References on the Use of ALZET® Osmotic Pumps in Vitro

16259 Anand, J. P., Boyer, B. T., Mosberg, H. I., Jutkiewicz, E. M. The behavioral effects of a mixed efficacy antinociceptive peptide, VRP26, following chronic administration in mice. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2016; 233(-13-):2479-87. >>> VRP26, Fentanyl; Saline; SC; mice; 1007D; Controls received mp w/ vehicle; animal info (Male, female C57BL/6 wild-type, homozygous MOR knockout; 20-30 g, 8-16 wks); functionality of mp verified by in vitro testing (pg. 2481); dose-response (pg 2481); good methods (pg 2481); behavioral testing (tail suspension test, conditioned place preference and locomotor acitivities); behavioral testing (tail suspension test, conditioned place preference and locomotor acitivities); peptides; Primed for 4 hours, 37 degree Saline; antinociceptive peptide; Dose (0.3 mg/kg/day fentanyl or 10 mg/kg/day VRP26);.

15192 Baj-Rossi, C., Jost, T.R., Cavallini, A., Grassi, F., De Micheli, G., Carrara, S. Continuous monitoring of Naproxen by a cytochrome P450-based electrochemical sensor. BIOSENSORS&BIOELECTRONICS 2014; 53(-;-):283-287. >>> Naproxen; Methanol; In Vitro; 1002; Functionality of mp verified by naproxen levels measured with sensors;.

15023 Jones, M.T., Galeczka, I.M., Gkritzalis-Papadopoulos, A., Palmer, M.R., Mowlem, M.C., Vogfjoerd, K., Jonsson, P., Gislason, S.R., Jones, M.T. Monitoring of jokulhlaups and element fluxes in proglacial Icelandic rivers using osmotic samplers. JOURNAL OF VOLCANOLOGY AND GEOTHERMAL RESEARCH 2015; 291(--):112-124. >>> ; In Vitro; 2ML1; “This technique allows for continued and unsuperviseddeployment of a sampler for weeks to months, representing a cost-efficient formof chemical monitoring.” pg 112;.

14338 Pajarinen, J., Tamaki, Y., Antonios, J.K., Lin, T.H., Sato, T., Yao, Z.Y., Takagi, M., Konttinen, Y.T., Goodman, S.B., Goodman, S.B. Modulation of mouse macrophage polarization in vitro using IL-4 delivery by osmotic pumps. JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL MATERIALS RESEARCH PART A 2015; 103(--):1339-1345. >>> Interleukin-4, mouse recombinant; BSA; PBS; In vitro; 2006; 1% BSA used; immunology;"Osmotic pumps delivered IL-4 at a rate that closely followed the expected delivery rate."pg 1343; used vinyl tubing; pumps lead into mouse bone marrow macrophage augmented media; incubated at 37C.

14223 Horn, E.R., Gabriel, M., Horn, E.R. Gender- Related Sensitivity of Development and Growth to Real Microgravity in Xenopus laevis. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A-Ecological Genetics and Physiology 2014; 321(--):1-12. >>> Nettle powder; Water, spring; In vitro; Toad (tadpole); 2ML2; Animal info (Xenopus laevis); teratology; spaceflight;.

13902 Polymeropoulos, E.T., Elliott, N.G., Wotherspoon, S.J., Frappell, P.B. Respirometry: Correcting for Diffusion and Validating the Use of Plastic Multiwell Plates with Integrated Optodes. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL ZOOLOGY 2013; 86(-5-):588-592. >>> Sodium sulfite; In Vitro; 1003D; .

13133 Sabater, D., Fernandez-Lopez, J.A., Remesar, X., Alemany, M. The use of Transwells(TM) improves the rates of differentiation and growth of cultured 3T3L1 cells. ANALYTICAL AND BIOANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY 2013; 405(-16-):5605-5610. >>> Spermine nitric oxide complex; DMEM-GlutaMAX-I; In vitro (cell culture); 1003D; Spermine nitric oxide complex is a nitric oxide donor; polyethylene capillary tube used; image of ALZET pump inside Transwells(TM); pumps were placed in wells containing sterile water.

