References on the Use of ALZET® Osmotic Pumps in Vitro

P0218 Neely,J.E., Hake,D.A. Using miniature osmotic infusion pumps to maintain tritiated thymidine exposure to cells in culture. J.Histochem.Cytochem. 1982; 30(-6-):536-537. >>> Radio-isotopes; Thymidine; 3H tracer; Saline; in vitro (cell culture); 2001; no duration posted; pumps immersed in tissue culture dish for thymidine experiments.

P0241 Hock,J.M., Simmons,H.A., Schiess,M.C., Raisz,L.G. Use of osmotic minipumps for delivery of parathyroid hormone. Calcif.Tissue Int. 1982; 34(--):270-272. >>> Parathyroid hormone, bovine 1-84; Culture medium, BGJ; Cysteine; HCl; Saline; Serum, rat; bone (parietal); in vitro; rat; no duration posted; in vitro: pump immersed in Ringer's solution 2-6 days; in vivo: tubing from mp wired to supraorbital ridges w/outlet cut in tubing overlying parietal bone for 2 days; peptides; tissue perfusion.

P0773 Lifschitz,M.D. Prostaglandins may mediate chloride concentration gradient across domes formed by MDCK1 cells. Am.J.Physiol. 1986; 250(--):F525-F531. >>> Prostaglandin E2; Glycine; in vitro (cell culture); 2002; 5 hours; mp infusion in culture dish to continually add PGE2 to MDCK cell culture.

P1240 Waggoner,P.R., Philp,N.J. Method for long term delivery of soluble agents to the chick chorioallantoic membrane. Experientia 1981; 37(-3-):321-322. >>> Thyroxine, l-; In vitro (egg); chorioallantoic membrane; Bird (chicken embryo); 2001; 7 days; mp placed in small test tube filled w/ water and then sealed w/ parafilm; mp connected to catheter that bathed the chorioallantoic membrane.

P1301 Seran,G.F., Sparber,S.B. Metabolism of methadone by chicken embryos prevents induction of chronic opioid-type dependence after a single injection: use of osmotic pumps for continuous infusion. Pharmacol.Biochem.Behav. 1988; 30(-2-):357-363. >>> Methadol, N-desmethyl-1-acetyl; Methadone; Radio-isotopes; 3H tracer; Propylene glycol; Saline; Water; In vitro (egg); Bird (chicken embryo); 2001; 7 days; pump delivered to chicken egg via catheter; pump extracorporeal; comparison of a single injection vs. mp infusion.

P1382 Gmunder,F.K., Nordau,C.-G., Tschopp,A., Huber,B., Cogoli,A. Dynamic cell culture system: a new cell cultivation instrument for biological experiments in space. J.Biotechnol. 1988; 7(--):217-228. >>> Culture media, DMEM; HEPES; Serum, fetal calf; Gentamicin; Glucose; in vitro (cell culture); 2001; 7 days; Mp connected to cell culture chamber; cytotoxicity described; spaceflight.

P1389 Carpenter,T.A., Hall,L.D., Hogan,P.G. Magnetic resonance imaging of the delivery of a paramagnetic contrast agent by an osmotic pump. Drug Design Delivery 1988; 3(--):263-266. >>> GdDTPA; Water; in vitro; 2ML1; 220 hours; GdDTPA is gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid; MRI.

P1552 Linser,P.J., Plunkett,J.A. A role for carbonic anhydrase in early eye morphogenesis. Invest.Ophthalmol.Vis.Sci. 1989; 30(-4-):783-785. >>> Methazolamide; Tyrode's solution; Eye; in vitro (egg, eye); Bird (chicken embryo); 2001; 3 days; comparison of topical dosing vs. mp infusion; tissue perfusion.

P1954 Clark,E.B., Hu,N., Turner,D.R., Litter,J.E., Hansen,J. Effect of chronic verapamil treatment on ventricular function and growth in chick embryos. Am.J.Physiol. 1991; 261(--):H166-H171. >>> Verapamil; In vitro (egg); Bird (chicken embryo, extraembryonic vascular bed); no duration posted; en ovo, schematic p. H167.

P2537 Jannasch,H.W., Johnson,K.S., Sakamoto,C.M. Submersible, osmotically pumped analyzers for continuous determination of nitrate in situ. Anal.Chem. 1994; 66(--):3352-3361. >>> ; In vitro; 2ML1; 2ML4; no duration posted; "Our sample pumps, therefore, usually contain at least four 2ML1 membranes for a total flow rate of at least 12 ul/h at 20C.".

