Physiology Research with ALZET® Pumps

The administration of endogenous factors and assessment of their physiological effect in live animals presents numerous challenges. The ALZET osmotic pump has proven a useful tool for researchers, enabling the reliable long-term delivery of compounds whilst avoiding stress-related complications induced by frequent handling and dosing schedules. Continuous, controlled administration of hormones, trophic factors, proteins and peptides, permits physiological concentrations to be achieved, despite the poor bioavailabilty or short half-life often associated with such agents.

Due to the widespread biological activity of many endogenous compounds, the ability to deliver an agent directly to a tissue or organ simplifies the identification of specific effects, whilst avoiding adverse reactions associated with systemic delivery. The ALZET pump may also be used to deliver modulators of naturally occurring, biologically-active chemicals, such as nitric oxide. Administration of synthesis inhibitors, precursors, or the agent itself, enables the in vivo levels of the chemical to be controlled and the physiological consequences to be determined.

Lists of references* related to physiology research are listed below. If your agent of interest is not listed below, check the index by Agent Administered.


*Some of these bibliographies may be large and take a short while to display. These bibliographies are updated frequently. As the references are listed most recent first, you may wish to truncate your printing to ten pages or less.

Looking for references? We can help!

Since 1977, scientist around the world have used ALZET pumps to conduct their research, publishing their results in high-impact journals. The ALZET bibliography now contains over 16,000 publications! We can perform a custom search for references relevant to your research.

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Pump Advantages

  • Ensure around-the-clock exposure to test agents at predictable levels
  • Permit continuous administration of short half-life proteins and peptides
  • Provide a convenient method for the chronic dosing of laboratory animals
  • Minimize unwanted experimental variables and ensure reproducible, consistent results
  • Eliminate the need for nighttime or weekend dosing
  • Reduce handling and stress to laboratory animals
  • Small enough for use in mice or very young rats
  • Allow for targeted delivery of agents to virtually any tissue
  • Cost-effective research tool


What researchers are saying...

“Nonspecific toxicity is a common problem associated with in vivo application of antisense oligonucleotides.However, by employing certain strategies including the use of partial rather than complete phosphorothioate modification, reducing the length of the oligonucleotide, and using a steady continuous infusion rather than bolus injections, we were able to minimize such toxicity (Van Kampen & Stoessl, 2000a).” (p. 309) Van Kampen et al., Neuroscience 2003;116:307-314.