Pharmacology Research with ALZET® Pumps

The study of the action of chemicals upon living tissues encompasses a wide range of interests, from assessment of the responses evoked at the subcellular level to those seen in the organism as a whole. The ALZET osmotic pump provides the pharmacologist with a means of delivering diverse compounds for extended periods of time.

The ALZET pump is an invaluable tool for investigating the effect of agents upon receptor populations, where achievement of a constant drug level is essential if stable receptor occupancy is to be realized. The ability to maintain a continuous presence of a drug is also beneficial in determining its effect on protein synthesis or physiological response, or when assessing a drug's potential for inducing tolerance and dependence. In addition, controlled, continuous delivery of compounds is advantageous in bioavailability and pharmacokinetic studies.

The ALZET pump also provides a reliable means of accomplishing targeted delivery of compounds to specific organs or tissues. Precise delivery at the proposed site of action permits a more thorough evaluation of the compound's immediate interaction with the cellular mechanisms of interest. Localized delivery also avoids complications associated with bioavailability and activation of feedback mechanisms, commonly seen after systemic administration. The successful targeted delivery of cell modulators by ALZET pumps has also been utilized to generate animal models of disease states providing valuable tools for use in therapeutic assessment.

ALZET pumps are drug discovery tools which offer enhanced control over drug levels in plasma and tissues. They have been used in a wide range of pharmacology research applications. Examples of this work are shown in the bibliographies* listed below. If your agent of interest is not listed below, check the index by Agent Administered.


*Some of these bibliographies may be large and take a short while to display. These bibliographies are updated frequently. As the references are listed most recent first, you may wish to truncate your printing to ten pages or less.


Since 1977, scientist around the world have used ALZET pumps to conduct their research, publishing their results in high-impact journals. The ALZET bibliography now contains over 16,000 publications! We can perform a custom search for references relevant to your research.

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What researchers are saying...

"Utilizing continuous minipump administration enhances the knockdown to 63% of control." (p. 619) This compared with 40% by twice daily administration. "The results of the present study confirm the utility of osmotic minipump administration of antisense oligonucleotides." (p. 621) Falk et al., Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2002;72:617-622.


What researchers are saying...

“In the majority of studies examining nicotine withdrawal, nicotine was delivered y an osmotic pump... The osmotic pump allows for the continuous delivery of nicotine at a controlled rate for a specified amount of time. An advantage of this delivery protocol is that nicotine levels in the bloodstream remain fairly constant, much like those of human chronic smokers. Discontinuing the delivery of nicotine by removal of the pump or interfering with nicotine’s effect on the central nervous system induces a withdrawal reaction... Accordingly, this experiment sought to replicate previous work using a rodent model of nicotine withdrawal developed by Malin et al. (1992) that has become widely used..., and which implements the osmotic pump as the nicotine delivery mechanism.” Besheer et al., Behavioral Neuroscience 2003;117(2):327-340.