P2765 Vahlsing,H.L., Varon,S., Hagg,T, Fass-Holmes,B., Dekker,A., Manley,M., Manthorpe,M. An improved device for continuous intraventricular infusions prevents the introduction of pump-derived toxins and increases the effectiveness of ngf treatments. Exp.Neurol. 1989; 105(-3-):233-243. >>> Nerve growth factor; CSF, artificial; in vitro; CSF/CNS; rat; 2002; 3, 7, or 14 days; no stress-see page 236; stress/adverse reaction: pages 233,236; previous experiments by investigators brought about evidence that mp were introducing cytotoxic substances into infusion fluid. This paper documents creation of coiled (Lynch coil) tubing method w/air/oil spacer whereby the fluid infused is insulated from mp while still propelled by its advance; paraffin dipping of pump utilized to reduce release rate; residual flow rate was slower in in vivo pumps than in in vitro pumps; with the modified pump fewer than 10% of rats had infusion-induced lesions; tracing air-oil space movement allows a precise measurement of volume of infusate.

P3013 Di Joseph,J.F., Russo,R.J., Cochran,D.W. Osmotic pump delivery of rapamycin. Transplantation 1993; 55(-2-):450-452. >>> Rapamycin; Dimethylacetamide; Tween 80; PEG 400; in vitro; 2002; 2 weeks; stability verified by in vitro testing and HPLC for 14 days; in vitro validation of functionality and rapamycin stability.

P3217 Janzer,R.S., Lobrinus,J.A., Darekar,D., Juillerat,L. Astrocytes secrete a factor inducing the expression of HT7-protein and neurothelin in endothelial cells of choriaoallantoic vessels. Adv.Exp.Med.Biol. 1993; 331(--):217-221. >>> Medium, astrocyte conditioned-; In vitro (egg); chorioallantoic membrane; Bird (chicken embryo); 2002; 5 days; controls received mp with PBS; gelfoam placed on chorioallantoic membrane; mp connected to gelfoam with PE tubing; mp kept in saline.

P3556 Arnot,M.I., Bateson,A.N., Martin,I.L. Dimethyl sulfoxide/propylene glycol is a suitable solvent for the delivery of diazepam from osmotic minipumps. J.Pharm.&Tox.Meth. 1996; 36(--):29-31. >>> Diazepam; Clonazepam; flumazenil; DMSO; Propylene glycol; Tetraglycol; 3H tracer; Radio-isotopes; in vitro; 2ML4; no duration posted; no comment posted.

P3604 Lorenzi,G., Gmunder,F.K., Cogoli,A. Cultivation of hamster kidney cells in a dynamic cell culture system in space (spacelab IML-1 mission). Microgravity Sci.Technol. 1993; VI/1(--):34-38. >>> NaHCO3; Glucose; HEPES; DMEM; Serum, fetal calf; Gentamicin; in vitro (cell culture); 2001; no duration posted; mp connected to cell culture chamber; "...the osmotic pump delivered sufficient fresh medium to support cell growth in the perfusion chambers." p. 37; spaceflight.

P3948 Gmunder,F.K., Suter,R.N., Kiess,M., Urfer,R., Nordau,C.-G., Cogoli,A. Mammalian cell cultivation in space. Adv.Space Res 1989; 9(-11-):119-127. >>> Culture media; Glucose; Fetal calf serum; HEPES buffer; Gentamycin;; in vitro (cell culture); 2001; 2002; ; diagram of dynamic cell culture system on page 123; in vitro; spaceflight.

P4075 Sedmera,D., Pexieder,T., Hu,N., Clark,E.B. A quantitative study of the ventricular myoarchitecture in the stage 21-29 chick embryo following decreased loading. Eur.J.Morphology 1998; 36(-2-):105-119. >>> Verapamil; Saline; In vitro (egg); extraembryonic vascular bed; Bird (chicken embryo); 2001; 24, 48, 72 hours; controls received mp w/vehicle; pump immersed in saline; teratology; cardiovascular.

P4504 Rasmussen,O, Gmünder,F, Tairbekov,M, Kordyum,E.L, Lozovaya,V.V, Baggerud,C, Iversen,T.-H  ESA 1990/11; 307(--):527-530. >>> Growth medium; In vitro (cell culture); 14 days; mp used to deliver growth medium to protoplasts during spaceflight.

P4692 Bittner,B, Thelly,Th, Isel,H, Mountfield,R.J  International Journal of Pharmaceutics 2000; 205(--):195-198. >>> Mannitol; Radio-isotopes; Pyrrolidone, N-methyl-2-; Propylene glycol; PEG; 14C tracer; Water; Dimethylacetamide; in vitro; 2ML1; 8 days; Functionality of mp verified by in vitro testing; ALZAID chemical compatibility kit used; various solvents employed to find compatibility with drug reservoir.