13029 Hill, A., Geissler, S., Meyring, M., Hecht, S., Weigandt, M., Maeder, K. In vitro-in vivo evaluation of nanosuspension release from subcutaneously implantable osmotic pumps. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 2013; 451(-1-2-):57-66. >>> Compound A, nanosuspension; Acetonitrile; water; SC; in vitro; Mice; 1007D; Animal info (Crl NMRI, 27-32.5 g, female); comparison of SC mp versus bolus injections;"Subcutaneously implanted osmotic pumps prove to be a valuable delivery system for nanosuspensions in pharmacokinetic studies by consideration of the key parameter viscosity in release kinetics."; good methods.

13000 Xu, C.J., Poh, Y.K.C., Roes, I., O'Cearbhaill, E.D., Matthiesen, M.E., Mu, L.Y., Yang, S.Y., Miranda-Nieves, D., Irimia, D., Karp, J.M. A Portable Chemotaxis Platform for Short and Long Term Analysis. PLoS One 2012; 7(-9-):U279-U285. >>> FITC; In vitro; 2ML2; Controls received mp w/ PBS;"we show that by powering our chemotaxis platform with two ALZET osmotic pumps, our chemotaxis platform can achieve both exquisite control and long-term stability over the gradient."pg 2.

12398 Hill, A., Geissler, S., Weigandt, M., Maeder, K. Controlled delivery of nanosuspensions from osmotic pumps: Zero order and non-zero order kinetics. JOURNAL OF CONTROLLED RELEASE 2012; 158(-3-):403-412. >>> Fenofibrate nanosuspension; captopril; methylene blue; Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose; dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium salt; hydroxyethylcellulose; In vitro; 1007D; Functionality of mp verified; effect of different osmolalities, viscosities, particle size, and pump orientation on release rate kinetics.

12369 Gkritzalis-Papadopoulos, A., Palmer, M.R., Mowlem, M.C. Adaptation of an Osmotically Pumped Continuous in Situ Water Sampler for Application in Riverine Environments. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE&TECHNOLOGY 2012; 46(-13-):7293-7300. >>> ; In situ; 2ML1; Comparison of osmotic pump in situ water osmosampler versus manual sampling; 12 Model 2ML1 pumps; maximum depth of 180 cm;"The Alzet pump specification states that there is a±10% uncertainty in flow rate for each pump element in the absence of any calibration. By comparison, the maximum error in the laboratory determination of flow rate was±5%, and the error using the dye marker was±1 cm and does not change with sample age."pg 7297;"The key modification that we have made to osmosampler technology to enable use and evaluation in dynamic environments is implementation of time stamping using a tracer/dye. This enables comparison of performance with laboratory characterization of flow rate as a function of temperature."pg 7298.

12246 Remington, G., Mann, S., McCormick, P., Nobrega, J.N., Hahn, M., Natesan, S. Modeling chronic olanzapine exposure using Pharmacological limitations. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 2011; 100(-1-):86-89. >>> Olanzapine; Acetic acid, glacial; water, sterile; In vitro; 2ML4; Controls received vehicle; drug levels verified using a liquid-liquid extraction and liquid chromatography;"We suggest that olanzapine administration via (ALZET pumps) represents a viable option for (sub)chronic exposure with the caveats that a) duration be confined to 2 weeks..., and b) consideration be given to strategies in dissolving olanzapine that diminish the risk of oxidation."pg 89;"we strongly agree with van der Zwaal and colleagues (2008) that the issue of drug degradation is not specific to olanzapine, and that it is imperative to establish whether compounds being considered for minipump administration are capable of remaining stable in solution at body temperature.".

11005 Ivanenko, V.N., Ferrari, F.D., Defaye, D., Sarradin, P.M., Sarrazin, J. Description, distribution and microhabitats of a new species of Tisbe (Copepoda: Harpacticoida: Tisbidae) from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent field at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (37degreesN, Lucky Strike). CAHIERS DE BIOLOGIE MARINE 2011; 52(-1-):89-106. >>> Sodium sulfide; In situ (marine environment); "A new species, Tisbe dahmsi, sp. nov., is described from the Eiffel Tower edifice located in the Lucky Strike vent field"; pump at depth of 1698 m.

