology; peptides; rat IFN-gamma used.

P2494 Rosiello,R.A., Merrill,W.W., Rockwell,S., Carter,D., Cooper Jr,J.A.D., Care,S., Amento,E.P. Radiation pneumonitis: bronchoalveolar lavage assessment and modulation by a recombinant cytokine. Am.Rev.Respir.Dis. 1993; 148(--):1671-1676. >>> Interferon-gamma; SC; rat; 26 days; peptides; oncology.

P2301 Kuhn,J.A., Wong,J.Y.C., Beatty,B.G., Esteban,J.M., Williams,L.E., Beatty,J.D. Gamma-interferon enhancement of carcinoembryonic antigen expression in human colon carcinoma xenografts. J.Immunother. 1992; 11(--):257-266. >>> Interferon-gamma; Albumin, bovine serum; PBS; SC; mice; 1007D; 3-7 days; functionality of mp verified by residual amounts; dose-response (text p. 259, graph p. 260); comparison of ip injections vs. infusion; cancer; immunology; peptides; biological activity of residual in pump diminished 15% by day 4, 25% by day 6 (p. 262); recomb. human IFN-gamma used.

P2121 Wiranowska,M., Gonzalvo,A.A., Saporta,S., Gonzalez,O.R., Prockop,L.D. Evaluation of blood-brain barrier permeability and the effect of interferon in mouse glioma model. J.Neurooncology 1992; 14(--):225-236. >>> Interferon-a/B, mouse; SC; mice; 1003D; 3 days; cancer; homologous mouse IFN-a/B used.

P1999 Denis,M. Involvement of cytokines in determining resistance and acquired immunity in murine tuberculosis. J.Leukoc.Biol. 1991; 50(--):495-501. >>> Interferon-gamma, inactivated; Tumor necrosis factor-a; Interferon-gamma; Interleukin-2; Interleukin-2, inactivated; Tumor necrosis factor-a, inactivated; IP; mice; 2002; no duration posted; peptides.

P1947 Newton,G.R., Martinod,S., Hansen,P.J., Thatcher,W.W., Siegenthaler,B., Gerber,C., Voirol,M.-J. Effect of bovine interferon on acute changes in body temperature and serum progesterone concentration in heifers. J.Dairy Sci. 1990; 73(--):3439-3448. >>> Interferon-a1; cattle; 2ML1; 5 days; peptides; serum IFN-a levels (p. 3445).

P1918 Granstein,R.D., Deak,M.R., Jacques,S.L., Margolis,R.J., Flotte,T.J., Whitaker,D., Long,F.H., Amento,E.P. The systemic administration of gamma interferon inhibits collagen synthesis and acute inflammation in a murine skin wound model. J.Invest.Dermatol. 1989; 93(-1-):18-27. >>> Interferon-gamma; PBS; Serum, mouse; IP; SC; mice; 2002; 14 days; peptides; wound healing.

P1845 Denis,M. Recombinant murine beta interferon enhances resistance of mice to systemic mycobacterium avium infection. Infect.Immun. 1991; 59(-5-):1857-1859. >>> Interferon-beta; mice; 2002; no duration posted; controls received pumps with heat-inactivated cytokines; peptides.

P1718 Murray,H.W. Effect of continuous administration of interferon-y in experimental visceral leishmaniasis. J.Infect.Dis. 1990; 161(--):992-994. >>> Stibogluconate, sodium; Interferon-gamma; Albumin, bovine serum; Saline; SC; mice; 2002; 1 week; comparison of ip injections vs. mp; immunology; some mice received 2 pumps.

P1293 Guadagni,F., Schlom,J., Pothen,S., Pestka,S., Greiner,J.W. Parameters involved in the enhancement of monoclonal antibody targeting in vivo with recombinant interferon. Cancer Immunol.Immunother. 1988; 26(--):222-230. >>> Interferon-a, recomb. human; Saline; SC; mice (nude); 2001; 5-13 days; dose-response (graph); half life; comparison of i.m. injections vs. mp infusion; functionality of mp verified by plasma levels; cancer/immunology; peptides.