P6591 Paasche,G., Gibson,P., Averbeck,T., Becker,H., Lenarz,T., Stover,T. Technical report: Modification of a cochlear implant electrode for drug delivery to the inner ear. OTOLOGY&NEUROTOLOGY 2003; 24(-2-):222-227. >>> Dye, methylene blue; in vitro; 2002; 3 days.

P9100 Froidevaux,S., Hintermann,E., Torok,M., Macke,H.R., Beglinger,C., Eberle,A.N. Differential regulation of somatostatin receptor type 2 (sst 2) expression in AR4-2J tumor cells implanted into mice during octreotide treatment. Cancer Res. 1999/8/1; 59(-15-):3652-3657. >>> Octreotide; NaCl; SC; in vitro (culture medium); Mice (SCID); 1002; 7 days; Cancer; animal info (AR4-2J tumor-bearing, CB17).

P9959 Vinkers,C.H., Korte-Bouws,G.A.H., Torano,J.S., Mirza,N.R., Nielsen,E.O., Ahring,P.K., de Jong,G.J., Olivier,B. The rapid hydrolysis of chlordiazepoxide to demoxepam may affect the outcome of chronic osmotic minipump studies. Psychopharmacology 2010; 208(-4-):555-562. >>> Chlordiazepoxide; In vitro; ; "When the cumulative CDP concentration over time was corrected for its hydrolysis, drug release from the minipumps followed the theoretical release profile over time (white symbols), suggesting that CDP hydrolysis completely accounted for the declined CDP release over time." pg 558; "In general, the use of osmotic minipumps presents a valid and attractive alternative to the labor-intensive daily injections. However, the issue of drug stability and release should always be carefully investigated before initiating chronic minipump experiments." pg 562.

Q0254 Yan,Y.P., Sailor,K.A., Lang,B.T., Park,S.W., Vemuganti,R., Dempsey,R.J. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 plays a critical role in neuroblast migration after focal cerebral ischemia. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 2007; 27(-6-):1213-1224. >>> Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1; CSF, artificial; BSA; CSF/CNS (striatum); in vitro (neurospheres); Rat; 1003D; 2001; 3, 7 days; Controls received sham operation; peptdies; cardiovascular; animal info (SHR, 270-300g); ischemia (cerebral); dose-response (fig. 5); in vitro MCP-1 administration to neurospheres in a culture plate was performed by submerging mp in normal saline in an adjacent well in the culture plate, connected via catheter (see fig. 5D).

Q0611 Lobrinus,J.A., Juillerat-Jeanneret,L., Darekar,P, Janzer,R.C. Induction of the blood-brain barrier specific HT7 and neurothelin epitopes in endothelial cells of the chick chorioallantoic vessels by a soluble factor derived from astrocytes.. DEVELOPMENTAL BRAIN RESEARCH 1992; 70(--):207-211. >>> Medium, astrocyte conditioned-; In vitro (egg); chorioallantoic membrane; Bird (chicken embryo); 2004; 5 days; Schematic diagram of the experiment with ALZET pump, fig. 1; mp connected to gelfoam with PE tubing; mp kept in saline.

Q1960 Remington,G., Mann,S., McCormick,P., Nobrega,J.N., Hahn,M., Natesan,S. Modeling chronic olanzapine exposure using Pharmacological limitations. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 2011; 100(-1-):86-89. >>> Olanzapine; Acetic acid, glacial; water, sterile; In vitro; 2ML4; ; Controls received vehicle; drug levels verified using a liquid-liquid extraction and liquid chromatography; "We suggest that olanzapine administration via (ALZET pumps) represents a viable option for (sub)chronic exposure with the caveats that a) duration be confined to 2 weeks..., and b) consideration be given to strategies in dissolving olanzapine that diminish the risk of oxidation." pg 89; "we strongly agree with van der Zwaal and colleagues (2008) that the issue of drug degradation is not specific to olanzapine, and that it is imperative to establish whether compounds being considered for minipump administration are capable of remaining stable in solution at body temperature.".

Q2112 Hill,A., Geissler,S., Weigandt,M., Maeder,K. Controlled delivery of nanosuspensions from osmotic pumps: Zero order and non-zero order kinetics. JOURNAL OF CONTROLLED RELEASE 2012; 158(-3-):403-412. >>> Fenofibrate nanosuspension; captopril; methylene blue; Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose; dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium salt; hydroxyethylcellulose; In vitro; 1007D; 7 days; Functionality of mp verified; effect of different osmolalities, viscosities, particle size, and pump orientation on release rate kinetics.