10860 Lobrinus, J.A., Juillerat-Jeanneret, L., Darekar, P, Janzer, R.C. Induction of the blood-brain barrier specific HT7 and neurothelin epitopes in endothelial cells of the chick chorioallantoic vessels by a soluble factor derived from astrocytes.. DEVELOPMENTAL BRAIN RESEARCH 1992; 70(--):207-211. >>> Medium, astrocyte conditioned-; In vitro (egg); chorioallantoic membrane; Bird (chicken embryo); 2004; Schematic diagram of the experiment with ALZET pump, fig. 1; mp connected to gelfoam with PE tubing; mp kept in saline.

10503 Yan, Y.P., Sailor, K.A., Lang, B.T., Park, S.W., Vemuganti, R., Dempsey, R.J. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 plays a critical role in neuroblast migration after focal cerebral ischemia. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 2007; 27(-6-):1213-1224. >>> Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1; CSF, artificial; BSA; CSF/CNS (striatum); in vitro (neurospheres); Rat; 1003D; 2001; Controls received sham operation; peptdies; cardiovascular; animal info (SHR, 270-300g); ischemia (cerebral); dose-response (fig. 5); in vitro MCP-1 administration to neurospheres in a culture plate was performed by submerging mp in normal saline in an adjacent well in the culture plate, connected via catheter (see fig. 5D).

10324 Vinkers, C.H., Korte-Bouws, G.A.H., Torano, J.S., Mirza, N.R., Nielsen, E.O., Ahring, P.K., de Jong, G.J., Olivier, B. The rapid hydrolysis of chlordiazepoxide to demoxepam may affect the outcome of chronic osmotic minipump studies. Psychopharmacology 2010; 208(-4-):555-562. >>> Chlordiazepoxide; In vitro; "When the cumulative CDP concentration over time was corrected for its hydrolysis, drug release from the minipumps followed the theoretical release profile over time (white symbols), suggesting that CDP hydrolysis completely accounted for the declined CDP release over time."pg 558;"In general, the use of osmotic minipumps presents a valid and attractive alternative to the labor-intensive daily injections. However, the issue of drug stability and release should always be carefully investigated before initiating chronic minipump experiments."pg 562.

9335 Froidevaux, S., Hintermann, E., Torok, M., Macke, H.R., Beglinger, C., Eberle, A.N. Differential regulation of somatostatin receptor type 2 (sst 2) expression in AR4-2J tumor cells implanted into mice during octreotide treatment. Cancer Res 1999; 59(-15-):3652-3657. >>> Octreotide; NaCl; SC; in vitro (culture medium); Mice (SCID); 1002; Cancer; animal info (AR4-2J tumor-bearing, CB17).

7605 Jannasch, H.W., Wheat, C.G., Plant, J.N., Kastner, M., Stakes, D.S. Continuous chemical monitoring with osmotically pumped water samplers: OsmoSampler design and applications. LIMNOLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY-METHODS 2004; 2(--):102-113. >>> ; In situ (marine environment); 2ML1 (outer semipermeable membranes); Novel use of ALZET Osmotic Pumps to sample seawater (osmosampler);"the inherent simplicity of osmotic pumps makes them an excellent replacement for electromechanical pumps, especially for extended sampling periods in harsh aquatic environments."p. 103; device diagram, p. 103, fig 1; flow rate is 4 ul/hr at 20 Celsius; membranes have successfully been used for more than 3 years; pumps have operated at depths up to 4,000 m.

6855 Paasche, G., Gibson, P., Averbeck, T., Becker, H., Lenarz, T., Stover, T. Technical report: Modification of a cochlear implant electrode for drug delivery to the inner ear. OTOLOGY&NEUROTOLOGY 2003; 24(-2-):222-227. >>> Dye, methylene blue; in vitro; 2002; .

