Toxicology and Teratology Research with ALZET Pumps


When assessing risk, an understanding of the involved toxicologic mechanisms can be helpful. Areas of recent interest include research on the interplay between immunology and toxicology, the neurotoxicity of a variety of compounds, and research on the process of apoptosis. Controlled, continuous delivery of test agents using ALZET osmotic pumps has proven useful in these areas of research.

Examples of recent work in these and related areas are included in a general list of references on toxicology research. Cell proliferation labeling affords insight into the potential carcinogenesis resulting from exposure to toxic agents. A well proven and reliable technique involves the continuous infusion of bromodeoxyuridine. Continuous exposure to the labeling agent is likely to capture a summation of cell proliferation activity over several days, and can reduce the likelihood of overlooking bursts of proliferation.


The ability to infuse agents continuously to pregnant animals can provide insight into a myriad of teratologic effects. ALZET pumps have been used to infuse valproic acid, drugs of abuse, and a variety of agents under teratologic investigation.

A list of references is available on teratology research. A wealth of information regarding the use of ALZET osmotic pumps in toxicology and teratology research can be found in this bibliography* section.

If you are interested in a specific agent and did not find it listed above, check the index by Agent Administered.

*Some of these bibliographies may be large and take a short while to display. These bibliographies are updated frequently. As the references are listed most recent first, you may wish to truncate your printing to ten pages or less.


Since 1977, scientist around the world have used ALZET pumps to conduct their research, publishing their results in high-impact journals. The ALZET bibliography now contains over 16,000 publications! We can perform a custom search for references relevant to your research.

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What researchers are saying...

“In the majority of studies examining nicotine withdrawal, nicotine was delivered y an osmotic pump... The osmotic pump allows for the continuous delivery of nicotine at a controlled rate for a specified amount of time. An advantage of this delivery protocol is that nicotine levels in the bloodstream remain fairly constant, much like those of human chronic smokers. Discontinuing the delivery of nicotine by removal of the pump or interfering with nicotine’s effect on the central nervous system induces a withdrawal reaction... Accordingly, this experiment sought to replicate previous work using a rodent model of nicotine withdrawal developed by Malin et al. (1992) that has become widely used..., and which implements the osmotic pump as the nicotine delivery mechanism.” Besheer et al., Behavioral Neuroscience 2003;117(2):327-340.