Q2714 Xu,C.J., Poh,Y.K.C., Roes,I., O'Cearbhaill,E.D., Matthiesen,M.E., Mu,L.Y., Yang,S.Y., Miranda-Nieves,D., Irimia,D., Karp,J.M. A Portable Chemotaxis Platform for Short and Long Term Analysis. PLoS One 2012; 7(-9-):U279-U285. >>> FITC; In vitro; 2ML2; 24, 72 hours; Controls received mp w/ PBS; "we show that by powering our chemotaxis platform with two ALZET osmotic pumps, our chemotaxis platform can achieve both exquisite control and long-term stability over the gradient." pg 2.

Q2744 Hill,A., Geissler,S., Meyring,M., Hecht,S., Weigandt,M., Maeder,K. In vitro-in vivo evaluation of nanosuspension release from subcutaneously implantable osmotic pumps. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 2013; 451(-1-2-):57-66. >>> Compound A, nanosuspension; Acetonitrile; water; SC; in vitro; Mice; 1007D; 7 days; Animal info (Crl NMRI, 27-32.5 g, female); comparison of SC mp versus bolus injections; "Subcutaneously implanted osmotic pumps prove to be a valuable delivery system for nanosuspensions in pharmacokinetic studies by consideration of the key parameter viscosity in release kinetics."; good methods.

Q2848 Sabater,D., Fernandez-Lopez,J.A., Remesar,X., Alemany,M. The use of Transwells(TM) improves the rates of differentiation and growth of cultured 3T3L1 cells. ANALYTICAL AND BIOANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY 2013; 405(-16-):5605-5610. >>> Spermine nitric oxide complex; DMEM-GlutaMAX-I; In vitro (cell culture); 1003D; 3 days; Spermine nitric oxide complex is a nitric oxide donor; polyethylene capillary tube used; image of ALZET pump inside Transwells(TM); pumps were placed in wells containing sterile water.

Q3602 Polymeropoulos,E.T., Elliott,N.G., Wotherspoon,S.J., Frappell,P.B. Respirometry: Correcting for Diffusion and Validating the Use of Plastic Multiwell Plates with Integrated Optodes. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL ZOOLOGY 2013; 86(-5-):588-592. >>> Sodium sulfite; In Vitro; 1003D; .

Q3922 Horn,E.R., Gabriel,M., Horn,E.R. Gender- Related Sensitivity of Development and Growth to Real Microgravity in Xenopus laevis. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A-Ecological Genetics and Physiology 2014; 321(--):1-12. >>> Nettle powder; Water, spring; In vitro; Toad (tadpole); 2ML2; 12 days; Animal info (Xenopus laevis); teratology; spaceflight;.

Q4037 Pajarinen,J., Tamaki,Y., Antonios,J.K., Lin,T.H., Sato,T., Yao,Z.Y., Takagi,M., Konttinen,Y.T., Goodman,S.B., Goodman,S.B. Modulation of mouse macrophage polarization in vitro using IL-4 delivery by osmotic pumps. JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL MATERIALS RESEARCH PART A 2015; 103(--):1339-1345. >>> Interleukin-4, mouse recombinant; BSA; PBS; In vitro; 2006; 4 weeks; 1% BSA used; immunology; "Osmotic pumps delivered IL-4 at a rate that closely followed the expected delivery rate." pg 1343; used vinyl tubing; pumps lead into mouse bone marrow macrophage augmented media; incubated at 37C.

Q4514 Jones,M.T., Galeczka,I.M., Gkritzalis-Papadopoulos,A., Palmer,M.R., Mowlem,M.C., Vogfjoerd,K., Jonsson,P., Gislason,S.R., Jones,M.T. Monitoring of jokulhlaups and element fluxes in proglacial Icelandic rivers using osmotic samplers. JOURNAL OF VOLCANOLOGY AND GEOTHERMAL RESEARCH 2015; 291(--):112-124. >>> N/A; N/A; In Vitro; 2ML1; 9 months; "This technique allows for continued and unsupervised deployment of a sampler for weeks to months, representing a cost-efficient formof chemical monitoring." pg 112;.

Q4700 Baj-Rossi,C., Jost,T.R., Cavallini,A., Grassi,F., De Micheli,G., Carrara,S. Continuous monitoring of Naproxen by a cytochrome P450-based electrochemical sensor. BIOSENSORS&BIOELECTRONICS 2014; 53(--):283-287. >>> Naproxen; Methanol; In Vitro; 1002; 16 hours; Functionality of mp verified by naproxen levels measured with sensors;.


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What researchers are saying...

“Moreover, the replacement of pumps is a relatively simple surgical procedure (Prieskorn and Miller, 200). Allowing longer-term (> 1 month) experiments to be performed.” Shepherd et al., Hearing Research 2002;172:92-98.