4802 Bittner, B, Thelly, Th, Isel, H, Mountfield, R.J  International Journal of Pharmaceutics 2000; 205(--):195-198. >>> Mannitol; Radio-isotopes; Pyrrolidone, N-methyl-2-; Propylene glycol; PEG; 14C tracer; Water; Dimethylacetamide; in vitro; 2ML1; Functionality of mp verified by in vitro testing; ALZAID chemical compatibility kit used; various solvents employed to find compatibility with drug reservoir.

4610 Rasmussen, O, Gmünder, F, Tairbekov, M, Kordyum, E.L, Lozovaya, V.V, Baggerud, C, Iversen, T.-H  ESA 1990; 307(--):527-530. >>> Growth medium; In vitro (cell culture); mp used to deliver growth medium to protoplasts during spaceflight.

15588 Sedmera, D., Pexieder, T., Hu, N., Clark, E.B. A quantitative study of the ventricular myoarchitecture in the stage 21-29 chick embryo following decreased loading. Eur. J. Morphology 1998; 36(-2-):105-119. >>> Verapamil; Saline; In vitro (egg); extraembryonic vascular bed; Bird (chicken embryo); 2001; controls received mp w/vehicle; pump immersed in saline; teratology; cardiovascular.

4513 Gmunder, F.K., Suter, R.N., Kiess, M., Urfer, R., Nordau, C.-G., Cogoli, A. Mammalian cell cultivation in space. Adv. Space Res 1989; 9(-11-):119-127. >>> Culture media; Glucose; Fetal calf serum; HEPES buffer; Gentamycin;; in vitro (cell culture); 2001; 2002; diagram of dynamic cell culture system on page 123; in vitro; spaceflight.

3709 Lorenzi, G., Gmunder, F.K., Cogoli, A. Cultivation of hamster kidney cells in a dynamic cell culture system in space (spacelab IML-1 mission). Microgravity Sci. Technol 1993; VI/1(--):34-38. >>> NaHCO3; Glucose; HEPES; DMEM; Serum, fetal calf; Gentamicin; in vitro (cell culture); 2001; mp connected to cell culture chamber;"...the osmotic pump delivered sufficient fresh medium to support cell growth in the perfusion chambers."p. 37; spaceflight.

3664 Arnot, M.I., Bateson, A.N., Martin, I.L. Dimethyl sulfoxide/propylene glycol is a suitable solvent for the delivery of diazepam from osmotic minipumps. J. Pharm.&Tox. Meth 1996; 36(--):29-31. >>> Diazepam; Clonazepam; flumazenil; DMSO; Propylene glycol; Tetraglycol; 3H tracer; Radio-isotopes; in vitro; 2ML4; no comment posted.

3326 Janzer, R.S., Lobrinus, J.A., Darekar, D., Juillerat, L. Astrocytes secrete a factor inducing the expression of HT7-protein and neurothelin in endothelial cells of choriaoallantoic vessels. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol 1993; 331(--):217-221. >>> Medium, astrocyte conditioned-; In vitro (egg); chorioallantoic membrane; Bird (chicken embryo); 2002; controls received mp with PBS; gelfoam placed on chorioallantoic membrane; mp connected to gelfoam with PE tubing; mp kept in saline.

3121 Di Joseph, J.F., Russo, R.J., Cochran, D.W. Osmotic pump delivery of rapamycin. Transplantation 1993; 55(-2-):450-452. >>> Rapamycin; Dimethylacetamide; Tween 80; PEG 400; in vitro; 2002; stability verified by in vitro testing and HPLC for 14 days; in vitro validation of functionality and rapamycin stability.