P0987 Granstein,R.D., Murphy,G.F., Margolis,R.J., Byrne,M.H., Amento,E.P. Gamma-interferon inhibits collagen synthesis in vivo in the mouse. J.Clin.Invest. 1987; 79(-4-):1254-1258. >>> Interferon-gamma; PBS; Serum, mouse; SC; mice; 2002; 7-14 days; 2002, 7-14 days; controls received mp w/vehicle; peptides; immunology; stress/adverse reaction (fibrous tissue formation which was used to study effects of gamma-interferon).

P0957 Drath,D.B. Modulation of pulmonary macrophage superoxide release and tumoricidal activity following activation by biological response modifiers. Immunopharmacology 1986; 12(-2-):117-126. >>> Interferon-gamma; Liposomes; SC; rat; 2001; 7 days; controls received mp w/empty liposomes; liposome encapsulated agent and free agent; comparison of iv injections vs. mp infusion; cancer/immunology; peptides.

P0504 Heston,W.D.W., Fleischmann,J., Tackett,R.E., Ratliff,T.L. Effects of a-difluoromethylornithine and recombinant interferon-a2 on the growth of a human renal cell adenocarcinoma xenograft in nude mice. Cancer Res. 1984; 44(--):3220-3225. >>> Interferon-a2, recomb. human; SC; mice (nude); 2002; 4 weeks; pump replaced after 2 weeks; immunotherapy; controls received unidentified vehicle in mp; peptides; cancer; recomb. human IF-a2 used.

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1959 Lee, J.S., Mullaney, S., Bronson, R., Sharpe, A.H., Jaenisch, R., Balzarini, J., De Clercq, E., Ruprecht, R.M. Transplacental antiretroviral therapy with 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine is embryotoxic in transgenic mice. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr 1991; 4(--):833-838. >>> PMEA; Mice; comparison of ip injections vs. mp; teratology; antiviral agent.

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7. R-95288

3819 Agatsuma, T., Abe, K., Furukawa, H., Koga, R., Koizumi, M., Hotoda, H., Kaneko, M. Protection of hu-PBL-SCID/beige mice from HIV-1 infection by a 6-mer modified oligonucleotide, R-95288. Antiviral Res 1997; 34(--):121-130. >>> R-95288; Saline; IP; SC; mice (SCID); 2002; controls received mp w/saline; antisense; mice were transplanted w/human peripheral blood leukocytes; R-95288 protects human chimeric mice against HIV-1 infection; AIDS.

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8. Ribavirin

9369 Georges-Courbot, M.C., Contamin, H., Faure, C., Loth, P., Baize, S., Leyssen, P., Neyts, J., Deubel, V. Poly(I)-poly(C12U) but not ribavirin prevents death in a hamster model of Nipah Virus infection. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 2006; 50(-5-):1768-1772. >>> Ribavirin; 6-aza-uridine; SC; Hamster; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ PBS; toxicology; animal info (2 months old, golden); Ribavirin is an antiviral agent; 6-aza-uridine is a triazmenucleoside.

5586 Charlier, N., Leyssen, P., Paeshuyse, J., Drosten, C., Schmitz, H., Van Lommel, A., De Clercq, E., Neyts, J. Infection of SCID mice with Montana Myotis leukoencephalitis virus as a model for flavivirus encephalitis. Journal of General Virology 2002; 83(--):1887-1896. >>> Ribavirin; SC; Mice (SCID); 2002; Ribavirin is an antiviral.

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9. SID 791

3692 Datema, R., Rabin, L., Hincenbergs, M., Moreno, M.B., Warren, S., Linquist, V., Rosenwirth, B., Seifert, E., McCune, J.M. Antiviral efficacy in vivo of the anti-human immunodeficiency virus bicyclam SDZ SID 791 (JM 3100), an inhibitor of infectious cell entry. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother 1996; 40(-3-):750-754. >>> SID 791; Saline, sterile; SC; Mice (SCID); mice; 2002; functionality of mp verified by plasma levels; dose-response; comparison of sc injections vs. mp; immunology; SID 791 is a bicyclam which inhibits HIV replication in vivo; human fetal liver&thymus transplanted into SCID mice.

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What researchers are saying ...

“This study showed that pump-controlled delivery of a Nogo-A-specific antibody (7B12) initiated 24 hours after experimental stroke promoted improvement of long-term neurologic outcome in normotensive and SHR rats.” Wiessner et al, J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2003;23(2):162.