When assessing risk, an understanding of the involved toxicologic mechanisms can be helpful. Areas of recent interest include research on the interplay between immunology and toxicology, the neurotoxicity of a variety of compounds, and research on the process of apoptosis.

Cell proliferation labeling affords insight into the potential carcinogenesis resulting from exposure to toxic agents. A well proven and reliable technique involves the continuous infusion of bromodeoxyuridine. Continuous exposure to the labeling agent is likely to capture a summation of cell proliferation activity over several days, and can reduce the likelihood of overlooking bursts of proliferation.


The ability to infuse agents continuously to pregnant animals can provide insight into a myriad of teratologic effects. ALZET pumps have been used successfully in pregnant animals for the administration of valproic acid, drugs of abuse, and a variety of agents under teratologic investigation.

Teratology studies aimed at investigating neonatal learning, memory, behavior or development present unique challenges to scientists because they require manipulation of young, very small animals during a critical developmental period. ALZET Osmotic Pumps have been used successfully in neonatal rats as young as post-natal day 6 and weighing at least 10 grams.

Controlled, continuous delivery of test agents using ALZET Osmotic Pumps has proven useful in these research areas. A list of references is available on teratology and toxicology research. A wealth of information regarding the use of ALZET osmotic pumps in toxicology and teratology research can also be found in the bibliography* section below.

*Some of these bibliographies have been truncated to keep the document to a reasonable length. These bibliographies are updated frequently. However, you can always contact us to request the most recent list of references, or additional references on your specific agent or research topic of interest.