2860 Vahlsing, H.L., Varon, S., Hagg, T, Fass-Holmes, B., Dekker, A., Manley, M., Manthorpe, M. An improved device for continuous intraventricular infusions prevents the introduction of pump-derived toxins and increases the effectiveness of ngf treatments. Exp. Neurol 1989; 105(-3-):233-243. >>> Nerve growth factor; CSF, artificial; in vitro; CSF/CNS; rat; 2002; no stress-see page 236; stress/adverse reaction: pages 233,236; previous experiments by investigators brought about evidence that mp were introducing cytotoxic substances into infusion fluid. This paper documents creation of coiled (Lynch coil) tubing method w/air/oil spacer whereby the fluid infused is insulated from mp while still propelled by its advance; paraffin dipping of pump utilized to reduce release rate; residual flow rate was slower in in vivo pumps than in in vitro pumps; with the modified pump fewer than 10% of rats had infusion-induced lesions; tracing air-oil space movement allows a precise measurement of volume of infusate.

2625 Jannasch, H.W., Johnson, K.S., Sakamoto, C.M. Submersible, osmotically pumped analyzers for continuous determination of nitrate in situ. Anal. Chem 1994; 66(--):3352-3361. >>> ; In vitro; 2ML1; 2ML4; "Our sample pumps, therefore, usually contain at least four 2ML1 membranes for a total flow rate of at least 12 ul/h at 20C.".

1950 Clark, E.B., Hu, N., Turner, D.R., Litter, J.E., Hansen, J. Effect of chronic verapamil treatment on ventricular function and growth in chick embryos. Am. J. Physiol 1991; 261(--):H166-H171. >>> Verapamil; In vitro (egg); Bird (chicken embryo, extraembryonic vascular bed); en ovo, schematic p. H167.

1549 Linser, P.J., Plunkett, J.A. A role for carbonic anhydrase in early eye morphogenesis. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci 1989; 30(-4-):783-785. >>> Methazolamide; Tyrode's solution; Eye; in vitro (egg, eye); Bird (chicken embryo); 2001; comparison of topical dosing vs. mp infusion; tissue perfusion.

1389 Carpenter, T.A., Hall, L.D., Hogan, P.G. Magnetic resonance imaging of the delivery of a paramagnetic contrast agent by an osmotic pump. Drug Design Delivery 1988; 3(--):263-266. >>> GdDTPA; Water; in vitro; 2ML1; GdDTPA is gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid; MRI.

1382 Gmunder, F.K., Nordau, C.-G., Tschopp, A., Huber, B., Cogoli, A. Dynamic cell culture system: a new cell cultivation instrument for biological experiments in space. J. Biotechnol 1988; 7(--):217-228. >>> Culture media, DMEM; HEPES; Serum, fetal calf; Gentamicin; Glucose; in vitro (cell culture); 2001; Mp connected to cell culture chamber; cytotoxicity described; spaceflight.

1301 Seran, G.F., Sparber, S.B. Metabolism of methadone by chicken embryos prevents induction of chronic opioid-type dependence after a single injection: use of osmotic pumps for continuous infusion. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav 1988; 30(-2-):357-363. >>> Methadol, N-desmethyl-1-acetyl; Methadone; Radio-isotopes; 3H tracer; Propylene glycol; Saline; Water; In vitro (egg); Bird (chicken embryo); 2001; pump delivered to chicken egg via catheter; pump extracorporeal; comparison of a single injection vs. mp infusion.

1240 Waggoner, P.R., Philp, N.J. Method for long term delivery of soluble agents to the chick chorioallantoic membrane. Experientia 1981; 37(-3-):321-322. >>> Thyroxine, l-; In vitro (egg); chorioallantoic membrane; Bird (chicken embryo); 2001; mp placed in small test tube filled w/ water and then sealed w/ parafilm; mp connected to catheter that bathed the chorioallantoic membrane.

773 Lifschitz, M.D. Prostaglandins may mediate chloride concentration gradient across domes formed by MDCK1 cells. Am. J. Physiol 1986; 250(--):F525-F531. >>> Prostaglandin E2; Glycine; in vitro (cell culture); 2002; mp infusion in culture dish to continually add PGE2 to MDCK cell culture.


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“However, the s.c. mini-osmotic pump delivery of recombinant leptin raised circulating leptin into the physiological range (Table 2). These data confirmed the effectiveness of the s.c. infusion of leptin at 0.1 mg/day in restoring serum leptin levels.” Zhang et al. Journal of Endocrinology 2002; 174:455-461.